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1.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1002836

RESUMO

Castleman’s disease is a rare non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown origin. It is classified into unicentric or multicentric based on its anatomical distribution. Multicentric Castleman’s disease can be subdivided according to the presence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection. Castleman’s disease has a rare incidence, and HHV-8-positive multicentric Castleman’s disease is even rarer. There are several types of natural course for this disease, and the rapidly progressing type can lead to death within a few weeks, emphasizing the need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. We report a recent case from Korea, presenting with multiple lymphadenopathies, confirmed as HHV-8-positive multicentric Castleman’s disease through biopsy, and achieving complete response with rituximab monotherapy.

2.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1002473

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate tiamulin (TML) residues in the edible tissues of orally dosed broiler chickens and to re-establish the withdrawal time (WT). Thirty-six healthy Ross broiler chickens were administered 0.5 (TML-1) and 2.5 kg (TML-2) per ton feed, respectively, of the drug containing TML 78 g/kg for 10 days. Twenty-four tissue samples were collected from 6 chickens in each of the TML-1 and TML-2 groups on 0, 1, 3, and 5 days after drug administration, respectively. The residual concentrations of TML were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The correlation coefficient of the calibration curves was 0.9978 to 0.9998, and the limits of detection and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.03 to 0.06, and 0.1 to 0.2 µg/kg, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 89.0% to 116.7%, and the coefficients of variation were less than 13.9%. After the drug administration, TML in the TML-1 and TML-2 groups was detected above the LOQ in 1 and 6 samples of liver, respectively, at day 0, and in 1 liver sample from both groups on day one. At 3 days after administration, TML was detected below the LOQ in all samples of TML-1 and TML-2. The calculated WT of TML in both TML-1 and TML-2 using the WT calculation program WT 1.4 was 0 days. In conclusion, the developed analytical method is suitable for detection, and the calculated WT of TML in poultry edible tissues is shorter than the current recommended WT of 7 days for TML in broiler chickens.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1002206

RESUMO

The Department of Dermatology at Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, initially the Dermatology Department of the Private Daegu Medical Training School in 1924, commemorated its 100th anniversary in 2023.Throughout its rich history, the department has been dedicated to advancing contemporary dermatology and enhancing the well-being of local communities through exceptional research, education, and social contributions.Initially tasked with the diagnosis, treatment, and education of patients with dermatological and urological disorders, the department evolved over time. In 1958, it separated from the Urology Department to focus solely on the diagnosis, research, and education of dermatological disorders. In 1962, Dr. Soon Bong Suh became the inaugural Chief of the Dermatology Department, marking the foundation of the Kyungpook National University School of Medicine’s Dermatology Department. Our legacy of pioneering contributions extends to dermatophytic diseases, which account for a large proportion of skin disorders in Korea, where we have excelled in basic research and treatment. These achievements have played a crucial role in the advancement of dermatophytic diseases.Subsequently, we have demonstrated expertise in blistering diseases and dermatopathology, making substantial contributions to the diagnosis and treatment of refractory skin conditions. Recently, we have been at the forefront of research and interventions for chronic inflammatory skin conditions that cause significant distress in many individuals, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Our influence has also extended to severe and refractory skin disorders, including skin cancer and vascular anomalies. Striving to stay contemporary, our achievements now encompass aesthetics, including acne, pigmentation, and laser treatments. Our accomplishments have garnered widespread recognition nationwide, engendering high expectations for future advancements.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1002200

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly employed in the management of chronic inflammatory skin diseases. We report the case of a 73-year-old man who presented with a persistent cough lasting for 1 month. He had an 11-year history of psoriasis and had received MTX (10.0 mg/wk) over the past 21 months. High-resolution chest computed tomography revealed diffuse ground-glass opacities and bronchiectasis affecting both lung fields. Based on clinical and radiological assessments, the patient was diagnosed with MTX-induced interstitial pneumonia. Notably, significant clinical and radiological improvement was observed 1 month after the discontinuation of MTX and corticosteroid administration. Although some reports have demonstrated lung toxicity in patients receiving high-dose MTX therapy, cases of adverse pulmonary effects following low-dose treatment in patients with psoriasis are rare.This case report underscores the rarity of interstitial pneumonia in a patient with psoriasis undergoing MTX treatment in Korea.

5.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 40-45, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-913468

RESUMO

Background@#Although particulate matter likely provokes inflammatory reactions in those with chronic skin disorders like atopic dermatitis, no study has examined the relationship between particulate matter and psoriasis exacerbation. @*Objective@#This study evaluated possible associations between particulate matter and hospital visits for psoriasis patients in 7 major cities in South Korea. @*Methods@#We investigated the relationship between psoriasis and particulate matter. To do this, we used psoriasis patient data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. In addition, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration data spanning a 3-year time frame were obtained from the Korea Environment Corporation. @*Results@#A pattern analysis generated by the sample cross-correlation function and time series regression showed a correlation between particulate matter concentration and the number of hospital visits by psoriasis patients. However, the prewhitening method, which minimizes the effects of other variables besides particulate matter, revealed no correlation between the two. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that particulate matter has no impact on hospital visit frequency among psoriasis patients in South Korean urban areas.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-919387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND@#Hair follicles are among a handful of organs that exhibit immune privilege. Dysfunction of the hair follicle immune system underlies the development of inflammatory diseases, such as alopecia areata. @*METHODS@#Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunostaining was used to confirm the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I in human dermal papilla cells. Through transcriptomic analyses of human keratinocyte stem cells, major histocompatibility complex class I was identified as differentially expressed genes. Organ culture and patch assay were performed to assess the ability of WNT3a conditioned media to rescue immune privilege. Lastly, CD8? T cells were detected near the hair bulb in alopecia areata patients through immunohistochemistry. @*RESULTS@#Inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma were verified to induce the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in dermal papilla cells. Additionally, loss of immune privilege of hair follicles was rescued following treatment with conditioned media from outer root sheath cells. Transcriptomic analyses found 58 up-regulated genes and 183 down-regulated genes related in MHC class I? cells. Using newborn hair patch assay, we demonstrated that WNT3a conditioned media with epidermal growth factor can restore hair growth. In alopecia areata patients, CD8? T cells were increased during the transition from mid-anagen to late catagen. @*CONCLUSION@#Identification of mechanisms governing epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the hair follicle facilitates an improved understanding of the regulation of hair follicle immune privilege.

7.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 95-104, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-925455

RESUMO

Background@#Ginseng has been used in Korea for a long time as a restorative herbal medicine. Black ginseng (BG) is made from red or white ginseng by multiple steamy and dry processes. Although BG has been reported to have anti-inflammatory potential, studies on its influence on inflammatory skin disorders are lacking. @*Objective@#To investigate the effects of BG under the inflammatory conditions of cultured sebocytes and outer root sheath (ORS) cells. @*Methods@#The cultured cells were treated with 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide, 5 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or 5 μg/ml LPS+50 μg/ml BG for 6 hours and 24 hours. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and Nile red staining were performed for analysis of inflammatory biomarkers and sebum-related biomarkers. @*Results@#BG brought out the increased gene and protein expression of inflammatory biomarkers such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-a, in the LPStreated sebocytes and ORS cells. In addition, BG induced increased expression of TLR4, p-c-jun, p-JNK and p-iκB in LPS-treated sebocytes and ORS cells. Furthermore, it significantly increased the expression of LL-37 and the production of sebum in LPS-treated sebocytes. @*Conclusion@#It may be possible for BG to increase the expression of inflammatory biomarkers in inflammatory skin disorders, such as acne.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 922-929, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-914352

RESUMO

Background/Aims@#For the management of hilar malignant biliary obstruction (HMBO), endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) is preferred over percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) because of its convenience. However, there is no established guideline for malignant hilar obstruction that requires multiple stenting. In this study, we compared the efficacy of bilateral metal stents (BMS) versus multiple plastic stents (MPS). @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, we analyzed 102 patients who underwent EBD with either BMS or MPS due to HMBO caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1996 and 2018 at Samsung Medical Center. We compared the successful drainage rates, cholangitis events, overall complications, mortality, and conversion rates to PTBD between the two groups. @*Results@#The successful drainage rates in the BMS group and the MPS group were 71.4% (25/35) and 65.6% (44/67), respectively, with no significant difference. The MPS group had a higher cholangitis risk (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 3.58) and higher 6-month mortality (HR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.26 to 6.71) than the BMS group. There were no significant differences in overall complications or the conversion rate to PTBD between the groups. @*Conclusions@#In patients with malignant HMBO, the BMS group showed better outcomes in terms of the cholangitis rate and 6-month mortality than the MPS group. Therefore, if possible, bilateral metal stenting is recommended for HMBO caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-901992

RESUMO

An 83-year-old man presented with an intermittently bleeding fixed nodule on the left side of the chest for 2 months. Due to the clinical suspicion of metastatic cancer or a ruptured epidermal cyst, a punch biopsy was performed, which revealed granulation tissue. During surgical excision, a connection between the granulation tissue and the deeper structure was confirmed. Based on the clinicopathological findings, a cutaneous fistula was suspected;a detailed history revealed that he had experienced blunt chest trauma in a motorcycle accident 2 months before. Subsequent chest computed tomography showed soft tissue infiltration in the left sixth rib. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with a cutaneous fistula and underwent resection of the left sixth rib and costal cartilage. Cutaneous fistulae rarely occur in the chest. In cases where a recalcitrant inflammatory nodule is observed on the chest, the patient’s trauma history and ordinary medical history should be evaluated to rule out a cutaneous fistula.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-901453

RESUMO

Background@#Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) A59 is a highly infectious pathogen and starts in the respiratory tract and progresses to systemic infection in laboratory mice. The complement system is an important part of the host immune response to viral infection. It is not clear the role of the classical complement pathway in MHV infection. @*Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the classical pathway in coronavirus pathogenesis by comparing C1qa KO mice and wild-type mice. @*Methods@#We generated a C1qa KO mouse using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and compared the susceptibility to MHV A59 infection between C1qa KO and wild-type mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes, viral loads, and chemokine expressions in both mice were measured. @*Results@#MHV A59-infected C1qa KO mice showed severe histopathological changes, such as hepatocellular necrosis and interstitial pneumonia, compared to MHV A59-infected wildtype mice. Virus copy numbers in the olfactory bulb, liver, and lungs of C1qa KO mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. The increase in viral copy numbers in C1qa KO mice was consistent with the histopathologic changes in organs. These results indicate that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection in mice. In addition, this enhanced susceptibility effect is associated with dramatic elevations in spleen IFN-γ, MIP-1 α, and MCP-1 in C1qa KO mice. @*Conclusions@#These data suggest that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection, and activation of the classical complement pathway may be important for protecting the host against MHV A59 infection.

11.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 237-244, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-896807

RESUMO

Background@#Only a few studies have tried to assess factors relevant to the satisfaction of the participants in atopic dermatitis (AD) educational programs. More systematic modeling of this issue is needed. @*Objective@#To examine the benefit of a conjoint educational program for AD on patients and caregivers in a clinical setting. @*Methods@#In a half-day educational program called “AD school”, 831 people (493 patients and 338 family members) participated for 8 years. Various educational and entertaining programs were provided. The on-site survey was administered to measure participants’ satisfaction and perception of the benefit. We applied structural equation modeling to identify the relations among satisfaction and perception. @*Results@#A total of 209 family survey data was obtained and analyzed. The survey items were grouped into four categories. The categories were classified as individual education, group education, fun activity, and overall satisfaction (fun, benefit, intention to re-join and recommend to others). According to the model that we built, comprehensive group education was demonstrated to be the most relevant factor affecting overall satisfaction. @*Conclusion@#Our holistic approach would allow dermatologists to improve the efficacy of the conjoint educational program for AD.

12.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 361-364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-896784

RESUMO

Nevus comedonicus is a very rare skin disorder characterized by the presence of comedo-like dilated pores with keratinous plugs, rarely resulting in painful recurrent inflammatory nodules or cysts. It presents as localized or extensive form. It displays unilaterally or bilaterally segmental distribution. Histopathologically, it is characterized by keratin-filled epidermal invagination with bulbous proliferation of keratinocytes. The condition may be caused by fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutation. Although it may be controlled by a variety of therapeutic modalities, it is difficult to achieve complete resolution. We report a case of extensive nevus comedonicus with inflammatory nodules and cysts controlled with adalimumab.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-894288

RESUMO

An 83-year-old man presented with an intermittently bleeding fixed nodule on the left side of the chest for 2 months. Due to the clinical suspicion of metastatic cancer or a ruptured epidermal cyst, a punch biopsy was performed, which revealed granulation tissue. During surgical excision, a connection between the granulation tissue and the deeper structure was confirmed. Based on the clinicopathological findings, a cutaneous fistula was suspected;a detailed history revealed that he had experienced blunt chest trauma in a motorcycle accident 2 months before. Subsequent chest computed tomography showed soft tissue infiltration in the left sixth rib. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with a cutaneous fistula and underwent resection of the left sixth rib and costal cartilage. Cutaneous fistulae rarely occur in the chest. In cases where a recalcitrant inflammatory nodule is observed on the chest, the patient’s trauma history and ordinary medical history should be evaluated to rule out a cutaneous fistula.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-893749

RESUMO

Background@#Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) A59 is a highly infectious pathogen and starts in the respiratory tract and progresses to systemic infection in laboratory mice. The complement system is an important part of the host immune response to viral infection. It is not clear the role of the classical complement pathway in MHV infection. @*Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the classical pathway in coronavirus pathogenesis by comparing C1qa KO mice and wild-type mice. @*Methods@#We generated a C1qa KO mouse using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and compared the susceptibility to MHV A59 infection between C1qa KO and wild-type mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes, viral loads, and chemokine expressions in both mice were measured. @*Results@#MHV A59-infected C1qa KO mice showed severe histopathological changes, such as hepatocellular necrosis and interstitial pneumonia, compared to MHV A59-infected wildtype mice. Virus copy numbers in the olfactory bulb, liver, and lungs of C1qa KO mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. The increase in viral copy numbers in C1qa KO mice was consistent with the histopathologic changes in organs. These results indicate that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection in mice. In addition, this enhanced susceptibility effect is associated with dramatic elevations in spleen IFN-γ, MIP-1 α, and MCP-1 in C1qa KO mice. @*Conclusions@#These data suggest that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection, and activation of the classical complement pathway may be important for protecting the host against MHV A59 infection.

15.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 237-244, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-889103

RESUMO

Background@#Only a few studies have tried to assess factors relevant to the satisfaction of the participants in atopic dermatitis (AD) educational programs. More systematic modeling of this issue is needed. @*Objective@#To examine the benefit of a conjoint educational program for AD on patients and caregivers in a clinical setting. @*Methods@#In a half-day educational program called “AD school”, 831 people (493 patients and 338 family members) participated for 8 years. Various educational and entertaining programs were provided. The on-site survey was administered to measure participants’ satisfaction and perception of the benefit. We applied structural equation modeling to identify the relations among satisfaction and perception. @*Results@#A total of 209 family survey data was obtained and analyzed. The survey items were grouped into four categories. The categories were classified as individual education, group education, fun activity, and overall satisfaction (fun, benefit, intention to re-join and recommend to others). According to the model that we built, comprehensive group education was demonstrated to be the most relevant factor affecting overall satisfaction. @*Conclusion@#Our holistic approach would allow dermatologists to improve the efficacy of the conjoint educational program for AD.

16.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 361-364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-889080

RESUMO

Nevus comedonicus is a very rare skin disorder characterized by the presence of comedo-like dilated pores with keratinous plugs, rarely resulting in painful recurrent inflammatory nodules or cysts. It presents as localized or extensive form. It displays unilaterally or bilaterally segmental distribution. Histopathologically, it is characterized by keratin-filled epidermal invagination with bulbous proliferation of keratinocytes. The condition may be caused by fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutation. Although it may be controlled by a variety of therapeutic modalities, it is difficult to achieve complete resolution. We report a case of extensive nevus comedonicus with inflammatory nodules and cysts controlled with adalimumab.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-917642

RESUMO

Background@#Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) develops mainly in the elderly, although it is often seen in young patients and in clinical practice. However, there are few studies on the clinical features of young patients with CMM in Korea. @*Objective@#To investigate the clinical characteristics of young Korean patients with CMM. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with CMM between January 2009 and June 2019 and compared the clinical features of CMM in patients aged 10∼39 and 50∼79 years. @*Results@#Of the 341 patients with CMM, only 22 (6.5%) were between the age of 10∼39 and 250 (73.3%) were aged 50∼79. Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most common clinical subtype in both groups (45.5% and 71.2%, respectively). Subungual melanoma was more common in age 10∼39 years (27.3% vs. 17.2%), whereas ALM except subungual melanoma was more common in age 50∼79 years (18.2% vs. 54.0%). Superficial spreading melanoma (31.8%) was also a significant subtype observed in age 10∼39 years (p<0.001). Frequently involved locations in age group 10∼39 were fingers (27.3%) and trunk (22.7%), but feet (40.8%) were common in age group 50∼79 (p=0.009). There were no differences in mean Breslow thickness, lymph node metastases, or staging of CMM (p>0.05). @*Conclusion@#Compared with elderly patients, CMM in patients aged 10∼39 showed differences in the location of the lesion and clinical subtype. Therefore, a misdiagnosis can be prevented when a young patient has suspected CMM on the finger or trunk.

18.
Artigo | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-835162

RESUMO

Objective@#This study aimed to analyze the correlation of horizontal and sagittal planes used in two-dimensional diagnosis with lip canting by using threedimensional (3D) analysis. @*Methods@#Fifty-two patients (25 men, 27 women; average age: 24 years) undergoing treatment for dentofacial deformity were enrolled. Computed tomography images were acquired, and digital imaging and communication in medicine files were reconstructed into a 3D virtual model wherein horizontal and sagittal craniofacial planes were measured. Subsequently, the correlations of lip canting with these horizontal and sagittal planes were investigated. @*Results@#The mandibular symmetry plane, the occlusal plane, Camper’s plane, the mandibular plane, Broadbent’s plane, and the nasal axis plane were correlated with the amount of lip canting (Pearson’s correlation coefficients: 0.761, 0.648, 0.556, 0.526, 0.438, and 0.406, respectively). Planes associated with the lower part of the face showed the strongest correlations; the strength of the correlations decreased in the midfacial and cranial regions. None of the planes showed statistically significant differences between patients with clinical lip canting (> 3°) and those without prominent lip canting. @*Conclusions@#The findings of this study suggest that lip canting is strongly correlated with the mandibular symmetry plane, which includes menton deviation. This finding may have clinical implications with regard to the treatment of patients requiring correction of lip canting. Further studies are necessary for evaluating changes in lip canting after orthognathic surgery.

19.
Artigo | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-835142

RESUMO

Objectives@#The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published “A Guideline for Unknown Disease Outbreaks (UDO).” The aim of this report was to introduce tabletop exercises (TTX) to prepare for UDO in the future. @*Methods@#The UDO Laboratory Analyses Task Force in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in April 2018, assigned unknown diseases into 5 syndromes, designed an algorithm for diagnosis, and made a panel list for diagnosis by exclusion. Using the guidelines and laboratory analyses for UDO, TTX were introduced. @*Results@#Since September 9th , 2018, the UDO Laboratory Analyses Task Force has been preparing TTX based on a scenario of an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus. In December 2019, through TTX, individual missions, epidemiological investigations, sample treatments, diagnosis by exclusions, and next generation sequencing analysis were discussed, and a novel coronavirus was identified as the causal pathogen. @*Conclusion@#Guideline and laboratory analyses for UDO successfully applied in TTX. Conclusions drawn from TTX could be applied effectively in the analyses for the initial response to COVID-19, an ongoing epidemic of 2019 - 2020. Therefore, TTX should continuously be conducted for the response and preparation against UDO.

20.
Artigo | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-834119

RESUMO

Background/Aims@#A diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease is challenging in patients who have reflux symptoms but do not respond to proton pump inhibitors nor have reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia (HH) on endoscopy. This study examined the predictive role of the endoscopic findings, including the flap valve grade for pathologic acid exposure (PAE) to establish an endoscopic prediction model in patients with neither reflux esophagitis nor HH. @*Methods@#Five hundred seventy-eight patients who underwent upper endoscopy and 24 hours pH monitoring for reflux esophageal symptoms without evidence of reflux esophagitis and HH were analyzed. The gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV), esophageal metaplasia, and chronic atrophic gastritis were assessed. The association between the endoscopic parameters and PAE was evaluated. @*Results@#Four hundred ninety-four patients were enrolled. The most common complaint was chest discomfort (42.3%) followed by globus (31.8%), dysphagia (7.9%), and heartburn (7.7%). PAE was present in 43 patients (8.7%). Multivariable analysis revealed PAE to be associated with the GEFV grade (p<0.001) and inversely associated with the chronic atrophic gastritis grade (p=0.005). Using these features, a predictive model was established and showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.705 (95% CI 0.619-0.790). The cutoff value of 12.0 had a sensitivity and specificity of 44.0% and 84.0%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#A loosened GEFV is associated with a risk of PAE in patients with neither reflux esophagitis nor HH, while atrophic gastritis is preventive. On the other hand, the endoscopic predictive model revealed a low sensitivity for detecting PAE. Thus, reflux testing needs to be performed further when gastroesophageal reflux disease is suspected, even without endoscopic evidence.

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