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1.
Blood Adv ; 4(6): 1094-1101, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203582

RESUMO

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) and nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutations provide prognostic information with clinical relevance through choice of treatment, but the effect of age and sex on these molecular markers has not been evaluated. The Swedish AML Registry contains data on FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations dating to 2007, and 1570 adult patients younger than 75 years, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia, had molecular results reported. Females more often had FLT3ITD and/or NPM1mut (FLT3ITD: female, 29%; male, 22% [P = .0015]; NPM1mut: female, 36%; male, 27% [P = .0001]), and more males were double negative (female, 53%; male, 64%; P < .0001). Patients with FLT3ITD were younger than those without (59 vs 62 years; P = .023), in contrast to patients with NPM1mut (62 vs 60 years; P = .059). Interestingly, their prognostic effect had a strong dependence on age: FLT3ITD indicated poor survival in younger patients (<60 years; P = .00003), but had no effect in older patients (60-74 years; P = .5), whereas NPM1mut indicated better survival in older patients (P = .00002), but not in younger patients (P = .95). In FLT3ITD/NPM1mut patients, the survival was less dependent on age than in the other molecular subsets. These findings are likely to have clinical relevance for risk grouping, study design, and choice of therapy.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 579, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024830

RESUMO

Clonal heterogeneity and evolution has major implications for disease progression and relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To model clonal dynamics in vivo, we serially transplanted 23 AML cases to immunodeficient mice and followed clonal composition for up to 15 months by whole-exome sequencing of 84 xenografts across two generations. We demonstrate vast changes in clonality that both progress and reverse over time, and define five patterns of clonal dynamics: Monoclonal, Stable, Loss, Expansion and Burst. We also show that subclonal expansion in vivo correlates with a more adverse prognosis. Furthermore, clonal expansion enabled detection of very rare clones with AML driver mutations that were undetectable by sequencing at diagnosis, demonstrating that the vast majority of AML cases harbor multiple clones already at diagnosis. Finally, the rise and fall of related clones enabled deconstruction of the complex evolutionary hierarchies of the clones that compete to shape AML over time.

4.
Eur J Haematol ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The use of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measured outside clinical trials is not well defined. We report the first analysis of the prospective PRO study within the Swedish acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) registries. METHODS: PRO was requested 6 months after diagnosis. The EORTC Quality of life Questionnaire Core 30-item, the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), and questions from a Swedish National Cancer Questionnaire were used. RESULTS: An invitation letter was sent to 398 patients; 255 (64%) responded, 60% web-based, and 40% on paper. The ALL cohort had lower physical, role and social functioning, higher symptom burden, and more financial difficulties compared to the AML cohort. A PHQ-8 score ≥ 10p, which indicates depression, was reported in 18% of the patients; 33% of these patients reported being prescribed antidepressants. The patients' overall experience of care was satisfying, but more psychological and practical support was desired. There was no difference in survival between patients who reported their PRO and those who did not. Follow-up at 2 and 4 years is ongoing. CONCLUSIONS: PRO collected in a registry-based setting is feasible, but the selection of time points and questionnaires are delicate in a diverse patient population.

7.
Eur J Haematol ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We describe survival in patients with oligo- and non-secretory multiple myeloma (MM). We refer to the whole group as non-measurable MM and compare it with secretory MM. METHODS: Oligo-secretory MM was defined as M protein in serum <10 g/L and M protein in urine <200 measured as mg/day, mg/liter or mg/mmol creatinine. If patients had no M protein, they were defined as non-secretory. The groups were also subdivided by Free Light Chains (SFLC) level and ratio. RESULTS: Out of 4325 patients with symptomatic MM in the Swedish Myeloma Registry during 2008-2016 eligible for the study, 389 patients (9%) had non-measurable MM. Out of these, 253 patients (6%) had oligo-secretory and 136 (3%) had non-secretory MM. Median survival for secretory MM was 42.7 months, non-measurable MM 40.2 months, oligo-secretory MM 38.6 months, and non-secretory MM 44.6 months. Difference in overall observed survival was non-significant for all groups when compared with secretory MM. Within non-secretory MM, stem cell transplantation (SCT), 95% being auto-SCT, was significant for superior survival in multivariate analysis (HR 0.048. P = .0015). CONCLUSION: In this population-based study, we found no difference in survival between oligo- or non-secretory MM when compared with secretory MM. SCT appears to be important also for patients with non-secretory disease.

9.
Breathe (Sheff) ; 15(3): 190-197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508157

RESUMO

Radiology plays a key role in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis, defined as permanent dilatation of the bronchial lumen. Volumetric thin-section multidetector computed tomography is an excellent noninvasive modality to evaluate bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is categorised by morphological appearance. Cylindrical bronchiectasis has a smooth tubular configuration and is the most common form. Varicose bronchiectasis has irregular contours with alternating dilating and contracting lumen. Cystic bronchiectasis is the most severe form and exhibits saccular dilatation of bronchi. Bronchial dilatation is the hallmark of bronchiectasis and is evaluated in relation to the accompanying pulmonary artery. A broncho-arterial ratio exceeding 1:1 should be considered abnormal. Normal bronchi are narrower in diameter the further they are from the lung hila. Lack of normal bronchial tapering over 2 cm in length, distal from an airway bifurcation, is the most sensitive sign of bronchiectasis. Findings commonly associated with bronchiectasis include bronchial wall thickening, mucus plugging and tree-in-bud opacities. Bronchiectasis results from a myriad of conditions, with post-infectious bronchiectasis being the most common. Imaging can sometimes discern the cause of bronchiectasis. However, in most cases it is nonspecific or only suggestive of aetiology. While morphological types are nonspecific, the distribution of abnormality offers clues to aetiology. Key points: Bronchiectasis is a chronic progressive condition with significant disease burden and frequent exacerbations, for which the diagnosis relies on cross-sectional imaging.The major imaging findings include bronchial dilatation, bronchial contour abnormalities and visualisation of the normally invisible peripheral airways.Bronchiectasis is the end result of various conditions, including immunodeficiencies, mucociliary disorders and infections. Imaging is often nonspecific with regard to aetiology but can be suggestive.Distribution of abnormality in the lung offers helpful clues for establishing aetiology. Educational aims: To review the cross-sectional imaging appearance of bronchiectasis and the common associated findings.To get a sense of how radiology can aid in establishing the aetiology of bronchiectasis.

10.
Acta Radiol Open ; 8(7): 2058460119860404, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392034

RESUMO

Background: Emergency Department imaging volume has increased significantly in North America and Asia. Purpose: To assess Emergency Department imaging trends in a European center. Material and Methods: The institutional radiological information system was queried for all computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) studies performed for the Emergency Department during 2002-2017. Descriptive statistics and linear regression analyses were used to assess overall study rates and temporal trends in overall and after-hours imaging after adjusting for patient visitations. Results: CT use increased significantly from 38/1000 visits to 108/1000 at the end of the observation by 5.5 new exams per 1000 visits/year (P < 0.0001). US use increased gradually at a rate of 1.2/1000 per year during 2002-2008 with an accelerated annual increase of 6.4/1000 in 2009-2011 (P < 0.0001) raising US rates from 7/1000 to 28/1000 visits per year with stable rates from 2012 onwards. After on-site MR became available in 2004, its use increased from 0.3/1000 to 7/1000 at a rate of 1.9/1000 visits per year in 2005-2009 (P < 0.0001) and remained stable from 2010. While there was a significant increase in after-hours imaging, growth remained proportional to the overall trend in the use of CT, MR, and night-time CT with the exception of a slight decrease in after-hour US in favor of standard working hours (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: All modalities increased significantly in volume adjusted usage. US and MR rates have been stable since 2012 and 2010, respectively, after periods of increase while CT use continues to increase. Demand for after-hours imaging was mostly proportional to the overall trend.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(29): 2632-2642, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430225

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutations are associated with a favorable prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3) is absent (FLT3-ITDneg) or present with a low allelic ratio (FLT3-ITDlow). The 2017 European LeukemiaNet guidelines assume this is true regardless of accompanying cytogenetic abnormalities. We investigated the validity of this assumption. METHODS: We analyzed associations between karyotype and outcome in intensively treated patients with NPM1mut/FLT3-ITDneg/low AML who were prospectively enrolled in registry databases from nine international study groups or treatment centers. RESULTS: Among 2,426 patients with NPM1mut/FLT3-ITDneg/low AML, 2,000 (82.4%) had a normal and 426 (17.6%) had an abnormal karyotype, including 329 patients (13.6%) with intermediate and 83 patients (3.4%) with adverse-risk chromosomal abnormalities. In patients with NPM1mut/FLT3-ITDneg/low AML, adverse cytogenetics were associated with lower complete remission rates (87.7%, 86.0%, and 66.3% for normal, aberrant intermediate, and adverse karyotype, respectively; P < .001), inferior 5-year overall (52.4%, 44.8%, 19.5%, respectively; P < .001) and event-free survival (40.6%, 36.0%, 18.1%, respectively; P < .001), and a higher 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (43.6%, 44.2%, 51.9%, respectively; P = .0012). These associations remained in multivariable mixed-effects regression analyses adjusted for known clinicopathologic risk factors (P < .001 for all end points). In patients with adverse-risk chromosomal aberrations, we found no significant influence of the NPM1 mutational status on outcome. CONCLUSION: Karyotype abnormalities are significantly associated with outcome in NPM1mut/FLT3-ITDneg/low AML. When adverse-risk cytogenetics are present, patients with NPM1mut share the same unfavorable prognosis as patients with NPM1 wild type and should be classified and treated accordingly. Thus, cytogenetic risk predominates over molecular risk in NPM1mut/FLT3-ITDneg/low AML.

12.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(497)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217338

RESUMO

The activated B cell (ABC-like) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is characterized by chronic activation of signaling initiated by immunoglobulin µ (IgM). By analyzing the DNA copy number profiles of 1000 DLBCL tumors, we identified gains of 18q21.2 as the most frequent genetic alteration in ABC-like DLBCL. Using integrative analysis of matched gene expression profiling data, we found that the TCF4 (E2-2) transcription factor gene was the target of these alterations. Overexpression of TCF4 in ABC-like DLBCL cell lines led to its occupancy on immunoglobulin (IGHM) and MYC gene enhancers and increased expression of these genes at the transcript and protein levels. Inhibition of TCF4 activity with dominant-negative constructs was synthetically lethal to ABC-like DLBCL cell lines harboring TCF4 DNA copy gains, highlighting these gains as an attractive potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, the TCF4 gene was one of the top BRD4-regulated genes in DLBCL cell lines. BET proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) ARV771 extinguished TCF4, MYC, and IgM expression and killed ABC-like DLBCL cells in vitro. In DLBCL xenograft models, ARV771 treatment reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival. This work highlights a genetic mechanism for promoting immunoglobulin signaling in ABC-like DLBCL and provides a functional rationale for the use of BET inhibitors in this disease.

13.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(9): 1770-1778, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176789

RESUMO

Secondary AML (s-AML), including AML with an antecedent hematologic disorder (AHD-AML) and therapy-related AML (t-AML), constitutes a large proportion of patients with AML and is considered to confer a dismal prognosis. The role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with s-AML and the extent to which HCT is performed in these patients has been little studied to date. We used the population-based Swedish AML Registry comprising 3337 intensively treated adult patients over a 17-year period to study the role of HCT within the group of patients with s-AML as well as compared with patients with de novo AML. HCT was performed in 576 patients (22%) with de novo AML, in 74 patients (17%) with AHD-AML, and in 57 patients (20%) with t-AML. At 5 years after diagnosis, there were no survivors among patients with previous myeloproliferative neoplasms who did not undergo HCT, and corresponding survival for patients with antecedent myelodysplastic syndromes and t-AML was and 2% and 4%, respectively. HCT was compared with chemotherapy consolidation in s-AML using 3 models: (1) a 200-day landmark analysis, in which HCT was favorable compared with conventional consolidation (P = .04, log-rank test); (2) a multivariable Cox regression with HCT as a time-dependent variable, in which the hazard ratio for mortality was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.83) for HCT and favored HCT in all subgroups; and (3) a propensity score matching analysis, in which the 5-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival in patients with s-AML in first complete remission (CR1) was 48% and 43%, respectively, for patients undergoing HCT versus 20% and 21%, respectively, for those receiving chemotherapy consolidation (P = .01 and .02, respectively, log-rank test). Our observational data suggest that HCT improves survival and offers the only realistic curative treatment option in patients with s-AML.

14.
Haematologica ; 104(2): 360-369, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262567

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with differential somatic hypermutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy variable genes, namely mutated or unmutated, display fundamental clinico-biological differences. Considering this, we assessed prognosis separately within mutated (M-CLL) and unmutated (U-CLL) CLL in 3015 patients, hypothesizing that the relative significance of relevant indicators may differ between these two categories. Within Binet A M-CLL patients, besides TP53 abnormalities, trisomy 12 and stereotyped subset #2 membership were equivalently associated with the shortest time-to-first-treatment and a treatment probability at five and ten years after diagnosis of 40% and 55%, respectively; the remaining cases exhibited 5-year and 10-year treatment probability of 12% and 25%, respectively. Within Binet A U-CLL patients, besides TP53 abnormalities, del(11q) and/or SF3B1 mutations were associated with the shortest time-to-first-treatment (5- and 10-year treatment probability: 78% and 98%, respectively); in the remaining cases, males had a significantly worse prognosis than females. In conclusion, the relative weight of indicators that can accurately risk stratify early-stage CLL patients differs depending on the somatic hypermutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy variable genes of each patient. This finding highlights the fact that compartmentalized approaches based on immunogenetic features are necessary to refine and tailor prognostication in CLL.

15.
Genesis ; 56(9): e23238, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010246

RESUMO

Development of human hematopoietic stem cells and differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells/induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to hematopoietic stem cells are poorly understood. NOD (Non-obese diabetic)-derived mouse strains, such as NSG (NOD-Scid-il2Rg) or NRG (NOD-Rag1-il2Rg), are the best available models for studying the function of fetal and adult human hematopoietic cells as well as ES/iPS cell-derived hematopoietic stem cells. Unfortunately, engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells is very variable in these models. Introduction of additional permissive mutations into these complex genetic backgrounds of the NRG/NSG mice by natural breeding is a very demanding task in terms of time and resources. Specifically, since the genetic elements defining the NSG/NRG phenotypes have not yet been fully characterized, intense backcrossing is required to ensure transmission of the full phenotype. Here we describe the derivation of embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines from NRG pre-implantation embryos generated by in vitro fertilization followed by the CRISPR/CAS9 targeting of the Gata-2 locus. After injection into morula stage embryos, cells from three tested lines gave rise to chimeric adult mice showing high contribution of the ESCs (70%-100%), assessed by coat color. Moreover, these lines have been successfully targeted using Cas9/CRISPR technology, and the mutant cells have been shown to remain germ line competent. Therefore, these new NRG ESC lines combined with genome editing nucleases bring a powerful genetic tool that facilitates the generation of new NOD-based mouse models with the aim to improve the existing xenograft models.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD/genética , Animais , Fertilização In Vitro , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/genética , Marcação de Genes , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD/imunologia , Modelos Biológicos
17.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 53(1): 100-106, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Limited data exist on the changes in the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer and outcomes over the last decades in population-based cohorts. We aimed to compare the incidence of pancreatic cancer, diagnostic, treatment and survival among patients diagnosed over the period 1986-2009. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, nationwide, population-based study. All patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in Iceland in two periods, 1986-1997 (P1) and 1998-2009 (P2) were identified through the Icelandic Cancer Registry and relevant clinical information obtained from medical records. RESULTS: A total of 645 patients were identified, 296 in P1 and 349 in P2 (NS). The incidence during P1 was 6.8 per 100,000 inhabitants and 6.2 during P2 (NS). Among biopsy-proven cancers, adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 89% of the cases in P1 and in P2 in 93% of the cases. Overall 38 (14%) in P1 underwent resection and 22 (7%) in P2 (p < .0004). Patients diagnosed in P2 had longer survival at 6 months (p = .015, log-rank test) and one year (p = .0206) after diagnosis. A total of 4/296 (1.4%) in P1 survived more than 5 years and 3/349 (0.9%) in P2 (NS). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence among patients with pancreatic cancer in Iceland did not show major changes during the last 20 years. Diagnostic approach has changed considerably demonstrating more patients that are not 'resectable'. Survival rate at 6 months and one year has improved over the last two decades whereas the 5-year prognosis has not improved.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 94(2): 264-269, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the potent suppressors of activation and proliferation of conventional T cells. Tregs subdivided by their expression of FoxP3 and CD45RA identify clinically important functional subsets. METHODS: We analyzed Treg subpopulations in hematopoietic stem cell harvests (SCH) from 22 allogeneic (matched unrelated and sibling) donors with flow cytometry by their expression of CD45RA, CD127, CD25, and FoxP3 marker combinations. RESULTS: A high fraction of "activated Tregs", defined as CD4+ FoxP3hi CD45RAlo (aTreg) cells relative to all CD4+ T-cells, in the SCH correlated with no subsequent development of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in the corresponding transplant recipients (aTreg 1.29%, range 0.96-1.64%, vs. 0.23%, range 0.14-0.56%, with subsequent aGvHD; P = 0.0015). The "non-Treg" cells, defined by CD4+ FoxP3med/lo CD45RAlo , and resting Treg (rTreg) cells, defined by CD4+ FoxP3med CD45RAhi , did not correlate with aGvHD development. We also showed that phenotypic aTregs could be induced in vitro from nonTregs under homeostatic proliferation conditions and that this ability correlated with the CD127 and CD25 expression patterns. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a subset of T CD4+ FoxP3+ cells, i.e., aTregs that were correlated to aGvHD development, and demonstrated plasticity of the nonTreg population to provide phenotypic aTregs. This could have both a predictive clinical relevance in inflammatory conditions as well as support a rationale for development of cell targeted therapy. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-7/imunologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplantados , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(1): 1, 2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602759

RESUMO

The clustering of different types of B-cell malignancies in families raises the possibility of shared aetiology. To examine this, we performed cross-trait linkage disequilibrium (LD)-score regression of multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets, totalling 11,734 cases and 29,468 controls. A significant genetic correlation between these two B-cell malignancies was shown (Rg = 0.4, P = 0.0046). Furthermore, four of the 45 known CLL risk loci were shown to associate with MM risk and five of the 23 known MM risk loci associate with CLL risk. By integrating eQTL, Hi-C and ChIP-seq data, we show that these pleiotropic risk loci are enriched for B-cell regulatory elements and implicate B-cell developmental genes. These data identify shared biological pathways influencing the development of CLL and, MM and further our understanding of the aetiological basis of these B-cell malignancies.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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