Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(1): 2, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443607

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This evidence-based systematic review will focus on the use of acupuncture and its role in the treatment of low back pain to help better guide physicians in their practice. It will cover the background and the burden of low back pain and present the current options for treatment and weigh the evidence that is available to support acupuncture as a treatment modality for low back pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Low back pain (LBP), defined as a disorder of the lumbosacral spine and categorized as acute, subacute, or chronic, can be a debilitating condition for many patients. Chronic LBP is more typically defined by its chronicity with pain persisting > 12 weeks in duration. Conventional treatment for chronic LBP includes both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options. First-line pharmacologic therapy involves the use of NSAIDs, then SNRI/TCA/skeletal muscle relaxants, and antiepileptics. Surgery is usually not recommended for chronic non-specific LBP patients. According to the 2016 CDC Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain and the 2017 American College of Physicians (ACP) clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain, non-pharmacologic interventions, acupuncture can be a first-line treatment for patients suffering from chronic low back pain. Many studies have been done, and most show promising results for acupuncture as an alternative treatment for low back pain. Due to non-standardized methods for acupuncture with many variations, standardization remains a challenge.

2.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 355-368, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004153

RESUMO

Reclassification of chronic pain as a disease may be helpful because patients with chronic pain require significant treatment and rehabilitation with a clear diagnosis. This can help address critical factors including suffering, quality of life, participation, and with family and social life, which continue to become more important in evaluating the quality of the health care we give our patients today. During the past decade of the opioid epidemic, methadone was the primary treatment for opioid addiction until buprenorphine was approved. Buprenorphine's high-affinity partial agonist properties make it a good alternative to methadone due to lower abuse potential and safer adverse effect profile while maintaining significant efficacy. Expanded out-patient prescribing options have allowed physician and physician extenders such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners to treat these patients that otherwise would have been required to utilize methadone. With unique pharmacological properties, buprenorphine is a safe and effective analgesic for chronic pain. The literature for buprenorphine shows great potential for its utilization in the treatment of chronic pain.

3.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 383-407, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004155

RESUMO

Migraine is a debilitating neurological condition with symptoms typically consisting of unilateral and pulsating headache, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, nausea, and vomiting. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that migraine is the third most prevalent medical disorder and second most disabling neurological condition in the world. There are several options for preventive migraine treatments that include, but are not limited to, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, botulinum toxins, NSAIDs, riboflavin, and magnesium. Patients may also benefit from adjunct nonpharmacological options in the comprehensive prevention of migraines, such as cognitive behavior therapy, relaxation therapies, biofeedback, lifestyle guidance, and education. Preventative therapies are an essential component of the overall approach to the pharmacological treatment of migraine. Comparative studies of newer therapies are needed to help patients receive the best treatment option for chronic migraine pain.

4.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 409-426, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004156

RESUMO

Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in women is defined as noncyclical and persistent pain lasting more than six months perceived to be related to the pelvis. There are many etiologies that can cause CPP, including gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychosocial. There is a strong association between psychological factors and CPP. It has been noted that almost half of women being treated for CPP report a history of sexual, physical, or emotional trauma. Women with CPP have been noted to have higher rates of psychological disorders in comparison to their peers. For men, the most common etiology for CPP is chronic prostatitis and there are also correlations with psychological disorders. There are many different treatment options for CPP: surgical, pharmacological, and non-pharmacological (alternative therapies). Cognitive-behavioral therapy may be another option when treating chronic pelvic pain syndrome and should be considered.

5.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 427-448, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004157

RESUMO

Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder that affects every age-group and is characterized by the presence of trigger points (TrPs) within muscles or fascia. MPS is typically diagnosed via physical exam, and the general agreement for diagnostic criteria includes the presence of TrPs, pain upon palpation, a referred pain pattern, and a local twitch response. The prevalence of MPS among patients presenting to medical clinics due to pain ranges anywhere from 30 to 93%. This may be due to the lack of clear criteria and guidelines in diagnosing MPS. Despite the prevalence of MPS, its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. There are many different ways to manage and treat MPS. Some include exercise, TrP injections, medications, and other alternative therapies. More research is needed to form uniformly-accepted diagnostic criteria and treatments.

6.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 449-461, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004158

RESUMO

Chronic pain is a common condition that is being increasingly recognized, diagnosed, and treated in a variety of settings. Opioids can be used to treat chronic pain but at the cost of adverse effects and risk of dependence. Recently, there has been a movement to improve analgesic care in the setting of the opioid epidemic and the overprescribing of opioids, causing over-accessibility, dependence, and large numbers of overdose deaths. Opioid-specific receptors, including the µ, δ, κ, and opioid receptor like-1 (ORL-1) receptors, are each 7-transmembrane spanning proteins, which affect the G-protein and ß-arrestin cascades. Each opioid class can act differently on the receptors, resulting in full, partial, or antagonizing effects. This comprehensive review looks at different agents in major classes, nonselective and mixed/partial agonists/antagonists, including the nonselective partial agonists, levorphanol and tramadol. Mixed partial agonists/antagonists include buprenorphine, pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol. Oliceridine is the only current selective partial agonist that agonizes specific pathways to promote analgesic effects and discourage adverse effects.

7.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 463-477, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004159

RESUMO

Chronic pain can be recurrent or constant pain that lasts for longer than 3 months and can result in disability, suffering, and a physical disturbance. Related to the complex nature of chronic pain, treatments have a pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach. Due to the opioid epidemic, alternative therapies have been introduced, and components of the plant Cannabis Sativa, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have gained recent interest as a choice of treatment. The exact mechanism for CBD is currently unknown, but unlike the CBD's psychoactive counterpart, THC, the side effects of CBD itself have been shown to be overall much more benign. The current pharmaceutical products for the treatment of chronic pain are known as nabiximols, and they contain a ratio of THC combined with CBD, which has been promising. This review focuses on the treatment efficacy of CBD, THC: CBD-based treatments for chronic pain and adverse events with each.

8.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 493-506, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004161

RESUMO

Chronic pain syndromes cost the US healthcare system over $600 billion per year. A subtype of chronic pain is neuropathic pain (NP), which is defined as "pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system," according to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is very complex, and more research needs to be done to find the exact mechanism. Patients that have preexisting conditions such as cancer and diabetes are at high-risk of developing NP. Many NP patients are misdiagnosed and receive delayed treatment due to a lack of a standardized classification system that allows clinicians to identify, understand, and utilize pain management in these patients. Medications like tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake Inhibitor (SNRIs), and gabapentinoids are first-line treatments followed by opioids, cannabinoids, and other drugs. There are limited studies on the treatment of NP.

9.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 517-528, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004163

RESUMO

Angina pectoris is defined as substernal chest pain that is typically exacerbated by exertion, stress, or other exposures. There are various methods of treatment for angina. Lifestyle modification and pharmacological management are considered as conservative treatments. If these medications do not result in the resolution of pain, more invasive approaches are an option, like coronary revascularization. Refractory angina (RA) is differentiated from acute or chronic angina based on the persistence of symptoms despite conventional therapies. Overall, the prevalence of RA is estimated to be 5%-15% in patients with coronary artery disease, which can account for up to 1,500,000 current cases and 100,000 new cases in the United States per year. Spinal cord stimulation treatment is a viable option for patients who are suffering from RA pain and are either not candidates for revascularization surgery or are currently not being well managed on more traditional treatments. Many studies show a positive result.

10.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 651-662, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004174

RESUMO

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genetic differences between individuals affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These differences are apparent to clinicians when taking into account the wide range of responses to medications given in clinical practice. A review of literature involving pharmacogenomics and pain management was performed. The implementation of preoperative pharmacogenomics will allow us to better care for our patients by delivering personalized, safer medicine. This review describes the current state of pharmacogenomics as it relates to many aspects of clinical practice and how clinicians can use these tools to improve patient outcomes.

11.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 643-650, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004173

RESUMO

During this coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is an international call to postpone all elective surgeries. Cardiac surgery carries a combined risk for cardiac patients, who are at risk for higher complications of COVID-19, and healthcare workers. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the American College of Surgeons and the American Society of Anesthesiologists recommended a sustained reduction in the rate of new COVID-19 cases for 14 days before the resumption of the elective surgery, but postponing surgery may impact patients' daily activities and increase the risk the of deterioration of their cardiac condition. We will discuss the risks and benefits of the decision whether to postpone or proceed with elective cardiac surgical procedures during the escalating COVID-19 pandemic considering the specific risk of the cardiac patients, the unique characteristics of the surgery, and the international health system capacity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Tempo
12.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 50(3): 76-96, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733113

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of Lofexidine for opiate withdrawal symptoms. It covers the background and necessity of withdrawal programs and the management of withdrawal symptoms and then covers the existing evidence of the use of Lofexidine for this purpose. Recent Findings: Opiate abuse leads to significant pain and suffering. However, withdrawal is difficult and often accompanied by withdrawal symptoms and renewed cravings. These symptoms are driven mostly by signaling in the locus coeruleus and the mesolimbic system and a rebound increase in noradrenaline, producing symptoms such as anxiety, gastrointestinal upset, and tension. Lofexidine, an alpha-2 agonist, can be used to manage acute withdrawal symptoms before starting maintenance treatment with either methadone or buprenorphine. Lofexidine, if FDA approved for management of withdrawal symptoms and has been proved to be both effective and safe. Summary: Opiate addiction is increasing and plaguing the western world and specifically the U.S. It takes a large toll on both a personal and societal level and carries a high cost. Withdrawal is difficult, both related to withdrawal symptoms and renewed cravings. Lofexidine has been shown to be effective in reducing the former and could potentially aid in recovery and withdrawal.

13.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 50(3): 97-118, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733114

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: Opioid medications are a pillar of acute and chronic analgesia, though their use is often accompanied by side-effects, such as opioid-induced constipation. Unfortunately, tolerance rarely develops to this untoward side effect. This review presents the background, evidence, and indications for the use of Naldemedine (Brand name Symproic 0.2 mg tablets) to treat opioid-induced constipation. Recent Findings: Opioids are often used for the treatment of acute and chronic analgesia. Outside of the central effect they exert, they also interact with peripheral receptors, resulting in opioid-induced constipation, the commonest of side effects of chronic opioid usage. Complications include colonic distention, ileus, perforation, and can progress to other serious bowel complications, which can result in hospitalization and fatal events.For the most part, laxatives and other anti-constipation therapies are often inefficient and require intervention directed at the root cause, such as peripheral mu receptor agonists, including methylnaltrexone, naloxegol, and naldemedine. Naldemedine is the most recent to gain FDA approval of the group.An antagonist of Mu, Kappa, and Delta peripheral receptors, Naldemedine, is the only drug to counteract all three receptor classes. It was shown to be both safe and effective when compared with placebo. No data exists to compare its efficacy to that of other members of the group. Summary: Opioids are frequently used in the management of acute and chronic pain. The most common of the side effects is opioid-induced constipation, secondary to the peripheral activity of opioids. Naldemedine is an FDA-approved, once-daily oral tablet that counteracts this side effect by antagonizing mu, kappa, and delta-opioid receptors and has been shown to be safe and effective. Further investigation including head-to-head clinical trials are required to evaluate the relative efficacy of naldemedine compare with other peripheral opiate receptor antagonists.

14.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 50(4 Suppl 1): 108-120, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633421

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: This review will cover seminal and emerging evidence on interventional therapy chronic pain in cerebral palsy (CP). It will cover the background and burden of disease, present the current options, and then weigh the evidence that is available to support interventional therapy and the current indications. Recent Findings: CP is a permanent posture and movement disorder from in-utero brain development defects with a 3-4/1,000 incidence in the US. The cost of care for each child is estimated at $921,000. Pain in CP is attributed to musculoskeletal deformities, spasticity, increased muscle tone, dislocations, and GI dysfunction. First-line treatments include physical and occupational therapy and oral pharmacological agents; however, a significant amount of patients remain refractory to these and require further therapy. Injection therapy includes botulinum toxin A (BTA) injections and intrathecal baclofen. BTA injections were shown to control chronic pain effectively and are FDA approved for spastic pain; intra-thecal baclofen, in contrast, was only shown to improve comfort and quality of life with a focus on the pain. Surgical intervention includes selection dorsal rhizotomy (SDR). It may increase range of motion and quality of life and reduce spasticity and pain; however, most evidence is anecdotal, and more research is required. Summary: Interventional therapy, including injection and surgical, is the last line of therapy for chronic pain in CP. It extends the possibility of therapy in hard-to-treat individuals; however, more data is required to provide strong evidence to the efficacy of these treatments and guide proper patient selection.

15.
Psychopharmacol Bull ; 50(4 Suppl 1): 121-141, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633422

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: This evidence-based systematic review will focus on the use of dexmedetomidine and its role as adjuvant anesthetics in regional blocks to help better guide physicians in their practice. This review will cover background and mechanism of dexmedetomidine as well as the use in various regional blocks. Recent Findings: Local anesthetics are preferred for nerve blocks over opioids; however, both due come with its own side effects. Local anesthetics may be toxic as they disrupt cell membrane and proteins, but by using adjuvants such as dexmedetomidine, that can prolong sensory and motor blocks can reduce total amount of local anesthetics needed. Dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist used as additive for regional nerve block. It has a relatively low side effect profile and have been researched in various regional blocks (intrathecal, paravertebral, axillary, infraclavicular brachial plexus, interscalene). Dexmedetomidine shows promising results as adjuvant anesthetics in most regional blocks. Summary: Many studies have been done and many show promising results for the use of dexmedetomidine in regional blocks. It may significantly increase in duration of sensory and motor blocks that correlates with lower pain scores and less need of morphine in various regional blocks.

16.
Yonsei Med J ; 47(6): 862-9, 2006 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17191317

RESUMO

Our experiments aimed to clarify the mechanism by which host cell apoptosis is inhibited by infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Mouse spleen cells were cultured in 6-well plates with RPMI 1640/ 10% FBS at 37?, in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Apoptosis of spleen cells was induced by actinomycin-D (AD) treatment for 1 h prior to infection with T. gondii. A variety of assays were used to assess the progression of apoptosis: DNA size analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry with annexin V/PI staining, and analysis of expression levels of Bcl-2 family and NF-kappaB mRNA and proteins by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and EMSA. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to observe changes in cell morphology. Fragmentation of DNA was inhibited in spleen cells treated with AD and T. gondii 5 h and 18 h post infection, respectively, and flow cytometry studies showed a decreased apoptotic rates in AD and T. gondii treated spleen cells. We observed decreased expression of Bax mRNA and protein, while levels of Bcl-2 mRNA remained constant in spleen cells treated with AD and T. gondii. Caspase 3 and PARP were inactivated in cells treated with AD and T. gondii, and increased levels of cleaved caspase 8 were also observed. Analysis of EMSA and Western blot data suggests that activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB may be involved in the blockade of apoptosis by T. gondii. TEM analysis showed nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation occurring in spleen cells treated with AD; however, such apoptosis- associated morphological changes were not observed in cells treated with both AD and T. gondii tachyzoites. Together, these data show that T. gondii infection inhibits AD induced apoptosis via caspase inactivation and NF-kappaB activation in mouse spleen cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Inibidores de Caspase , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fragmentação do DNA , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...