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1.
Nanoscale ; 11(11): 4895-4903, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821800

RESUMO

Diffusion, nucleation and growth provide the fundamental access to control nanostructure growth. In this study, the temperature activated diffusion of Xe at and between different compartments of an on-surface metal organic coordination network on Cu(111) has been visualized in real space. Xe atoms adsorbed at lower energy sites become mobile with increased temperature and gradually populate energetically more favourable binding sites or remain in a delocalized 'fluid' form confined to diffusion along a topological subset of the on-surface network. These diffusion pathways can be studied individually under kinetic control via the chosen thermal energy kT of the sample and are determined by the network and sample architecture. The spatial distribution of Xe in its different modes of mobility and the time scales of the motion is revealed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) at variable temperatures up to 40 K and subsequent cooling to 4 K. The system provides insight into the diffusion of a van der Waals gas on a complex structured surface and its nucleation and coarsening/growth into larger condensates at elevated temperature under thermodynamic conditions.

2.
Sci Adv ; 5(2): eaav4489, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801017

RESUMO

Stable, single-nanometer thin, and free-standing two-dimensional layers with controlled molecular architectures are desired for several applications ranging from (opto-)electronic devices to nanoparticle and single-biomolecule characterization. It is, however, challenging to construct these stable single molecular layers via self-assembly, as the cohesion of those systems is ensured only by in-plane bonds. We herein demonstrate that relatively weak noncovalent bonds of limited directionality such as dipole-dipole (-CN⋅⋅⋅NC-) interactions act in a synergistic fashion to stabilize crystalline monomolecular layers of tetrafunctional calixarenes. The monolayers produced, demonstrated to be free-standing, display a well-defined atomic structure on the single-nanometer scale and are robust under a wide range of conditions including photon and electron radiation. This work opens up new avenues for the fabrication of robust, single-component, and free-standing layers via bottom-up self-assembly.

3.
Small ; 15(3): e1803169, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556276

RESUMO

This study reports on "phase" transitions of Xe condensates in on-surface confinements induced by temperature changes and local probe excitation. The pores of a metal-organic network occupied with 1 up to 9 Xe atoms are investigated in their propensity to undergo "condensed solid" to "confined fluid" transitions. Different transition temperatures are identified, which depend on the number of Xe atoms in the condensate and relate to the stability of the Xe clustering in the condensed "phase." This work reveals the feature-rich behavior of transitions of confined planar condensates, which provide a showcase toward future "phase-transition" storage media patterned by self-assembly. This work is also of fundamental interest as it paves the way to real space investigations of reversible solid to fluid transitions of magic cluster condensates in an array of extremely well-defined quantum confinements.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(33): 10584-10588, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888847

RESUMO

A trifunctional, partially fluorinated anthracene-substituted triptycene monomer was spread at an air/water interface into a monolayer, which was transformed into a long-range-ordered 2D polymer by irradiation with a standard UV lamp. The polymer was analyzed by Brewster angle microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, and non-contact atomic force microscopy, which confirmed the generation of a network structure with lattice parameters that are virtually identical to a structural model network based on X-ray diffractometry of a closely related 2D polymer. The nc-AFM images highlight the long-range order over areas of at least 300×300 nm2 . As required for a 2D polymer, the pore sizes are monodisperse, except for the regions where the network is somewhat stretched because it spans over protrusions. Together with a previous report on the nature of the cross-links in this network, the structural information provided herein leaves no doubt that a 2D polymer has been synthesized under ambient conditions at an air/water interface.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(8): 2933-2939, 2018 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421874

RESUMO

A comparative investigation of crystal growth from solution and on-surface assembly in vacuo between copper and three 4'-(2-R-pyrimidin-5-yl)-4,2':6',4''-terpyridines, with R = H (1), Me (2), or Et (3), is presented. In solution, ligand 3 combines with copper(II) acetate or copper(I) triflate in MeOH solution to give [Cu2(OAc)4(3)]n or {[Cu(3)(OMe)(MeOH)][CF3SO3]·MeOH}n. In [Cu2(OAc)4(3)]n, paddle-wheel {Cu2(µ-OAc)4} nodes direct the assembly of one-dimensional (1D) zigzag chains which pack into two-dimensional (2D) sheets. In {[Cu(3)(OMe)(MeOH)][CF3SO3]·MeOH}n, the solvent is a ligand and also generates {Cu2(µ-OMe)2} units which function as planar 4-connecting nodes to generate a 2D (4,4) net with ligand 3. On Au(111) or Cu(111) surfaces in vacuo, no additional solvent or anions are involved in the assembly. The different substituents in 1, 2, or 3 allow precise molecular resolution imaging in scanning tunneling microscopy. On Au(111), 1 and 2 assemble into close-packed assemblies, while 3 forms a regular porous network. The deposition of Cu adatoms results in reorganization leading to ladder-shaped surface metal-organic motifs. These on-surface coordination assemblies are independent of the 4'-substituent in the 4,2':6',4''-tpy and are reproduced on Cu(111) where Cu adatoms are available during the deposition and relaxation process at room temperature. Upon annealing at elevated temperatures, the original surface assemblies of 1 and 3 are modified and a transition from ladders into rhomboid structures is observed; for 2, a further quasi-hexagonal nanoporous network is observed.

6.
ACS Nano ; 12(1): 768-778, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272579

RESUMO

Quantum devices depend on addressable elements, which can be modified separately and in their mutual interaction. Self-assembly at surfaces, for example, formation of a porous (metal-) organic network, provides an ideal way to manufacture arrays of identical quantum boxes, arising in this case from the confinement of the electronic (Shockley) surface state within the pores. We show that the electronic quantum box state as well as the interbox coupling can be modified locally to a varying extent by a selective choice of adsorbates, here C60, interacting with the barrier. In view of the wealth of differently acting adsorbates, this approach allows for engineering quantum states in on-surface network architectures.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(46): 14395-14399, 2017 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28846210

RESUMO

A flexible and versatile method to fabricate two-dimensional metal-organic coordination networks (MOCNs) by bottom-up self-assembly is described. 2D crystalline layers were formed at the air-water interface, coordinated by ions from the liquid phase, and transferred onto a solid substrate with their crystallinity preserved. By using an inherently three-dimensional amphiphile, namely 25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene-5,11,17,23-tetracarboxylic acid, and a copper metal node, large and monocrystalline dendritic MOCN domains were formed. The method described allows for the fabrication of monolayers of tunable crystallinity on liquid and solid substrates. It can be applied to a large range of differently functionalized organic building blocks, also beyond macrocycles, which can be interconnected by diverse metal nodes.

8.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15388, 2017 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530247

RESUMO

Realization of long-range magnetic order in surface-supported two-dimensional systems has been challenging, mainly due to the competition between fundamental magnetic interactions as the short-range Kondo effect and spin-stabilizing magnetic exchange interactions. Spin-bearing molecules on conducting substrates represent a rich platform to investigate the interplay of these fundamental magnetic interactions. Here we demonstrate the direct observation of long-range ferrimagnetic order emerging in a two-dimensional supramolecular Kondo lattice. The lattice consists of paramagnetic hexadeca-fluorinated iron phthalocyanine (FeFPc) and manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecules co-assembled into a checkerboard pattern on single-crystalline Au(111) substrates. Remarkably, the remanent magnetic moments are oriented in the out-of-plane direction with significant contribution from orbital moments. First-principles calculations reveal that the FeFPc-MnPc antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbour coupling is mediated by the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction via the Au substrate electronic states. Our findings suggest the use of molecular frameworks to engineer novel low-dimensional magnetically ordered materials and their application in molecular quantum devices.

9.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43369, 2017 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327642

RESUMO

Rare-earth (RE) oxide surfaces are of significant importance for catalysis and were recently reported to possess intrinsic hydrophobicity. The surface chemistry of these oxides in the low temperature regime, however, remains to a large extent unexplored. The reactions occurring at RE surfaces at room temperature (RT) in real air environment, in particular, in presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were not addressed until now. Discovering these reactions would shed light onto intermediate steps occurring in automotive exhaust catalysts before reaching the final high operational temperature and full conversion of organics. Here we first address physical properties of the RE oxide, nitride and fluoride surfaces modified by exposure to ambient air and then we report a room temperature reaction between PAH and RE oxide surfaces, exemplified by tetracene (C18H12) on a Gd2O3. Our study evidences a novel effect - oxidation of higher hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures (~300 K) than previously reported (>500 K). The evolution of the surface chemical composition of RE compounds in ambient air is investigated and correlated with the surface wetting. Our surprising results reveal the complex behavior of RE surfaces and motivate follow-up studies of reactions between PAH and catalytic surfaces at the single molecule level.

10.
Nano Lett ; 17(3): 1956-1962, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157314

RESUMO

We show that highly ordered two-dimensional (2D) chessboard arrays consisting of a periodic arrangement of two different molecules can be obtained by self-assembly of unsubstituted metal-phthalocyanines (metal-Pcs) on a suitable substrate serving as the template. Specifically, CuPc + MnPc and CuPc + CoPc mixtures sort into highly ordered Cu/Mn and Cu/Co chessboard arrays on the square p(10 × 10) reconstruction of bismuth on Cu(100). Such created bimolecular chessboard assemblies emerge from the site-specific interactions between the central transition-metal ions and the periodically reconstructed substrate. This work provides a conceptually new approach to induce 2D chessboard patterns in that no functionalization of the molecules is needed.

11.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 24(Pt 1): 354-366, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28009578

RESUMO

The Photo-Emission and Atomic Resolution Laboratory (PEARL) is a new soft X-ray beamline and surface science laboratory at the Swiss Light Source. PEARL is dedicated to the structural characterization of local bonding geometry at surfaces and interfaces of novel materials, in particular of molecular adsorbates, nanostructured surfaces, and surfaces of complex materials. The main experimental techniques are soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoelectron diffraction in angle-scanned mode measures bonding angles of atoms near the emitter atom, and thus allows the orientation of small molecules on a substrate to be determined. In energy scanned mode it measures the distance between the emitter and neighboring atoms; for example, between adsorbate and substrate. STM provides complementary, real-space information, and is particularly useful for comparing the sample quality with reference measurements. In this article, the key features and measured performance data of the beamline and the experimental station are presented. As scientific examples, the adsorbate-substrate distance in hexagonal boron nitride on Ni(111), surface quantum well states in a metal-organic network of dicyano-anthracene on Cu(111), and circular dichroism in the photoelectron diffraction of Cu(111) are discussed.

12.
Small ; 12(28): 3757-63, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276517

RESUMO

A 2D array of electronically coupled quantum boxes is fabricated by means of on-surface self-assembly assuring ultimate precision of each box. The quantum states embedded in the boxes are configured by adsorbates, whose occupancy is controlled with atomic precision. The electronic interbox coupling can be maintained or significantly reduced by proper arrangement of empty and filled boxes.

13.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11559, 2016 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27174162

RESUMO

Van der Waals forces are among the weakest, yet most decisive interactions governing condensation and aggregation processes and the phase behaviour of atomic and molecular matter. Understanding the resulting structural motifs and patterns has become increasingly important in studies of the nanoscale regime. Here we measure the paradigmatic van der Waals interactions represented by the noble gas atom pairs Ar-Xe, Kr-Xe and Xe-Xe with a Xe-functionalized tip of an atomic force microscope at low temperature. Individual rare gas atoms were fixed at node sites of a surface-confined two-dimensional metal-organic framework. We found that the magnitude of the measured force increased with the atomic radius, yet detailed simulation by density functional theory revealed that the adsorption induced charge redistribution strengthened the van der Waals forces by a factor of up to two, thus demonstrating the limits of a purely atomic description of the interaction in these representative systems.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(61): 12297-300, 2015 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26138906

RESUMO

The use of divergent, V-shaped, 4,2':6',4''-terpyridine building blocks that self-assemble into hydrogen-bonded domains and upon addition of copper atoms undergo metallation with concomitant transformation into a coordination network is described; multiple energetically similar structural motifs are observed in both hydrogen-bonded and adatom-coordinated networks.

15.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6071, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25608225

RESUMO

Condensation processes are of key importance in nature and play a fundamental role in chemistry and physics. Owing to size effects at the nanoscale, it is conceptually desired to experimentally probe the dependence of condensate structure on the number of constituents one by one. Here we present an approach to study a condensation process atom-by-atom with the scanning tunnelling microscope, which provides a direct real-space access with atomic precision to the aggregates formed in atomically defined 'quantum boxes'. Our analysis reveals the subtle interplay of competing directional and nondirectional interactions in the emergence of structure and provides unprecedented input for the structural comparison with quantum mechanical models. This approach focuses on-but is not limited to-the model case of xenon condensation and goes significantly beyond the well-established statistical size analysis of clusters in atomic or molecular beams by mass spectrometry.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(82): 12289-92, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25180248

RESUMO

The Shockley surface state on Cu(111) reacts sensitively to the perturbation by molecular adsorbates on the surface. In the porous structure of a metal-coordinated molecular network on Cu(111), the surface state is confined to a series of discrete states. Energy and momentum of eigenstates in the pores are related to both the energy dispersion of the free surface state and the geometric and energetic details of the confining barrier formed by the molecular network. The penetration of the confined state into the barrier is found to be sensitive to the constituting architectural elements.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(26): 9355-63, 2014 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24960576

RESUMO

The formation of on-surface coordination polymers is controlled by the interplay of chemical reactivity and structure of the building blocks, as well as by the orientating role of the substrate registry. Beyond the predetermined patterns of structural assembly, the chemical reactivity of the reactants involved may provide alternative pathways in their aggregation. Organic molecules, which are transformed in a surface reaction, may be subsequently trapped via coordination of homo- or heterometal adatoms, which may also play a role in the molecular transformation. The amino-functionalized perylene derivative, 4,9-diaminoperylene quinone-3,10-diimine (DPDI), undergoes specific levels of dehydrogenation (-1 H2 or -3 H2) depending on the nature of the present adatoms (Fe, Co, Ni or Cu). In this way, the molecule is converted to an endo- or an exoligand, possessing a concave or convex arrangement of ligating atoms, which is decisive for the formation of either 1D or 2D coordination polymers.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(57): 7628-31, 2014 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24893848

RESUMO

We present a new class of on-surface covalent reactions, formed between diborylene-3,4,9,10-tetraaminoperylene and trimesic acid on Cu(111), which gives rise to a porous 2D-'sponge'. This aperiodic network allowed the investigation of the dependence of electron confinement effects upon pore size, shape and even in partial confinement.

19.
ACS Nano ; 8(5): 4662-71, 2014 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24645922

RESUMO

We present a comprehensive study of Er(trensal) single-ion magnets deposited in ultrahigh vacuum onto metallic surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the molecular structure is preserved after sublimation, and that the molecules are physisorbed on Au(111) while they are chemisorbed on a Ni thin film on Cu(100) single-crystalline surfaces. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements performed on Au(111) samples covered with molecular monolayers held at temperatures down to 4 K suggest that the easy axes of the strongly anisotropic molecules are randomly oriented. Furthermore XMCD indicates a weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the single-ion magnets and the ferromagnetic Ni/Cu(100) substrate. For the latter case, spin-Hamiltonian fits to the XMCD M(H) suggest a significant structural distortion of the molecules. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that the molecules are mobile on Au(111) at room temperature, whereas they are more strongly attached on Ni/Cu(100). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results provide evidence for the chemical bonding between Er(trensal) molecules and the Ni substrate. Density functional theory calculations support these findings and, in addition, reveal the most stable adsorption configuration on Ni/Cu(100) as well as the Ni-Er exchange path. Our study suggests that the magnetic moment of Er(trensal) can be stabilized via suppression of quantum tunneling of magnetization by exchange coupling to the Ni surface atoms. Moreover, it opens up pathways toward optical addressing of surface-deposited single-ion magnets.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(40): 5190-2, 2014 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24418897

RESUMO

The magneto-chemical interaction of spin-bearing molecules with substrates is interesting from a coordination chemistry point of view and relevant for spintronics. Unprecedented insight is provided by X-ray photo-emission electron microscopy combined with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Here the coupling of a Mn-porphyrin ad-layer to the ferromagnetic Co substrate through suitably modified interfaces is analyzed with this technique.

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