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1.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 132, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health research governance is an essential function of national health research systems. Yet many African countries have not developed strong health research governance structures and processes. This paper presents a comparative analysis of national health research governance in Botswana, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia, where health sciences research production is well established relative to some others in the region and continues to grow. The paper aims to examine progress made and challenges faced in strengthening health research governance in these countries. METHODS: We collected data through document review and key informant interviews with a total of 80 participants including decision-makers, researchers and funders across stakeholder institutions in the four countries. Data on health research governance were thematically coded for policies, legislation, regulation and institutions and analysed comparatively across the four national health research systems. RESULTS: All countries were found to be moving from using a research governance framework set by national science, technology and innovation policies to one that is more anchored in health research structures and policies within the health sectors. Kenya and Zambia have adopted health research legislation and policies, while Botswana and Uganda are in the process of developing the same. National-level health research coordination and regulation is hampered by inadequate financial and human resource capacities, which present challenges for building strong health research governance institutions. CONCLUSION: Building health research governance as a key pillar of national health research systems involves developing stronger governance institutions, strengthening health research legislation, increasing financing for governance processes and improving human resource capacity in health research governance and management.

2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 36, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422159

RESUMO

The evolution and contemporary challenges of health research (HR) in Madagascar are poorly documented. We aim to gain insights on the factors that shape Madagascar's National Health Research System (NHRS) to better understand their influence. We conducted a qualitative case study, which included a documentary review and semi-structured interviews with 38 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis and used the WHO/AFRO NHRS Barometer to structure the presentation of the results. There is no legislative framework to support HR activities and institutions. There is, however, a policy document outlining national priorities for HS. Human resources for HR are insufficient, due to challenges in training and retaining researchers. International collaboration is almost the only source of HR funding. Collaborations contribute to developing human and institutional capacity, but they are not always aligned with research carried out locally and the country's priority health needs. Incomplete efforts to improve regulation and low public investment in research training and research implementation reflect an insufficient commitment to HR by the government. Negotiating equitable international partnerships, the availability of public funding, and aligning HR with national health priorities would constitute a solid basis for the development of the NHRS in Madagascar.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Entrevistas como Assunto , Madagáscar , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315777

RESUMO

While it is important to be able to evaluate and measure a country's performance in health research (HR), HR systems are complex and multifaceted in nature. As such, attempts at measurement can suffer several limitations which risk leading to inadequate indices or representations. In this study, we critically review common indicators of HR capacity and performance and explore their strengths and limitations. The paper is informed by review of data sources and documents, combined with interviews and peer-to-peer learning activities conducted with officials working in health and education ministries in a set of nine African countries. We find that many metrics that can assess HR performance have gaps in the conceptualisation or fail to address local contextual realities, which makes it a challenge to interpret them in relation to other theoretical constructs. Our study identified several concepts that are excluded from current definitions of indicators and systems of metrics for HR performance. These omissions may be particularly important for interpreting HR performance within the context and processes of HR in African countries, and thus challenging the relevance, utility, appropriateness and acceptability of universal measures of HR in the region. We discuss the challenges that scholars may find in conceptualising such a complex phenomenon-including the different and competing viewpoints of stakeholders, in setting objectives of HR measurement work, and in navigating the realities of empirical measurement where missing or partial data may necessitate that proxies or alternative indicators may be chosen. These findings are important to ensure that the global health community does not rely on over-simplistic evaluations of HR when analysing and planning for improvements in low-income and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Pobreza , África , Humanos
4.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1902659, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874855

RESUMO

Background: The burden of undernutrition is significant in Kenya. Obesity and related non-communicable diseases are also on the increase. Government action to prevent non-communicable diseases is critical. Taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as an effective mechanism to address nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, although Kenya is not yet committed to this.Objective: To assess the policy and stakeholder landscape relevant to nutrition related non -communicable diseases and sugar-sweetened beverage taxation in Kenya.Methods: A desk review of evidence and policies related to nutrition related non-communicable diseases and sugar-sweetened beverages was conducted. Data extraction matrices were used for analysis. Key informant interviews were conducted with 10 policy actors. Interviews were thematically analysed to identify enablers of, and barriers to, policy change towards nutrition-sweetened beverage taxation.Results: Although nutrition related non-communicable diseases are recognised as a growing problem in Kenya most food-related policies focus on undernutrition and food security, while underplaying the role of nutrition related non-communicable diseases. Policy development on communicable diseases is multi-sectoral, but implementation is biased towards curative rather than preventive services. An excise tax is charged on soft drinks, but is not specific to sugar-sweetened beverages. Government has competing roles: advocating for industrial growth, such as sugar and food processing industries to foster economic development, yet wanting to control nutrition related non-communicable diseases. There is no national consensus about the dangers posed by sugar-sweetened beverages.Conclusion: Nutrition related non-communicable diseases policies should reflect a continuum of issues, from undernutrition to food security, nutrition transition, and the escalation of nutrition related non-communicable diseases. A local advocacy case for sugar-sweetened beverage taxation has not been made. Public and policy maker education is critical to challenge the prevailing attitudes towards sugar-sweetened beverages and the western diet.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas , Humanos , Quênia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Impostos
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184064

RESUMO

Sub-Saharan Africa has seen a rapid increase in non-communicable disease (NCD) burden over the last decades. The East African Community (EAC) comprises Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania, South Sudan and Uganda, with a population of 177 million. In those countries, 40% of deaths in 2015 were attributable to NCDs. We review the status of the NCD response in the countries of the EAC based on the available monitoring tools, the WHO NCD progress monitors in 2017 and 2020 and the East African NCD Alliance benchmark survey in 2017. In the EAC, modest progress in governance, prevention of risk factors, monitoring, surveillance and evaluation of health systems can be observed. Many policies exist on paper, implementation and healthcare are weak and there are large regional and subnational differences. Enhanced efforts by regional and national policy-makers, non-governmental organisations and other stakeholders are needed to ensure future NCD policies and implementation improvements.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720946948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734822

RESUMO

Strengthening Primary Health Care Systems is the most effective policy response in low-and middle-income countries to protect against health emergencies, achieve universal health coverage, and promote health and wellbeing. Despite the Astana declaration on primary health care, respective investment is still insufficient in Sub-Sahara Africa. The SARS-CoV-2019 pandemic is a reminder that non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which are increasingly prevalent in Sub-Sahara Africa, are closely interlinked to the burden of communicable diseases, exacerbating morbidity and mortality. Governments and donors should use the momentum created by the pandemic in a sustainable and effective way by pivoting health spending towards primary health care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Prevalência
7.
J Glob Health ; 8(2): 020301, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774938

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) prevalence is rising fastest in lower income settings, and with more devastating outcomes compared to High Income Countries (HICs). While evidence is consistent on the growing health and economic consequences of NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), specific efforts aimed at addressing NCD prevention and control remain less than optimum and country level progress of implementing evidence backed cost-effective NCD prevention approaches such as tobacco taxation and restrictions on marketing of unhealthy food and drinks is slow. Similarly, increasing interest to employ multi-sectoral approaches (MSA) in NCD prevention and policy is impeded by scarce knowledge on the mechanisms of MSA application in NCD prevention, their coordination, and potential successes in SSA. In recognition of the above gaps in NCD programming and interventions in Africa, the East Africa NCD alliance (EANCDA) in partnership with the African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC) organized a three-day NCDs conference in Nairobi. The conference entitled "First Africa Non-Communicable Disease Research Conference 2017: Sharing Evidence and Identifying Research Priorities" drew more than one hundred fifty participants and researchers from several institutions in Kenya, South Africa, Nigeria, Cameroon, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi, Belgium, USA and Canada. The sections that follow provide detailed overview of the conference, its objectives, a summary of the proceedings and recommendations on the African NCD research agenda to address NCD prevention efforts in Africa.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Congressos como Assunto , Doenças não Transmissíveis , África , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Pesquisa
8.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 3): 1219, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite growing evidence that the prevalence of hypertension is rising in sub-Saharan Africa, national data on hypertension that can guide programming are missing for many countries. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control. We further examined the factors associated with hypertension and awareness. METHOD: We used data from the 2015 Kenya STEPs survey, a national cross-sectional household survey targeting randomly selected people aged 18-69 years. Demographic and behavioral characteristics as well as physical measurements were collected using the World Health Organization's STEPs Survey methodology. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify the determinants of hypertension and awareness. RESULTS: The study surveyed 4485 participants. The overall age-standardized prevalence for hypertension was 24.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 22.6% to 26.6%). Among individuals with hypertension, only 15.6% (95% CI 12.4% to 18.9%) were aware of their elevated blood pressure. Among those aware only 26.9%; (95% CI 17.1% to 36.4%) were on treatment and 51.7%; (95% CI 33.5% to 69.9%) among those on treatment had achieved blood pressure control. Factors associated with hypertension were older age (p < 0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001) and harmful use of alcohol (p < 0.001). Similarly, factors associated with awareness were older age (p = 0.013) and being male (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study provides the first nationally-representative estimates for hypertension in Kenya. Prevalence among adults is high, with unacceptably low levels of awareness, treatment and control. The results also reveal that men are less aware of their hypertension status hence special attention should focus on this group.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 3): 1217, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths worldwide, and is implicated in causing 6% of coronary heart diseases, 7% of diabetes, and 10% of colon or breast cancer. Globally, research has shown that modifying four commonly shared risky behaviours, including poor nutrition, tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, and physical inactivity, can reduce occurrence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Risk factor surveillance through population-based periodic surveys, has been identified as an effective strategy to inform public health interventions in NCD control. The stepwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) survey is one such initiative, and Kenya carried out its first survey in 2015. This study sought to describe the physical inactivity risk factors from the findings of the Kenya STEPS survey. METHODS: This study employed countrywide representative survey administered between April and June 2015. A three stage cluster sampling design was used to select clusters, households and eligible individuals. All adults between 18 and 69 years in selected households were eligible. Data on demographic, behavioural, and biochemical characteristics were collected. Prevalence of physical inactivity was computed. Logistic regression used to explore factors associated with physical inactivity. RESULTS: A total of 4500 individuals consented to participate from eligible 6000 households. The mean age was 40.5 (39.9-41.1) years, with 51.3% of the respondents being female. Overall 346 (7.7%) of respondents were classified as physically inactive. Physical inactivity was associated with female gender, middle age (30-49 years), and increasing level of education, increasing wealth index and low levels of High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). CONCLUSION: A modest prevalence of physical inactivity slightly higher than in neighbouring countries was found in this study. Gender, age, education level and wealth index are evident areas that predict physical inactivity which can be focused on to develop programs that would work towards reducing physical inactivity among adults in Kenya.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 3): 1216, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, alcohol consumption contributes to 3.3 million deaths and 5.1% of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), and its use is linked with more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Our study assessed the frequency and patterns of Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) in Kenya. HED is defined as consumption of 60 or more grams of pure alcohol (6+ standard drinks in most countries) on at least one single occasion per month. Understanding the burden and patterns of heavy episodic drinking will be helpful to inform strategies that would curb the problem in Kenya. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) tool, a nationally representative household survey of 4203 adults aged 18-69 years was conducted in Kenya between April and June 2015. We used logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with HED among both current and former alcohol drinkers. We included the following socio-demographic variables: age, sex, and marital status, level of education, socio-economic status, residence, and tobacco as an interaction factor. RESULTS: The prevalence of HED was 12.6%. Men were more likely to engage in HED than women (unadjusted OR 9.9 95%, CI 5.5-18.8). The highest proportion of HED was reported in the 18-29-year age group (35.5%). Those currently married/ cohabiting had the highest prevalence of HED (60%). Respondents who were separated had three times higher odds of HED compared to married counterparts (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.7). Approximately 16.0% of respondents reported cessation of alcohol use due to health reasons. Nearly two thirds reported drinking home-brewed beers or wines. Tobacco consumption was associated with higher odds of HED (unadjusted OR 6.9, 95% CI 4.4-10.8); those that smoke (34.4%) were more likely to engage in HED compared to their non-smoking counterparts. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight a significant prevalence of HED among alcohol drinkers in Kenya. Young males, those with less education, married people, and tobacco users were more likely to report heavy alcohol use, with male sex as the primary driving factor. These findings are novel to the country and region; they provide guidance to target alcohol control interventions for different groups in Kenya.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 1): 960, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use has serious public health implications for both smokers and non-smokers and significant economic implications on health care spending for governments. Tobacco-related deaths are preventable through well-formulated and implemented tobacco control policies. Using tobacco policy as a case study, we aim to describe the tobacco control policy formulation and implementation and the associated facilitators and barriers in Kenya. METHOD: We used a case-study methodology to integrate two sources of data: a document review of relevant policy documents, published articles and reports between 2004 and 2015 (N = 24 documents) and in-depth interviews (N = 39). Participants were from sectors relevant to tobacco control: research and academia, government, private industry, civil society and non-governmental organizations. Thematic analysis was used to analyze all data. RESULTS: Kenya developed a comprehensive tobacco policy in 2007. The main facilitators to the policy formulation and implementation process were (1) political commitment and strong leadership, (2) the presence of a coordination mechanism, (3) stakeholder passion and commitment, (4) resources and (5) constitutional requirement for inclusion of stakeholders. The main barriers to policy formulation and implementation were (1) industry interference, (2) resources, (3) poor enforcement and (4) lack of clear roles. CONCLUSION: Although the process for formulating a tobacco control policy in Kenya was protracted, the current policy aligns well with current global efforts. The implementation is still weak and this can be enhanced by provision of necessary resources and continued engagement of all relevant stakeholders. There is a need for continued engagement with political leadership and continuous international information exchange on how policy-makers can address and counter industry interference in tobacco control efforts.


Assuntos
Formulação de Políticas , Política Pública , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Quênia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 1): 953, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Africa requires a multi-sectoral action (MSA) in their prevention and control. This study aimed to generate evidence on the extent of MSA application in NCD prevention policy development in five sub-Saharan African countries (Kenya, South Africa, Cameroon, Nigeria and Malawi) focusing on policies around the major NCD risk factors. METHODS: The broader study applied a multiple case study design to capture rich descriptions of policy contents, processes and actors as well as contextual factors related to the policies around the major NCD risk factors at single- and multi-country levels. Data were collected through document reviews and key informant interviews with decision-makers and implementers in various sectors. Further consultations were conducted with NCD experts on MSA application in NCD prevention policies in the region. For this paper, we report on how MSA was applied in the policy process. RESULTS: The findings revealed some degree of application of MSA in NCD prevention policy development in these countries. However, the level of sector engagement varies across different NCD policies, from passive participation to active engagement, and by country. There was higher engagement of sectors in developing tobacco policies across the countries, followed by alcohol policies. Multi-sectoral action for tobacco and to some extent, alcohol, was enabled through established structures at national levels including inter-ministerial and parliamentary committees. More often coordination was enabled through expert or technical working groups driven by the health sectors. The main barriers to multi-sectoral action included lack of awareness by various sectors about their potential contribution, weak political will, coordination complexity and inadequate resources. CONCLUSION: MSA is possible in NCD prevention policy development in African countries. However, the findings illustrate various challenges in bringing sectors together to develop policies to address the increasing NCD burden in the region. Stronger coordination mechanisms with clear guidelines for sector engagement are required for effective MSA in NCD prevention. Such a mechanisms should include approaches for capacity building and resource generation to enable multi-sectoral action in NCD policy formulation, implementation and monitoring of outcomes.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Setor Público/organização & administração , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
13.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 1): 961, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in sub-Saharan Africa is causing further burden to the health care systems that are least equipped to deal with the challenge. Countries are developing policies to address major NCD risk factors including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, harmful alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. This paper describes NCD prevention policy development process in five African countries (Kenya, South Africa, Cameroon, Nigeria, Malawi), including the extent to which WHO "best buy" interventions for NCD prevention have been implemented. METHODS: The study applied a multiple case study design, with each country as a separate case study. Data were collected through document reviews and key informant interviews with national-level decision-makers in various sectors. Data were coded and analyzed thematically, guided by Walt and Gilson policy analysis framework that examines the context, content, processes and actors in policy development. RESULTS: Country-level policy process has been relatively slow and uneven. Policy process for tobacco has moved faster, especially in South Africa but was delayed in others. Alcohol policy process has been slow in Nigeria and Malawi. Existing tobacco and alcohol policies address the WHO "best buy" interventions to some extent. Food-security and nutrition policies exist in almost all the countries, but the "best buy" interventions for unhealthy diet have not received adequate attention in all countries except South Africa. Physical activity policies are not well developed in any study countries. All have recently developed NCD strategic plans consistent with WHO global NCD Action Plan but these policies have not been adequately implemented due to inadequate political commitment, inadequate resources and technical capacity as well as industry influence. CONCLUSION: NCD prevention policy process in many African countries has been influenced both by global and local factors. Countries have the will to develop NCD prevention policies but they face implementation gaps and need enhanced country-level commitment to support policy NCD prevention policy development for all risk factors and establish mechanisms to attain better policy outcomes while considering other local contextual factors that may influence policy implementation such as political support, resource allocation and availability of local data for monitoring impacts.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 1): 958, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the world today. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed efficient and inexpensive "best buy" interventions for prevention of tobacco use including: tax increases, smoke-free indoor workplaces and public places, bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and health information and warnings. This paper analyzes the extent to which tobacco use prevention policies in Cameroon align with the WHO tobacco "best buy" interventions. It further explores the context, content, formulation and implementation level of these policies. METHODS: This was a case study combining a structured review of 19 government policy documents related to tobacco use and prevention, in-depth interviews with 38 key stakeholders and field observations. The Walt and Gilson's policy analysis triangle was used to describe and interpret the context, content, processes and actors during the formulation and implementation of tobacco prevention and control policies. Direct observations ascertained the level of implementation of some selected policies. RESULTS: Twelve out of 19 policies for tobacco use and prevention address the WHO "best buy" interventions. Cameroon policy formulation was driven locally by the social context of non-communicable diseases, and globally by the adoption of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. These policies incorporated at a certain level all four domains of tobacco use "best buy" interventions. Formulating policy on smoke-free areas was single-sector oriented, while determining tobacco taxes and health warnings was more complex utilizing multisectoral approaches. The main actors involved were ministerial departments of Health, Education, Finances, Communication and Social Affairs. The level of implementation varied widely from one policy to another and from one region to another. Political will, personal motivation and the existence of formal exchange platforms facilitated policy formulation and implementation, while poor resource allocation and lack of synergy constituted barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite actions made by the Government, there is no real political will to control tobacco use in Cameroon. Significant shortcomings still exist in developing and/or implementing comprehensive tobacco use and prevention policies. These findings highlight major gaps as well as opportunities that can be harnessed to improve tobacco control in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Camarões , Política de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 1): 954, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, enforced in 2005, was a watershed international treaty that stipulated requirements for signatories to govern the production, sale, distribution, advertisement, and taxation of tobacco to reduce its impact on health. This paper describes the timelines, context, key actors, and strategies in the development and implementation of the treaty and describes how six sub-Saharan countries responded to its call for action on tobacco control. METHODS: A multi-country policy review using case study design was conducted in Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria, Malawi, South Africa, and Togo. All documents related to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and individual country implementation of tobacco policies were reviewed, and key informant interviews related to the countries' development and implementation of tobacco policies were conducted. RESULTS: Multiple stakeholders, including academics and activists, led a concerted effort for more than 10 years to push the WHO treaty forward despite counter-marketing from the tobacco industry. Once the treaty was enacted, Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria, Malawi, South Africa, and Togo responded in unique ways to implement tobacco policies, with differences associated with the country's socio-economic context, priorities of country leaders, industry presence, and choice of strategies. All the study countries except Malawi have acceded to and ratified the WHO tobacco treaty and implemented tobacco control policy. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provided an unprecedented opportunity for global action against the public health effects of tobacco including non-communicable diseases. Reviewing how six sub-Saharan countries responded to the treaty to mobilize resources and implement tobacco control policies has provided insight for how to utilise international regulations and commitments to accelerate policy impact on the prevention of non-communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Política Pública , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Organização Mundial da Saúde , África ao Sul do Saara , Humanos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
16.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 1): 956, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Redressing structural inequality within the South African society in the post-apartheid era became the central focus of the democratic government. Policies on social and economic transformation were guided by the government's blueprint, the Reconstruction and Development Programme. The purpose of this paper is to trace the evolution of non-communicable disease (NCD) policies in South Africa and the extent to which the multi-sectoral approach was utilised, while explicating the underlying rationale for "best buy" interventions adopted to reduce and control NCDs in South Africa. The paper critically engages with the political and ideological factors that influenced design of particular NCD policies. METHODS: Through a case study design, policies targeting specific NCD risk factors (tobacco smoking, unhealthy diets, harmful use of alcohol and physical inactivity) were assessed. This involved reviewing documents and interviewing 44 key informants (2014-2016) from the health and non-health sectors. Thematic analysis was used to draw out the key themes that emerged from the key informant interviews and the documents reviewed. RESULTS: South Africa had comprehensive policies covering all the major NCD risk factors starting from the early 1990's, long before the global drive to tackle NCDs. The plethora of NCD policies is attributable to the political climate in post-apartheid South Africa that set a different trajectory for the state that was mandated to tackle entrenched inequalities. However, there has been an increase in prevalence of NCD risk factors within the general population. About 60% of women and 30% of men are overweight or obese. While a multi-sectoral approach is part of public policy discourse, its application in the implementation of NCD policies and programmes is a challenge. CONCLUSIONS: NCD prevalence remains high in South Africa. There is need to adopt the multi-sectoral approach in the implementation of NCD policies and programmes.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Apartheid , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1112, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205829

RESUMO

After publication of the article [1], it was noticed that the title has erroneously included 'authors' in the end.

18.
AIDS ; 32 Suppl 1: S21-S32, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952787

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are recognizing the growing dual burden of HIV and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This article explores the availability, implementation processes, opportunities and challenges for policies and programs for HIV/NCD integration in four SSA countries: Malawi, Kenya, South Africa and Swaziland. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of current policies and programs relating to HIV/NCD care integration from January to April 2017 using document review and expert opinions. The review focussed on availability and content of relevant policy documents and processes towards implementating national HIV/NCD integration policies. RESULTS: All four case study countries had at least one policy document including aspects of HIV/NCD care integration. Apart from South Africa that had a phased nation-wide implementation of a comprehensive integrated chronic disease model, the three other countries - Malawi, Kenya and Swaziland, had either pilot implementations or nation-wide single-disease integration of NCDs and HIV. Opportunities for HIV/NCD integration policies included: presence of overarching health policy documents that recognize the need for integration, and coordinated action by policymakers, researchers and implementers. Evidence gaps for cost-effectiveness, effects of integration on key HIV and NCD outcomes and funding mechanisms for sustained implementation of integrated HIV/NCD care strategies, were among challenges identified. CONCLUSION: Policymakers in Malawi, Kenya, South Africa and Swaziland have considered integration of NCD and HIV care but a lack of robust evidence hampers large-scale implementation of HIV/NCD integration. It is crucial for SSA Ministries of Health and throughout low-and-middle-income countries to utilize existing opportunities and advocate for evidence-informed HIV/NCD integration strategies.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Gerenciamento Clínico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Política de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Essuatíni , Humanos , Quênia , Malaui , África do Sul
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 344, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Kenya, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) accounted for more than 10% of total deaths and 4% of total Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) in 2015 with a steady increase over the past decade. The main objective of this paper was to review the existing policies and their content in relation to prevention, control and management of CVDs at primary health care (PHC) level in Kenya. METHODS: A targeted document search in Google engine using keywords "Kenya national policy on cardiovascular diseases" and "Kenya national policy on non-communicable diseases (NCDs)" was conducted in addition to key informant interviews with Kenyan policy makers. Relevant regional and international policy documents were also included. The contents of documents identified were reviewed to assess how well they aligned with global health policies on CVD prevention, control and management. Thematic content analysis of the key informant interviews was also conducted to supplement the document reviews. RESULTS: A total of 17 documents were reviewed and three key informants interviewed. Besides the Tobacco Control Act (2007), all policy documents for CVD prevention, control and management were developed after 2013. The national policies were preceded by global initiatives and guidelines and were similar in content with the global policies. The Kenya health policy (2014-2030), The Kenya Health Sector Strategic and Investment Plan (2014-2018) and the Kenya National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable diseases (2015-2020) had strategies on NCDs including CVDs. Other policy documents for behavioral risk factors (The Tobacco Control Act 2007, Alcoholic Drinks Control (Licensing) Regulations (2010)) were available. The National Nutrition Action Plan (2012-2017) was available as a draft. Although Kenya has a tiered health care system comprising primary healthcare, integration of CVD prevention and control at PHC level was not explicitly mentioned in the policy documents. CONCLUSION: This review revealed important gaps in the policy environment for prevention, control and management of CVDs in PHC settings in Kenya. There is need to continuously engage the ministry of health and other sectors to prioritize inclusion of CVD services in PHC.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Política de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Saúde Global , Humanos , Quênia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cult Health Sex ; 20(3): 247-261, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28705100

RESUMO

Timely use of contraception in the postpartum year is critical for pregnancy spacing, which protects a mother's health and improves her ability to care for children. This qualitative study explored contraceptive decision-making among postpartum women in Nairobi, Kenya, with a focus on accounts of how women overcame barriers to postpartum contraceptive use. Focus groups (n = 61) and in-depth interviews (n = 30) explored experiences, barriers and actual use of postpartum contraception. Data were analysed using framework analysis, a method that organises qualitative data into themes and then interprets the data by mapping participant characteristics to these themes. Contraceptive use among women who desired future fertility was hindered by fear of side-effects and concern for partner disapproval. However, women who were satisfied with their family size more easily overcame these barriers. Tailoring postpartum contraceptive counselling to both assuage the concerns of women who desire future fertility and address the long-term contraceptive needs of mothers who desire to stop child-bearing could play a role in reducing the unmet need for contraception. .


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Intenção , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
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