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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 351, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496756

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness and potential harms of the different fluoride interventions in preventing dental caries in children under 5 years of age.We conducted a literature search up to the 12th of September 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported.Water fluoridation has been widely implemented worldwide for several decades and evidence shows it reduces the prevalence of dental caries. Salt or milk fluoridation are other collective fluoride interventions that are also effective to prevent dental caries in children. The evidence of effects of oral fluoride supplements for caries prevention is limited and inconsistent. The use of fluoride toothpastes has consistently been proven to be effective in the prevention of dental caries. The evidence for the effects of the different levels of fluoride concentration in toothpastes is more limited. Topical fluorides (gels and varnishes) are effective in preventing dental caries and are mainly recommended to children with high risk of dental caries. Early childhood intake of fluoride supplements and fluoride level of 0.7 ppm (ppm) in drinking water are associated with the risk of dental fluorosis, ranging from minor forms to severe forms that are of aesthetic concerns.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos , Cariostáticos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 305, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496777

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence addressing the effectiveness of pulse oximetry effective for detecting critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) in newborns. We also looked at the impact of timing of oximetry and the site of testing in the accuracy of screening, and at the potential harms and limitations of pulse oximetry screening,We conducted a literature search up to the 13th of August 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported.Current evidence supports consistent accuracy for detection of CCHDs in newborns by pulse oximetry screening in addition to antenatal ultrasonography and clinical examination. Overall, early diagnosis of CCHD with pulse oximetry is judged to be beneficial and cost-effective, and potential harms associated with false-positive tests are not serious, while missing CCHDs and other serious diseases detected by hypoxaemia in absence of pulse oximetry screening can lead to serious consequences. The site of testing (post-ductal versus pre- and post-ductal) had no significant effect on sensitivity nor specificity for detection of CCHDs.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Oximetria , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 320, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496779

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence for successful strategies to prevent the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).We conducted a literature search up to the 14th of December 2020 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported.Current evidence supports statistical associations between risk factors and SIDS, but there is globally limited evidence by controlled studies assessing the effect of the social promotion strategies to prevent SIDS through knowledge, attitude and practices, due to obvious ethical reasons. A dramatic decline in SIDS incidence has been observed in many countries after the introduction of "Back to Sleep" campaigns for prevention of SIDS. All infants should be placed to sleep in a safe environment including supine position, a firm surface, no soft objects and loose bedding, no head covering, no overheating, and room-sharing without bed-sharing. Breastfeeding on demand and the use of pacifier during sleep time protect against SIDS and should be recommended. Parents should be advised against the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs during gestation and after birth.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita do Lactente , Leitos , Humanos , Lactente , Chupetas , Decúbito Ventral , Fatores de Risco , Sono , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Decúbito Dorsal , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 306, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496780

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness of screening for visual disorders in newborns and small infants, and in children between six months and five years of age.We conducted a literature search up to the 5th of August 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendations when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported on the accuracy of screening tests for detecting visual alterations; the efficacy of treatment for improving visual acuity, school performance, and quality of life; and potential harms derived from vision screening and treating visual alterations.Although there is little evidence supporting its validity and effectiveness, examining all newborns for congenital cataract and retinoblastoma through the red reflex examination is widely accepted due to the severity of both diseases and the good outcomes reached by early detection and treatment.Overall, there is a moderate certainty of evidence that visual screening in children between three and five years provides a moderate net benefit, as assessed by the US Preventive Services Task Force: vision screening tests are accurate for detecting amblyopia and its risk factors, and their treatment is associated with visual improvement. There is uncertain evidence on whether vision screening in children under three years of age provides net benefits. Among populations with a low prevalence of vision abnormalities, screening the youngest is associated with an increased rate of false positives, leading to unnecessary additional assessment.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Seleção Visual , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Qualidade de Vida , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Acuidade Visual
5.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 350, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496783

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin K given after birth in preventing the haemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN).We conducted a literature search up to the 10th of December 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported.All newborns should receive vitamin K prophylaxis, as it has been proven that oral and intramuscular prophylactic vitamin K given after birth are effective for preventing classical HDN. There are no randomized trials looking at the efficacy of vitamin K supplement on late HDN. There are no randomized trials comparing the oral and intramuscular route of administration of prophylactic vitamin K in newborns. From older trials and surveillance data, it seems that there is no significant difference between the intramuscular and the oral regimens for preventing classical and late HDN, provided that the oral regimen is duly completed. Evidence assessing vitamin K prophylaxis in preterm infants is scarce.


Assuntos
Sangramento por Deficiência de Vitamina K , Vitamina K , Administração Oral , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Injeções Intramusculares , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Vitamina K/uso terapêutico , Sangramento por Deficiência de Vitamina K/tratamento farmacológico , Sangramento por Deficiência de Vitamina K/prevenção & controle
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 337, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496786

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness of universal screening of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in children under five years of age for improving growth, cognitive function, and psychomotor development. We assessed the accuracy of the screening tests for detecting IDA, the efficacy of existing treatment for children with IDA, and the potential harms associated with screening and treatment.We conducted a literature search up to the 18th of August 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported.There is no suitable test for IDA screening that is non-invasive with high accuracy for detecting IDA and there is uncertainty whether IDA in children causes cognitive and psychomotor delays. There is a lack of evidence on the effects of routine screening for IDA in asymptomatic children under five years of age on growth, cognitive and psychomotor development outcomes.Universal screening of IDA in children under five years of age is not recommended by most organisations such as the Spanish Association of Primary Care Paediatrics, the United Kingdom National Screening Committee, and the United States Preventive Services Task Force, but is recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics. However, selective screening of IDA is recommended in infants and children with risk factors including prematurity, low birth weight, and dietary risk factors.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos , Lactente , Programas de Rastreamento , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Reino Unido
7.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 349, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496788

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness of screening young children for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for improving short- and long-term outcomes.We conducted a literature search up to the 8th of November 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported.There are discrepancies among the recommendations given by different institutions on universal screening for ASD in children. Some recommend that all children should be screened with an ASD-specific instrument during well-child visits at ages 18 and 24 months in conjunction with ongoing developmental surveillance and broadband developmental screening; some conclude that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for ASD in young children for whom no concerns of ASD have been raised by their parents or a clinician; and others recommend against universal screening, but for a screening among children with high risks.There is adequate evidence that ASD screening tools applied to children between 12 and 36 months accurately identify those with ASD. There is some evidence showing benefit of early interventions applied to children with ASD, from children identified with developmental concern by their family, teacher or clinicians. We found no evidence on the effectiveness of interventions applied to children with ASD detected through screening.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Humanos , Lactente , Programas de Rastreamento , Pais , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
8.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 319, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496802

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in infancy for reducing vitamin D deficiency and for preventing rickets and infections. We also looked at optimal dose of vitamin D and the age until which vitamin D supplementation is beneficial.We conducted a literature search up to the 17th of July 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported.A daily dose of 400 international units of vitamin D in infants has shown to be effective for improving bone health and preventing rickets. Evidence is more robust in groups of infants and children at risk. Vitamin D supplementation is well tolerated, and not associated with toxicity. Higher doses have not shown to add benefit while it could potentially cause toxic blood levels and hypercalcemia. Adequate levels of vitamin D might not be achieved with lower daily doses. Universal vitamin D supplementation starting shortly after birth, regardless of the mode of feeding and until 12 months of age, is strongly recommended. Beyond 12 months of age vitamin D supplementation is recommended only in groups of children at risk.


Assuntos
Raquitismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Lactente , Raquitismo/etiologia , Raquitismo/prevenção & controle , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 362, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496812

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness of universal screening for language and speech delay in children under 5 years of age for short- and long-term outcomes.We conducted a literature search up to the 20th of November 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported on the accuracy of the screening tests for detecting language and speech delay, the efficacy of existing interventions for children with language and speech delay, and the potential harms associated with screening and the associated interventions.Several screening tools are used to assess language and speech delay with a wide variation in their accuracy. Targeted interventions improve some measures of speech and language delay and disorders. However, there is no evidence on the effectiveness of such interventions in children detected by screening with no specific concerns about their speech or language before screening. There is no evidence assessing whether universal screening for language and speech delay in a primary care setting improves short and long-term outcomes (including speech and language outcomes and other outcomes). Finally, there is no evidence on the harms of screening for language and speech delay in primary care settings, and there is limited evidence assessing the potential harms of interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 356, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations to prevent morbidity and mortality in children was a high priority for the editorial group of a WHO pocket book for primary health care in the European region. However, the benefit of preventive interventions is not always clear and recommendations differ across countries and institutions. Here, we summarize the existing recommendations and the most recent evidence on ten selected preventive interventions applied to children under five years to inform this group. In addition, we reflect on the process and challenges of developing these summaries. METHODS: For each intervention, we systematically searched for current recommendations from the WHO, the United States Preventive Services Task Force, the workgroup PrevInfad from the Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics, the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Then, we systematically searched the sources above and the Cochrane library for relevant systematic reviews. For each topic, we reported the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported. Categorising the ten preventive interventions in three groups allowed narrative comparisons between similar types of interventions and between groups. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: For the single interventions of providing vitamins D and K and topical fluoride there is overall a high degree of consensus between institutions for the evidence of their effectiveness. For the multiple interventions to prevent sudden infant death syndrome and unintentional injuries consensus was more variable as evidence of effectiveness is harder to ascertain. For the screening interventions the summaries of recommendations and evidence varied too. While institutions generally agreed in recommending for vision screening and against universal screening for language and speech delay and iron deficiency, they had some differences for pulse oximetry and autism. The transparent and independent process shed light upon how institutions use existing evidence in their settings - common and different positions were accounted for and became visible. We also identified gaps and duplications of research. Our approach was a crucial starting point for developing the respective sections in the pocket book.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Programas de Rastreamento , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
11.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 311, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496772

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations for preventing unintentional injuries in children under five years of age, and we attempted to identify the main sources used as evidence for formulating these recommendations.We conducted a literature search up to the 18th October 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and source of the evidence in tables for each of five areas of unintentional injuries: road traffic injuries, drowning, poisoning, thermal injuries, falls.In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a comprehensive report with strategies for child injury prevention for the European region. More recently, the WHO published several guidance documents focused on one area such as drowning, usually with a global focus. The PrevInfad workgroup (Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics) updated their document on road safety in April 2019, providing recommendations and a summary of the existing evidence. Preventive strategies for injuries in childhood are mainly based on surveillance data and the identification of risk factors. The key strategies for preventing unintentional injuries are a combination of environmental and behaviour modification, that can be achieved through engineering, enforcement and education. Consequently, for this kind of strategies, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of both the intervention itself, and the way the intervention is advised to parents and caretakers so that there is good compliance of the recommendation.


Assuntos
Lesões Acidentais , Queimaduras , Afogamento , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes por Quedas , Acidentes de Trânsito , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411661

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Globally, approximately 21.6 million children need pediatric palliative care (PPC). The greatest burden lies in low- and middle-income countries, where the demand for PPC exceeds available resources. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a PPC workshop on healthcare providers' self-efficacy, comfort and confidence related to the provision of PPC in a Bhutanese referral-level hospital. METHODS: This mixed-methods study included a one-and-a-half day PPC workshop with surveys administered to participants at three time points (before, immediately after, and six months after the workshop) to evaluate changes in self-efficacy, comfort and confidence. The study was conducted in January 2017 with healthcare providers at the Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital in Thimphu, Bhutan. RESULTS: Forty-one providers participated in the workshop; 38 completed the post-workshop survey and 27 completed the six months post-workshop survey. Results showed statistically significant increases in comfort levels from pre- to post-workshop surveys across nearly all areas. Qualitative results supported these findings. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that a short, interactive and interdisciplinary workshop, originally designed for the United States setting but adapted to a low resource context, is an effective way to improve providers' self-efficacy, comfort and confidence in the provision of PPC in resource-limited settings.

13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2033-2041, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286686

RESUMO

Knowing whether human corpses can transmit plague will inform policies for handling the bodies of those who have died of the disease. We analyzed the literature to evaluate risk for transmission of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, from human corpses and animal carcasses. Because we could not find direct evidence of transmission, we described a transmission pathway and assessed the potential for transmission at each step. We examined 3 potential sources of infection: body fluids of living plague patients, infected corpses and carcasses, and body fluids of infected corpses. We concluded that pneumonic plague can be transmitted by intensive handling of the corpse or carcass, presumably through the inhalation of respiratory droplets, and that bubonic plague can be transmitted by blood-to-blood contact with the body fluids of a corpse or carcass. These findings should inform precautions taken by those handling the bodies of persons or animals that died of plague.


Assuntos
Peste , Yersinia pestis , Animais , Cadáver , Humanos , Peste/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 940, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization (PNC) generally precedes pneumococcal disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of PNC and to identify the pneumococcal serotypes circulating among Bhutanese children under five years of age admitted with clinical pneumonia, before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in the country. We also aimed to contribute to the understanding of the interplay between PNC and viral co-infection among this population. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at the Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital in Bhutan over 12 consecutive months. Children aged 2 to 59 months admitted with WHO-defined clinical pneumonia were eligible for recruitment. We collected blood for bacterial culture and molecular identification of S. pneumoniae, and nasopharyngeal washing for screening of respiratory viruses, and for the detection and capsular typing of S. pneumoniae by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Overall, 189 children were recruited, and PNC was tested in 121 of them (64.0%). PNC was found in 76/121 children (62.8%) and S. pneumoniae was identified in blood (both by culture and RT-PCR) in a single child. Respiratory viruses were detected in a similar proportion among children with (62/70; 88.6%) and without PNC (36/40; 90.0%; p = 1.000), but rhinovirus detection was less common among children with PNC (20/70; 28.6% versus 19/40; 47.5%; p = 0.046). Capsular typing identified 30 different serotypes. Thirty-nine children (51.3%) were colonised with two to five different serotypes. A third of the children presented with serotypes considered highly invasive. Over half of the children (44/76; 57.9%) were carrying at least one serotype included in PCV13. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides baseline information on the status of PNC among Bhutanese children admitted with clinical pneumonia prior to the introduction of PCV13, which is valuable to monitor its potential impact. PCV13 could theoretically have averted up to 58% of the pneumococcal infections among the children in this study, suggesting a future role for the vaccine to significantly reduce the burden associated with S. pneumoniae in Bhutan.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Viroses/epidemiologia , Butão/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Viroses/virologia
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013459, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plague is a severe disease associated with high mortality. Late diagnosis leads to advance stage of the disease with worse outcomes and higher risk of spread of the disease. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT) could help in establishing a prompt diagnosis of plague. This would improve patient care and help appropriate public health response. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the RDT based on the antigen F1 (F1RDT) for detecting plague in people with suspected disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the CENTRAL, Embase, Science Citation Index, Google Scholar, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov up to 15 May 2019, and PubMed (MEDLINE) up to 27 August 2019, regardless of language, publication status, or publication date. We handsearched the reference lists of relevant papers and contacted researchers working in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cross-sectional studies that assessed the accuracy of the F1RDT for diagnosing plague, where participants were tested with both the F1RDT and at least one reference standard. The reference standards were bacterial isolation by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and paired serology (this is a four-fold difference in F1 antibody titres between two samples from acute and convalescent phases). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies and extracted data. We appraised the methodological quality of each selected studies and applicability by using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. When meta-analysis was appropriate, we used the bivariate model to obtain pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity. We stratified all analyses by the reference standard used and presented disaggregated data for forms of plague. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight manuscripts reporting seven studies. Studies were conducted in three countries in Africa among adults and children with any form of plague. All studies except one assessed the F1RDT produced at the Institut Pasteur of Madagascar (F1RDT-IPM) and one study assessed a F1RDT produced by New Horizons (F1RDT-NH), utilized by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We could not pool the findings from the F1RDT-NH in meta-analyses due to a lack of raw data and a threshold of the test for positivity different from the F1RDT-IPM. Risk of bias was high for participant selection (retrospective studies, recruitment of participants not consecutive or random, unclear exclusion criteria), low or unclear for index test (blinding of F1RDT interpretation unknown), low for reference standards, and high or unclear for flow and timing (time of sample transportation was longer than seven days, which can lead to decreased viability of the pathogen and overgrowth of contaminating bacteria, with subsequent false-negative results and misclassification of the target condition). F1RDT for diagnosing all forms of plague F1RDT-IPM pooled sensitivity against culture was 100% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82 to 100; 4 studies, 1692 participants; very low certainty evidence) and pooled specificity was 70.3% (95% CI 65 to 75; 4 studies, 2004 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The performance of F1RDT-IPM against PCR was calculated from a single study in participants with bubonic plague (see below). There were limited data on the performance of F1RDT against paired serology. F1RDT for diagnosing pneumonic plague Performed in sputum, F1RDT-IPM pooled sensitivity against culture was 100% (95% CI 0 to 100; 2 studies, 56 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and pooled specificity was 71% (95% CI 59 to 80; 2 studies, 297 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There were limited data on the performance of F1RDT against PCR or against paired serology for diagnosing pneumonic plague. F1RDT for diagnosing bubonic plague Performed in bubo aspirate, F1RDT-IPM pooled sensitivity against culture was 100% (95% CI not calculable; 2 studies, 1454 participants; low-certainty evidence) and pooled specificity was 67% (95% CI 65 to 70; 2 studies, 1198 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Performed in bubo aspirate, F1RDT-IPM pooled sensitivity against PCR for the caf1 gene was 95% (95% CI 89 to 99; 1 study, 88 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and pooled specificity was 93% (95% CI 84 to 98; 1 study, 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There were no data providing data on both F1RDT and paired serology for diagnosing bubonic plague. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Against culture, the F1RDT appeared highly sensitive for diagnosing either pneumonic or bubonic plague, and can help detect plague in remote areas to assure management and enable a public health response. False positive results mean culture or PCR confirmation may be needed. F1RDT does not replace culture, which provides additional information on resistance to antibiotics and bacterial strains.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Peste/diagnóstico , Yersinia pestis/imunologia , Adulto , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Humanos , Peste/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 74-83, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to describe the etiological profile and clinical characteristics of pneumonia among children hospitalized in Thimphu, Bhutan. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled children aged 2-59 months admitted to the Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined clinical pneumonia. Demographic and clinico-radiological data were collected through questionnaires, physical examination, and chest radiography. Blood samples and nasopharyngeal washing were collected for microbiological analysis including culture and molecular methods. RESULTS: From July 2017 to June 2018, 189 children were enrolled, of which 53.4% were infants. Pneumonia-related admissions were less frequent over the winter. Chest radiographies were obtained in 149 children; endpoints included pneumonia in 39 cases (26.2%), other infiltrates in 31 (20.8%), and were normal in 79 children (53.0%). Non-contaminated bacterial growth was detected in 8/152 (5.3%) blood cultures, with only two cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Viral detection in upper respiratory secretions was common, with at least one virus detected in 103/115 (89.6%). The three most-commonly isolated viruses were respiratory syncytial virus (52/115; 45.2%), rhinovirus (42/115; 36.5%), and human parainfluenza virus (19/115; 16.5%). A third of patients with viral infections showed mixed infections. Case fatality rate was 3.2% (6/189). CONCLUSION: Respiratory viral infections predominated among this cohort of WHO-defined clinical pneumonia cases, whereas bacterial aetiologies were uncommon, highlighting the epidemiologic transition that Bhutan seems to have reached.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Butão/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Demografia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Respirovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
18.
Pneumonia (Nathan) ; 12: 1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998604

RESUMO

Background: Pneumonia is the single largest cause of death in under-five children worldwide. We conducted a systematic review to identify the knowledge gaps around childhood pneumonia in Bhutan. Methods: We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google scholar from conception to 3rd December 2018, World Health Organization, UNICEF, Bhutan's Ministry of Health and other local databases for relevant reports. We included any report describing pneumonia in Bhutanese children with regards to the burden of the disease, aetiology, related risk factors, clinical and prognostic characteristics, surveillance systems and national preventive strategies. Two review authors identified the records. We summarized the findings narratively. Results: We included 44 records. Although with notable decreasing trends, pneumonia is still accountable for a high burden and mortality rate in Bhutanese children. The national surveillance system focuses mainly on influenza identification but has recently introduced other viral aetiology to monitor. We found very scarce or no data with regard to the bacterial aetiology, related risk factors and clinico-radiological and prognostic characteristics. Conclusion: There is a dearth of data regarding the epidemiological, microbiological, clinical and radiological characteristics of pneumonia in children in Bhutan, leading to challenges while implementing evidence-based management and effective national preventive strategies.

19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD012915, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis causes more deaths than any other infectious disease globally. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine, but protection is incomplete and variable. The modified Vaccinia Ankara virus expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) is a viral vector vaccine produced to prevent tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess and summarize the effects of the MVA85A vaccine boosting BCG in humans. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE (PubMed); Embase (Ovid); and four other databases. We searched the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov. All searches were run up to 10 May 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We evaluated randomized controlled trials of MVA85A vaccine given with BCG in people regardless of age or HIV status. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of trials, and extracted and analyzed data. The primary outcome was active tuberculosis disease. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and risk differences (RD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses. Where meta-analysis was inappropriate, we summarized results narratively. MAIN RESULTS: The search identified six studies relating to four Phase 2 randomized controlled trials enrolling 3838 participants. Funding was by government bodies, charities, and philanthropic donors. Five studies included infants, one of them infants born to HIV-positive mothers. One study included adults living with HIV. All trials included authors from Oxford University who led the laboratory development of the vaccine. Participants received intradermal MVA85A after BCG in some studies, and before selective deferred BCG in HIV-exposed infants.The largest trial in 2797 African children was well conducted with low risk of bias for most parameters. Risk of bias was uncertain for selective reporting because there were no precise case definition endpoints for active tuberculosis published prior to the trial analysis.MVA85A added to BCG compared to BCG alone probably has no effect on the risk of developing microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.62; 3439 participants, 2 trials; moderate-certainty evidence), or the risk of starting on tuberculosis treatment (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.33; 3687 participants, 3 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). MVA85A probably has no effect on the risk of developing latent tuberculosis (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.21; 3831 participants, 4 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). Vaccinating people with MVA85A in addition to BCG did not cause life-threatening serious adverse effects (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.00 to 0.00; 3692 participants, 3 trials; high-certainty evidence). Vaccination with MVA85A is probably associated with an increased risk of local skin adverse effects (3187 participants, 3 trials; moderate-certainty evidence), but not systemic adverse effect related to vaccination (144 participants, 1 trial; low-certainty evidence). This safety profile is consistent with Phase 1 studies which outlined a transient, superficial reaction local to the injection site and mild short-lived symptoms such as malaise and fever. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: MVA85A delivered by intradermal injection in addition to BCG is safe but not effective in reducing the risk of developing tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Soropositividade para HIV/complicações , Soropositividade para HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Prevenção Primária , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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