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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 18-27, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621760

RESUMO

More women are surviving after breast cancer due to early detection and modern treatment strategies. Body weight also influences survival. We aimed to characterize associations between postdiagnosis weight change and prognosis in postmenopausal long-term breast cancer survivors. We used data from a prospective population-based patient cohort study (MARIE) conducted in two geographical regions of Germany. Breast cancer patients diagnosed 50 to 74 years of age with an incident invasive breast cancer or in situ tumor were recruited from 2002 to 2005 and followed up until June 2015. Baseline weight was ascertained at an in-person interview at recruitment and follow-up weight was ascertained by telephone interview in 2009. Delayed entry Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess associations between relative weight change and all-cause mortality, breast cancer mortality, and recurrence-free survival. In total, 2216 patients were included. Compared to weight maintenance (within 5%), weight loss >10% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.61, 3.88), breast cancer mortality (HR 3.07, 95% CI 1.69, 5.60) and less so of recurrence-free survival (HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.87, 2.36). Large weight gain of >10% also increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.02, 2.62) and breast cancer mortality (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.25, 4.04). Weight maintenance for up to 5 years in long-term breast cancer survivors may help improve survival and prognosis. Postdiagnosis fluctuations in body weight of greater than 10% may lead to increased mortality. Survivors should be recommended to avoid large deviations in body weight from diagnosis onwards to maintain health and prolong life.

3.
Cancer ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of elderly cancer survivors is growing because of increasing survival rates. A high comorbidity burden in the elderly can affect their quality of life and survival. The aim of this study was to examine whether breast cancer survivors and population-based controls have a different comorbidity burden after long-term follow-up. METHODS: This study used data from a German breast cancer case-control study, which initially comprised 3813 breast cancer cases aged 50 to 74 years who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2005 and 7341 population-based controls. Participants were followed up in 2014/2016. A modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (mCCI) was calculated to quantify severe comorbidities. Negative binomial regression was performed to estimate rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between case-control status and mCCI (dependent variable) for the baseline population and for those who participated at follow-up, with adjustments made for relevant lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In total, 1925 cases and 3674 controls participated in the follow-up 12 years after recruitment. In the baseline population 35% had at least 1 comorbid condition.In long-term survivors this proportion was 52%. No difference was found in the mCCI between breast cancer cases and controls at baseline (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98-1.11) or between long-term survivors of the 2 groups at baseline (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97-1.18) or at follow-up (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91-1.10). CONCLUSIONS: The comorbidity burden of long-term breast cancer survivors and controls increased over time; however, it remained similar in both groups after 12 years of follow-up.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 70: 101852, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether a breast cancer diagnosis affects health behaviour changes that occur with ageing. We aimed to compare long-term changes of alcohol consumption, body weight, and physical activity in women with breast cancer and in age-matched unaffected women. METHODS: We used data from 1,925 women with breast cancer and 3,473 unaffected women aged 50-74 years enrolled in the population-based case-control study MARIE (Mamma Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation) in 2002-2005, who also completed the follow-up in 2014-2016. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between breast cancer status and categories of change in alcohol consumption, weight and physical activity. RESULTS: After 11.6 years of follow-up, breast cancer survivors had significantly lower odds than unaffected women of increasing alcohol consumption from ≤10 to >10 g/day (adjusted OR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.35-0.65), but were more likely to experience a major weight change of ≥10 % compared to having stable weight (±<5 %) (OR for increase and decrease 1.32, 95 % CI 1.03-1.70 and 1.36, 95 % CI 1.05-1.77, resp.) and to decrease transport physical activity to below 2.5 h/week compared to maintaining the activity level (OR 1.61, 95 % CI 1.26-2.04). No significant group difference was found for changes in recreational physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that some long-term health behaviour changes can be attributed to a breast cancer diagnosis rather than ageing, suggesting that long-term medical care of breast cancer survivors could pay greater attention to weight control and sufficient physical activity.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 423-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three tools are currently available to predict the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We aimed to compare the performance of the Manchester formula, CBCrisk, and PredictCBC in patients with invasive breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We analyzed data of 132,756 patients (4682 CBC) from 20 international studies with a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Prediction performance included discrimination, quantified as a time-dependent Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary BC, and calibration, quantified as the expected-observed (E/O) ratio at 5 and 10 years and the calibration slope. RESULTS: The AUC at 10 years was: 0.58 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.59) for CBCrisk; 0.60 (95% CI 0.59-0.61) for the Manchester formula; 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.62) for PredictCBC-1A (for settings where BRCA1/2 mutation status is available) and PredictCBC-1B (for the general population), respectively. The E/O at 10 years: 0.82 (95% CI 0.51-1.32) for CBCrisk; 1.53 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) for the Manchester formula; 1.28 (95% CI 0.63-2.58) for PredictCBC-1A and 1.35 (95% CI 0.65-2.77) for PredictCBC-1B. The calibration slope was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.50) for CBCrisk; 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.02) for PredictCBC-1A; 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) for PredictCBC-1B, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.34-0.43) for the Manchester formula. CONCLUSIONS: Current CBC risk prediction tools provide only moderate discrimination and the Manchester formula was poorly calibrated. Better predictors and re-calibration are needed to improve CBC prediction and to identify low- and high-CBC risk patients for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Mastectomia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/metabolismo , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
7.
Nutr Cancer ; 72(7): 1155-1169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617773

RESUMO

Lignans are associated with improved postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) survival, but whether these associations, particularly with enterolactone (major lignan metabolite), persist over time is unclear. Little is known about other phytoestrogens on prognosis in long-term survivors. The study examines associations of prognosis with 1) circulating postdiagnosis enterolactone, 2) eight circulating phytoestrogen metabolites, and 3) changes in enterolactone and genistein. In a German cohort of 2,105 postmenopausal BC patients with blood samples collected at recruitment 2002-2005 (baseline) and re-interview in 2009 (follow-up), delay-entry Cox proportional hazards regression was used. Landmark analysis showed that circulating enterolactone (log2) associations with 5-year survival changed over time, with strongest hazard ratios of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.80-0.99) at blood draw (BD) and 0.86 (0.77-0.97) at 2 years post-BD for BC mortality, and 0.87 (0.80-0.95) at BD and 0.84 (0.76-0.92) at 3 years post-BD for all-cause mortality, which attenuated thereafter. In long-term survivors, increasing concentrations of genistein (1.17, 1.01-1.36), resveratrol (1.19, 1.02-1.40), and luteolin (1.96, 1.07-3.58) measured in follow-up blood samples were associated with poorer subsequent prognosis. Neither enterolactone at follow-up nor changes in enterolactone/genistein were associated with prognosis. Large long-term longitudinal studies with multiple phytoestrogen measurements are required to understand long-term effects of phytoestrogens after BC.

8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 144, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), with the consequent burden of further treatment and potentially less favorable prognosis. We aimed to develop and validate a CBC risk prediction model and evaluate its applicability for clinical decision-making. METHODS: We included data of 132,756 invasive non-metastatic breast cancer patients from 20 studies with 4682 CBC events and a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We developed a multivariable Fine and Gray prediction model (PredictCBC-1A) including patient, primary tumor, and treatment characteristics and BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, accounting for the competing risks of death and distant metastasis. We also developed a model without BRCA1/2 mutation status (PredictCBC-1B) since this information was available for only 6% of patients and is routinely unavailable in the general breast cancer population. Prediction performance was evaluated using calibration and discrimination, calculated by a time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary breast cancer, and an internal-external cross-validation procedure. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. RESULTS: In the multivariable model, BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, family history, and systemic adjuvant treatment showed the strongest associations with CBC risk. The AUC of PredictCBC-1A was 0.63 (95% prediction interval (PI) at 5 years, 0.52-0.74; at 10 years, 0.53-0.72). Calibration-in-the-large was -0.13 (95% PI: -1.62-1.37), and the calibration slope was 0.90 (95% PI: 0.73-1.08). The AUC of Predict-1B at 10 years was 0.59 (95% PI: 0.52-0.66); calibration was slightly lower. Decision curve analysis for preventive contralateral mastectomy showed potential clinical utility of PredictCBC-1A between thresholds of 4-10% 10-year CBC risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a reasonably calibrated model to predict the risk of CBC in women of European-descent; however, prediction accuracy was moderate. Our model shows potential for improved risk counseling, but decision-making regarding contralateral preventive mastectomy, especially in the general breast cancer population where limited information of the mutation status in BRCA1/2 is available, remains challenging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
9.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 117, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) before and after breast cancer diagnosis has been reported to be associated with lower mortality. However, whether changes in the activity after diagnosis impact prognosis is unclear and has not received much attention. This study aimed to examine pre- to postdiagnosis leisure-time PA and breast cancer prognosis. METHODS: We used data from the MARIE study, a prospective population-based patient cohort study of 3813 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, aged 50-74 at diagnosis, recruited from 2002 to 2005, re-interviewed in 2009, and followed up until June 2015. Prediagnosis PA was assessed at recruitment; postdiagnosis PA was assessed at re-interview in 2009. To examine pre- to postdiagnosis change in PA, women were categorized by pre- and postdiagnosis PA using a cut-off of 7.5 MET-h/week for meeting PA recommendations and combined into four groups: insufficiently active, increasingly active, decreasingly active, and sufficiently active. Cox regression models with delayed entry were used to assess associations between pre- to postdiagnosis patterns of PA and overall mortality (OM), breast cancer mortality (BCM), and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Additional analyses of pre- and postdiagnosis PA (no activity (reference), low activity, sufficient activity) with cancer outcomes, such as using a time-dependent model, were performed. In total, 2042 patients were included in the analyses. RESULTS: There were 206 deaths (114 from breast cancer) after a median follow-up time of 6.0 years after the 2009 interview. Compared to insufficiently active women, increasingly active women were at lower risk of OM, BCM, and RFS (HR (95%CI) of 0.50 (0.31-0.82), 0.54 (0.30-1.00), 0.58 (0.40-0.84), respectively). In sufficiently active women, associations for OM (0.75 (0.48-1.15)), BCM (0.61 (0.33-1.13)), and RFS 0.80 (0.57-1.14)) were similar to increasingly active women but attenuated, and decreasingly active women were not at lower risk for OM (0.91 (0.61-1.36)), BCM (0.80 (0.45-1.42)), and RFS (1.04 (0.76-1.43)). In time-dependent analyses, sufficient activity vs. no activity was associated with better OM (0.73 (0.57-0.93)), BCM (0.64 (0.46-0.89)), and RFS (0.82 (0.68-0.99)). Low activity was not significantly associated with prognosis. CONCLUSION: Our data support benefits for breast cancer prognosis in being physically active pre- and postdiagnosis particularly for women who were insufficiently active prediagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058834

RESUMO

One-third of cancers can be prevented through healthy lifestyles. This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with engagement in cancer prevention guidelines in a population-based cohort of 2124 older white and black men and women. We used Health ABC data to construct a score from 0 (lowest adherence) to 7 (greatest adherence) based on the sum of seven recommendations for cancer prevention from the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research; body fatness (maintenance of healthy body weight), physical activity (at least moderately physically active), diet (fruit, vegetables, fiber, and red and processed meat), and alcohol. Mean (SD) scores in men and women were 3.24 (1.09) and 3.17 (1.10). Lower scores were associated with younger age (women only), black race, current smoking, and prevalent cardiovascular disease. Less than 1% of men and women adhered to all recommendations. Of the individual guidelines, adherence was lowest for fiber (9% of men; 6% of women) followed by physical activity (26% of men; 18% of women), and body weight (21% of men; 26% of women). These results suggest a critical public health need, especially given the growing older population. Black older adults, smokers, and those with prevalent disease may be at higher risk and thus warrant additional focus.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Envelhecimento , Dieta , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(1): 69-78, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668630

RESUMO

Background: There is a paucity of information on the prevalence of dietary supplement use in breast cancer survivors. Only a few studies have examined the impact of dietary supplements, particularly antioxidants, on breast cancer prognosis and the results are inconclusive. Objective: We examined pre- and postdiagnosis use of supplements in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors in Germany and investigated associations between postdiagnosis use of antioxidants and other supplements, and prognosis (total and breast cancer mortality, and recurrence-free survival) both overall and in women who received chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Design: Data from 2223 postmenopausal women diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer from the population-based Mamma Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation (MARIE) study were used. Women were interviewed at recruitment in 2002-2005 and again in 2009 and followed-up until 30 June 2015. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate HRs and corresponding 95% CIs. Results: Pre- and postdiagnosis supplement use was reported by 36% and 45% of the women, respectively. There were 240 deaths (134 from breast cancer) and 200 breast cancer recurrences after a median follow-up time of 6.0 y after the 2009 re-interview. After adjusting for relevant confounders, concurrent antioxidant use with chemotherapy or radiation therapy among 1940 women was associated with increased risk of total mortality (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.66) and worsened recurrence-free survival (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.68). Overall postdiagnosis supplement use was not associated with breast cancer prognosis. Conclusions: Antioxidant use during chemotherapy or radiation therapy was associated with worsened breast cancer prognosis in postmenopausal women. There was no overall association between postdiagnosis supplement use and breast cancer prognosis. Results from our study align with the current recommendation to possibly avoid the use of antioxidants during chemotherapy or radiation therapy.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Cancer ; 143(11): 2698-2708, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974464

RESUMO

Higher lignan exposure has been associated with lower all-cause mortality (ACM) and breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) for postmenopausal breast cancer patients. However, the biological mechanisms underpinning these associations are still unclear. We investigated for the first time whether and to what extent the association between enterolactone (ENL), the major lignan metabolite, and postmenopausal breast cancer prognosis is mediated by inflammatory biomarkers. Circulating concentrations of ENL and inflammatory markers were measured in a population-based prospective cohort of 1,743 breast cancer patients recruited between 2002 and 2005 and followed-up until 2009. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable Cox regression. Mediation analysis was performed to estimate the percentage association between ENL (log2) and ACM, BCSM and distant disease-free survival (DDFS), which is mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP) (log2), as the strongest potential mediator, and also interleukin (IL)-10. Median serum/plasma ENL and CRP concentrations for all patients, including 180 deceased patients, were 23.2 and 17.5 nmol/L, and 3.2 and 6.5 mg/l, respectively. ENL concentrations were significantly inversely associated with ACM, BCSM and DDFS (per doubling of ENL concentrations: HRs 0.93 [0.87, 0.99], 0.91 [0.84, 0.99] and 0.92 [0.87, 0.99]), after adjusting for prognostic factors and BMI. Estimated 18, 14 and 12% of the effects of ENL on ACM, BCSM and DDFS, respectively, were mediated through CRP. No mediational effect of IL-10 was found. We provide first evidence that the proinflammatory marker CRP may partially mediate the association of ENL with postmenopausal breast cancer survival, which supports hormone-independent mechanisms.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Inflamação/sangue , Lignanas/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , 4-Butirolactona/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Br J Cancer ; 118(8): 1123-1129, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest greater height is associated with increased ovarian cancer risk, but cannot exclude bias and/or confounding as explanations for this. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can provide evidence which may be less prone to bias. METHODS: We pooled data from 39 Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium studies (16,395 cases; 23,003 controls). We applied two-stage predictor-substitution MR, using a weighted genetic risk score combining 609 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted height and risk were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Greater genetically predicted height was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk overall (pooled-OR (pOR) = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11 per 5 cm increase in height), and separately for invasive (pOR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and borderline (pOR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02-1.29) tumours. CONCLUSIONS: Women with a genetic propensity to being taller have increased risk of ovarian cancer. This suggests genes influencing height are involved in pathways promoting ovarian carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Geografia , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(3): 307-320, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in relation to clinical features of epithelial ovarian cancer, histologic subtypes, and overall survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted centralized immunohistochemical staining, semi-quantitative scoring, and survival analysis in 5263 patients participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. Patients were diagnosed between January 1, 1978, and December 31, 2014, including 2865 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs), with more than 12,000 person-years of follow-up time. Tissue microarrays were stained for MyD88 and TLR4, and staining intensity was classified using a 2-tiered system for each marker (weak vs strong). RESULTS: Expression of MyD88 and TLR4 was similar in all histotypes except clear cell ovarian cancer, which showed reduced expression compared with other histotypes (P<.001 for both). In HGSOC, strong MyD88 expression was modestly associated with shortened overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P=.04) but was also associated with advanced stage (P<.001). The expression of TLR4 was not associated with survival. In low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC), strong expression of both MyD88 and TLR4 was associated with favorable survival (HR [95% CI], 0.49 [0.29-0.84] and 0.44 [0.21-0.89], respectively; P=.009 and P=.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: Results are consistent with an association between strong MyD88 staining and advanced stage and poorer survival in HGSOC and demonstrate correlation between strong MyD88 and TLR4 staining and improved survival in LGSOC, highlighting the biological differences between the 2 serous histotypes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos
15.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(12): e173290, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049607

RESUMO

Importance: Cytotoxic CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) participate in immune control of epithelial ovarian cancer; however, little is known about prognostic patterns of CD8+ TILs by histotype and in relation to other clinical factors. Objective: To define the prognostic role of CD8+ TILs in epithelial ovarian cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a multicenter observational, prospective survival cohort study of the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis Consortium. More than 5500 patients, including 3196 with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs), were followed prospectively for over 24 650 person-years. Exposures: Following immunohistochemical analysis, CD8+ TILs were identified within the epithelial components of tumor islets. Patients were grouped based on the estimated number of CD8+ TILs per high-powered field: negative (none), low (1-2), moderate (3-19), and high (≥20). CD8+ TILs in a subset of patients were also assessed in a quantitative, uncategorized manner, and the functional form of associations with survival was assessed using penalized B-splines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival time. Results: The final sample included 5577 women; mean age at diagnosis was 58.4 years (median, 58.2 years). Among the 5 major invasive histotypes, HGSOCs showed the most infiltration. CD8+ TILs in HGSOCs were significantly associated with longer overall survival; median survival was 2.8 years for patients with no CD8+ TILs and 3.0 years, 3.8 years, and 5.1 years for patients with low, moderate, or high levels of CD8+ TILs, respectively (P value for trend = 4.2 × 10−16). A survival benefit was also observed among women with endometrioid and mucinous carcinomas, but not for those with the other histotypes. Among HGSOCs, CD8+ TILs were favorable regardless of extent of residual disease following cytoreduction, known standard treatment, and germline BRCA1 pathogenic mutation, but were not prognostic for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Evaluation of uncategorized CD8+ TIL counts showed a near-log-linear functional form. Conclusions and Relevance: This study demonstrates the histotype-specific nature of immune infiltration and provides definitive evidence for a dose-response relationship between CD8+ TILs and HGSOC survival. That the extent of infiltration is prognostic, not merely its presence or absence, suggests that understanding factors that drive infiltration will be the key to unraveling outcome heterogeneity in this cancer.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/imunologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 61(11)2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28734033

RESUMO

SCOPE: Phytoestrogens (PE) may improve breast cancer prognosis by modifying tumor prognostic markers, such as cell proliferation marker Ki-67 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Epidemiological evidence linking lignans and isoflavones to Ki-67 and HER2 is limited. We examined associations between the major metabolites of lignans and isoflavones - enterolactone (ENL) and genistein (GEN) - respectively, and Ki-67 expression and HER2 in tumor tissue of breast cancer patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 1060 invasive breast cancer patients from the population-based MARIE study were used. Multivariate-adjusted linear (Ki-67 log-transformed) and quantile regression, and logistic regression analyses (HER2, Ki-67 dichotomized) were performed to calculate ß estimates and ORs, respectively. Median post-diagnostic ENL and GEN concentrations were 19.5 and 4.8 nmol/L, respectively. Median Ki-67 was 12.0%, and 21.2% of the tumors were HER2+. After adjustment, there was an inverse association between GEN and Ki-67 at high expression levels (OR for Ki-67 ≥20% versus <20% of 0.93 (95%CI [0.87;0.99]) per 10 nmol/L GEN increment). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an inverse association between GEN and Ki-67 at high levels of Ki-67 expression. Additional investigations are recommended to confirm our findings and to further elucidate mechanisms linking PE metabolites to breast cancer survival.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Genisteína/sangue , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Lignanas/sangue , Fitoestrógenos/sangue , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , 4-Butirolactona/sangue , 4-Butirolactona/metabolismo , 4-Butirolactona/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/patologia , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Genisteína/metabolismo , Genisteína/uso terapêutico , Alemanha , Humanos , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Lignanas/metabolismo , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fitoestrógenos/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Pós-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Carga Tumoral
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(11): 1583-1594, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754794

RESUMO

The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) International and the University of Bristol have developed a novel framework for providing an overview of mechanistic pathways and conducting a systematic literature review of the biologically plausible mechanisms underlying exposure-cancer associations. Two teams independently applied the two-stage framework on mechanisms underpinning the association between body fatness and breast cancer to test the framework feasibility and reproducibility as part of a WCRF-commissioned validation study. In stage I, a "hypothesis-free" approach was used to provide an overview of potential intermediate mechanisms between body fatness and breast cancer. Dissimilar rankings of potential mechanisms were observed between the two teams due to different applications of the framework. In stage II, a systematic review was conducted on the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) chosen as an intermediate mechanism. Although the studies included differed, both teams found inconclusive evidence for the body fatness-IGF1R association and modest evidence linking IGF1R to breast cancer, and therefore concluded that there is currently weak evidence for IGF1R as mechanism linking body fatness to breast cancer. The framework is a good starting point for conducting systematic reviews by integrating evidence from mechanistic studies on exposure-cancer associations. On the basis of our experience, we provide recommendations for future users. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1583-94. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Receptores de Somatomedina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Receptor IGF Tipo 1 , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 25(9): 1119-29, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24916333

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine, essential components of DNA synthesis and methylation pathways, may influence colorectal tumor (CRT) development. The impact of B vitamins on colorectal carcinogenesis in individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS) is unknown but is important given their high lifetime risk of developing neoplasms. The role of MTHFR C677T genotype in modifying these relationships in LS individuals is also unclear. We investigated associations between dietary intakes of folate, vitamins B2, B6, B12, and methionine and CRT development in a prospective cohort study of 470 mismatch repair gene mutation carriers. METHODS: Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Cox regression models with robust sandwich covariance estimation, adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, number of colonoscopies during person-time, NSAID use, and mutual vitamins were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). Analyses were also stratified by MTHFR C677T genotype. RESULTS: During a median person-time of 28.0 months, 131 persons developed a CRT. Fifty-one of these persons developed an incident colorectal adenoma, while there were four persons who developed an incident colorectal carcinoma. Compared to the lowest tertile of intake, adjusted HRs (95 % CIs) for CRT development in the highest tertile were 1.06 (0.59-1.91) for folate, 0.77 (0.39-1.51) for vitamin B2, 0.98 (0.59-1.62) for vitamin B6, 1.24 (0.77-2.00) for vitamin B12, and 1.36 (0.83-2.20) for methionine. Low vitamin B2 and low methionine intake were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of CRT in MTHFR 677TT individuals compared to a combined reference of persons with low intake and CC genotype. CONCLUSIONS: There was no suggestion that intake of any dietary B vitamin or methionine was associated with CRT development among those with LS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Dieta , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Riboflavina/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 8(6): e66819, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23825568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high lifetime risk of developing colorectal tumors. In this prospective cohort study of individuals with Lynch syndrome, we examined associations between use of dietary supplements and occurrence of colorectal adenomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data of 470 individuals with Lynch syndrome in a prospective cohort study, associations between dietary supplement use and colorectal adenoma risk were evaluated by calculating hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, and number of colonoscopies during person time. Robust sandwich covariance estimation was used to account for dependency within families. RESULTS: Of the 470 mismatch repair gene mutation carriers, 122 (26.0%) developed a colorectal adenoma during an overall median person time of 39.1 months. 40% of the study population used a dietary supplement. Use of any dietary supplement was not statistically significantly associated with colorectal adenoma risk (HR = 1.18; 95%CI 0.80-1.73). Multivitamin supplement use (HR = 1.15; 95%CI 0.72-1.84), vitamin C supplement use (HR = 1.57; 95%CI 0.93-2.63), calcium supplement use (HR = 0.69; 95%CI 0.25-1.92), and supplements containing fish oil (HR = 1.60; 95%CI 0.79-3.23) were also not associated with occurrence of colorectal adenomas. CONCLUSION: This prospective cohort study does not show inverse associations between dietary supplement use and occurrence of colorectal adenomas among individuals with Lynch syndrome. Further research is warranted to determine whether or not dietary supplement use is associated to colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer risk in MMR gene mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Adenoma/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 57(4): 698-708, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23132835

RESUMO

SCOPE: Low concentrations of folate, other B vitamins, and methionine are associated with colorectal cancer risk, possibly by changing DNA methylation patterns. Here, we examine whether plasma concentrations of B vitamins and methionine are associated with methylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) among those at high risk of colorectal cancer, i.e. patients with at least one histologically confirmed colorectal adenoma (CRA) in their life. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used LINE-1 bisulfite pyrosequencing to measure global DNA methylation levels in leukocytes of 281 CRA patients. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess associations between plasma B vitamin concentrations and LINE-1 methylation levels. Plasma folate was inversely associated with LINE-1 methylation in CRA patients, while plasma methionine was positively associated with LINE-1 methylation. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide evidence that in CRA patients, plasma folate concentrations are positively related to LINE-1 methylation in leukocytes but does suggest a direct association between plasma methionine and LINE-1 methylation in leukocytes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo Vitamínico B/sangue , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metionina/sangue , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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