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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400153

RESUMO

We explored the feasibility of wafer-scale two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) layers toward futuristic environmentally friendly electronics that adopt biodegradable substrates. Large-area (> a few cm2) 2D MoS2 layers grown on silicon dioxide/silicon (SiO2/Si) wafers were delaminated and integrated onto a variety of cellulose-based substrates of various components and shapes in a controlled manner; examples of the substrates include planar papers, cylindrical natural rubbers, and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-oxidized cellulose nanofibers. The integrated 2D layers were confirmed to well preserve their intrinsic structural and chemical integrity even on such exotic substrates. Proof-of-concept devices employing large-area 2D MoS2 layers/cellulose substrates were demonstrated for a variety of applications, including photodetectors, pressure sensors, and field-effect transistors. Furthermore, we demonstrated the complete "dissolution" of the integrated 2D MoS2 layers in a buffer solution composed of baking soda and deionized water, confirming their environmentally friendly transient characteristics. Moreover, the approaches to delaminate and integrate them do not demand any chemicals except for water, and their original substrates can be recycled for subsequent growths, ensuring excellent chemical benignity and process sustainability.

2.
Nanoscale ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373894

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layers have gained increasing attention for a variety of emerging electrical, thermal, and optical applications. Recently developed metallic 2D TMD layers have been projected to exhibit unique attributes unattainable in their semiconducting counterparts; e.g., much higher electrical and thermal conductivities coupled with mechanical flexibility. In this work, we explored 2D platinum ditelluride (2D PtTe2) layers - a relatively new class of metallic 2D TMDs - by studying their previously unexplored electro-thermal properties for unconventional window applications. We prepared wafer-scale 2D PtTe2 layer-coated optically transparent and mechanically flexible willow glasses via a thermally-assisted tellurization of Pt films at a low temperature of 400 °C. The 2D PtTe2 layer-coated windows exhibited a thickness-dependent optical transparency and electrical conductivity of >106 S m-1 - higher than most of the previously explored 2D TMDs. Upon the application of electrical bias, these windows displayed a significant increase in temperature driven by Joule heating as confirmed by the infrared (IR) imaging characterization. Such superior electro-thermal conversion efficiencies inherent to 2D PtTe2 layers were utilized to demonstrate various applications, including thermochromic displays and electrically-driven defogging windows accompanying mechanical flexibility. Comparisons of these performances confirm the superiority of the wafer-scale 2D PtTe2 layers over other nanomaterials explored for such applications.

3.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310659

RESUMO

We report a novel strategy to assemble wafer-scale two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layers of well-defined components and orientations. We directly grew a variety of 2D TMD layers on "water-dissoluble" single-crystalline salt wafers and precisely delaminated them inside water in a chemically benign manner. This manufacturing strategy enables the automated integration of vertically aligned 2D TMD layers as well as 2D/2D heterolayers of arbitrary stacking orders on exotic substrates insensitive to their kind and shape. Furthermore, the original salt wafers can be recycled for additional growths, confirming high process sustainability and scalability. The generality and versatility of this approach have been demonstrated by developing proof-of-concept "all 2D" devices for diverse yet unconventional applications. This study is believed to shed a light on leveraging opportunities of 2D TMD layers toward achieving large-area mechanically reconfigurable devices of various form factors at the industrially demanded scale.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124612

RESUMO

Platinum diselenide (PtSe2) is an emerging class of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) crystals recently gaining substantial interest, owing to its extraordinary properties absent in conventional 2D TMD layers. Most interestingly, it exhibits a thickness-dependent semiconducting-to-metallic transition, i.e., thick 2D PtSe2 layers, which are intrinsically metallic, become semiconducting with their thickness reduced below a certain point. Realizing both semiconducting and metallic phases within identical 2D PtSe2 layers in a spatially well-controlled manner offers unprecedented opportunities toward atomically thin tailored electronic junctions, unattainable with conventional materials. In this study, beyond this thickness-dependent intrinsic semiconducting-to-metallic transition of 2D PtSe2 layers, we demonstrate that controlled plasma irradiation can "externally" achieve such tunable carrier transports. We grew wafer-scale very thin (a few nm) 2D PtSe2 layers by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and confirmed their intrinsic semiconducting properties. We then irradiated the material with argon (Ar) plasma, which was intended to make it more semiconducting by thickness reduction. Surprisingly, we discovered a reversed transition of semiconducting to metallic, which is opposite to the prediction concerning their intrinsic thickness-dependent carrier transports. Through extensive structural and chemical characterization, we identified that the plasma irradiation introduces a large concentration of near-atomic defects and selenium (Se) vacancies in initially stoichiometric 2D PtSe2 layers. Furthermore, we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and clarified that the band-gap energy of such defective 2D PtSe2 layers gradually decreases with increasing defect concentration and dimensions, accompanying a large number of midgap energy states. This corroborative experimental and theoretical study decisively verifies the fundamental mechanism for this externally controlled semiconducting-to-metallic transition in large-area CVD-grown 2D PtSe2 layers, greatly broadening their versatility for futuristic electronics.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043876

RESUMO

Platinum ditelluride (PtTe2) is an emerging semimetallic two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) crystal with intriguing band structures and unusual topological properties. Despite much devoted efforts, scalable and controllable synthesis of large-area 2D PtTe2 with well-defined layer orientation has not been established, leaving its projected structure-property relationship largely unclarified. Herein, we report a scalable low-temperature growth of 2D PtTe2 layers on an area greater than a few square centimeters by reacting Pt thin films of controlled thickness with vaporized tellurium at 400 °C. We systematically investigated their thickness-dependent 2D layer orientation as well as its correlated electrical conductivity and surface property. We unveil that 2D PtTe2 layers undergo three distinct growth mode transitions, i.e., horizontally aligned holey layers, continuous layer-by-layer lateral growth, and horizontal-to-vertical layer transition. This growth transition is a consequence of competing thermodynamic and kinetic factors dictated by accumulating internal strain, analogous to the transition of Frank-van der Merwe (FM) to Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth in epitaxial thin-film models. The exclusive role of the strain on dictating 2D layer orientation has been quantitatively verified by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) strain mapping analysis. These centimeter-scale 2D PtTe2 layers exhibit layer orientation tunable metallic transports yielding the highest value of ∼1.7 × 106 S/m at a certain critical thickness, supported by a combined verification of density functional theory (DFT) and electrical measurements. Moreover, they show intrinsically high hydrophobicity manifested by the water contact angle (WCA) value up to ∼117°, which is the highest among all reported 2D TMDCs of comparable dimensions and geometries. Accordingly, this study confirms the high material quality of these emerging large-area 2D PtTe2 layers, projecting vast opportunities employing their tunable layer morphology and semimetallic properties from investigations of novel quantum phenomena to applications in electrocatalysis.

6.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 272-277, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821008

RESUMO

While various effects of physicochemical parameters (e.g., size, facet, composition, and internal structure) on the catalytic efficiency of nanozymes (i.e., nanoscale enzyme mimics) have been studied, the strain effect has never been reported and understood before. Herein, we demonstrate the strain effect in nanozymes by using Pd octahedra and icosahedra with peroxidase-like activities as a model system. Strained Pd icosahedra were found to display 2-fold higher peroxidase-like catalytic efficiency than unstrained Pd octahedra. Theoretical analysis suggests that tensile strain is more beneficial to OH radical (a key intermediate for the catalysis) generation than compressive strain. Pd icosahedra are more active than Pd octahedra because icosahedra amplify the surface strain field. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, the strained Pd icosahedra were applied to an immunoassay of biomarkers, outperforming both unstrained Pd octahedra and natural peroxidases. The findings in this research may serve as a strong foundation to guide the design of high-performance nanozymes.

7.
Anal Chem ; 91(18): 11770-11777, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333017

RESUMO

Recent advancements in MoS2 nanofilms have aided in the development for important water-related environmental applications. However, a MoS2 nanofilm-coated sensor has yet to have been applied for heavy metal detection in water-related environmental samples. In this study, a novel vertically aligned two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 (edge exposed) nanofilm was applied for in situ lead ion (Pb2+) detection. The developed sensor showed an excellent linear relationship toward Pb2+ between 0 and 20 ppb at -0.45 V vs Ag/AgCl using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) with the improved limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 ppb in a tap water environment. The vertically aligned 2D MoS2 sensor exhibited improved detection sensitivity (2.8 folds greater than a previous metallic [Bi] composite electrode) with lower relative standard deviation for repetitive measurements (n = 11), indicating enhanced reproducibility for Pb2+ detection. The vertically aligned 2D MoS2 layers exhibited 2.6 times higher sensitivity than horizontally aligned 2D MoS2 (basal plane exposed). Density functional theory calculations demonstrated that adsorption energy of Pb on the MoS2 side edge was much higher (4.11 eV) than those on the basal plane (0.36 and 0.07 eV). In addition, the band gap center of vertical MoS2 was found to be higher than the Pb2+ → Pb reduction potential level and capable of reducing Pb2+. Overall, the newly developed vertically aligned 2D MoS2 sensor showed excellent performance for detecting Pb2+ in a real drinking water environment with good reliability.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(30): 27251-27258, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286758

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) platinum diselenide (PtSe2) layers are a new class of near-atom-thick 2D crystals in a van der Waals-assembled structure similar to previously explored many other 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDs). They exhibit distinct advantages over conventional 2D TMDs for electronics and optoelectronics applications such as metallic-to-semiconducting transition, decently high carrier mobility, and low growth temperature. Despite such superiority, much of their electrical properties have remained mostly unexplored, leaving their full technological potential far from being realized. Herein, we report 2D/three-dimensional Schottky junction devices based on vertically aligned metallic 2D PtSe2 layers integrated on Si wafers. We directly grew 2D PtSe2 layers of controlled orientation and carrier transport characteristics via a low-temperature chemical vapor deposition process and investigated 2D PtSe2/Si Schottky junction properties. We unveiled a comprehensive set of material parameters, which decisively confirm the presence of excellent Schottky junctions, i.e., high-current rectification, small ideality factor, and temperature-dependent variation of Schottky barrier heights. Moreover, we observed strong photovoltaic effects in the 2D PtSe2/Si Schottky junction devices and extended them to realize flexible photovoltaic devices. This study is believed to significantly broaden the versatility of 2D PtSe2 layers in practical and futuristic electronic devices.

9.
Nano Lett ; 19(8): 5194-5204, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260632

RESUMO

A globally imminent shortage of freshwater has been demanding viable strategies for improving desalination efficiencies with the adoption of cost- and energy-efficient membrane materials. The recently explored 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDs) of near atomic thickness have been envisioned to offer notable advantages as high-efficiency membranes owing to their structural uniqueness; that is, extremely small thickness and intrinsic atomic porosity. Despite theoretically projected advantages, experimental realization of near atom-thickness 2D TMD-based membranes and their desalination efficiency assessments have remained largely unexplored mainly due to the technical difficulty associated with their seamless large-scale integration. Herein, we report the experimental demonstration of high-efficiency water desalination membranes based on few-layer 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) of only ∼7 nm thickness. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown centimeter-scale 2D MoS2 layers were integrated onto porous polymeric supports with well-preserved structural integrity enabled by a water-assisted 2D layer transfer method. These 2D MoS2 membranes of near atomic thickness exhibit an excellent combination of high water permeability (>322 L m-2 h-1 bar-1) and high ionic sieving capability (>99%) for various seawater salts including Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ with a range of concentrations. Moreover, they present near 100% salt ion rejection rates for actual seawater obtained from the Atlantic coast, significantly outperforming the previously developed 2D MoS2 layer membranes of micrometer thickness as well as conventional reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Underlying principles behind such remarkably excellent desalination performances are attributed to the intrinsic atomic vacancies inherent to the CVD-grown 2D MoS2 layers as verified by aberration-corrected electron microscopy characterization.

10.
Nano Lett ; 19(11): 7598-7607, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244238

RESUMO

Two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide (2D TMD) layers are highly attractive for emerging stretchable and foldable electronics owing to their extremely small thickness coupled with extraordinary electrical and optical properties. Although intrinsically large strain limits are projected in them (i.e., several times greater than silicon), integrating 2D TMDs in their pristine forms does not realize superior mechanical tolerance greatly demanded in high-end stretchable and foldable devices of unconventional form factors. In this article, we report a versatile and rational strategy to convert 2D TMDs of limited mechanical tolerance to tailored 3D structures with extremely large mechanical stretchability accompanying well-preserved electrical integrity and modulated transport properties. We employed a concept of strain engineering inspired by an ancient paper-cutting art, known as kirigami patterning, and developed 2D TMD-based kirigami electrical conductors. Specifically, we directly integrated 2D platinum diselenide (2D PtSe2) layers of controlled carrier transport characteristics on mechanically flexible polyimide (PI) substrates by taking advantage of their low synthesis temperature. The metallic 2D PtSe2/PI kirigami patterns of optimized dimensions exhibit an extremely large stretchability of ∼2000% without compromising their intrinsic electrical conductance. They also present strain-tunable and reversible photoresponsiveness when interfaced with semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs), benefiting from the formation of 2D PtSe2/CNT Schottky junctions. Moreover, kirigami field-effect transistors (FETs) employing semiconducting 2D PtSe2 layers exhibit tunable gate responses coupled with mechanical stretching upon electrolyte gating. The exclusive role of the kirigami pattern parameters in the resulting mechanoelectrical responses was also verified by a finite-element modeling (FEM) simulation. These multifunctional 2D materials in unconventional yet tailored 3D forms are believed to offer vast opportunities for emerging electronics and optoelectronics.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(14): 13598-13607, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854845

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDs) in the form of MX2 (M: transition metal, X: chalcogen) exhibit intrinsically anisotropic layered crystallinity wherein their material properties are determined by constituting M and X elements. 2D platinum diselenide (2D PtSe2) is a relatively unexplored class of 2D TMDs with noble-metal Pt as M, offering distinct advantages over conventional 2D TMDs such as higher carrier mobility and lower growth temperatures. Despite the projected promise, much of its fundamental structural and electrical properties and their interrelation have not been clarified, and so its full technological potential remains mostly unexplored. In this work, we investigate the structural evolution of large-area chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown 2D PtSe2 layers of tailored morphology and clarify its influence on resulting electrical properties. Specifically, we unveil the coupled transition of structural-electrical properties in 2D PtSe2 layers grown at a low temperature (i.e., 400 °C). The layer orientation of 2D PtSe2 grown by the CVD selenization of seed Pt films exhibits horizontal-to-vertical transition with increasing Pt thickness. While vertically aligned 2D PtSe2 layers present metallic transports, field-effect-transistor gate responses were observed with thin horizontally aligned 2D PtSe2 layers prepared with Pt of small thickness. Density functional theory calculation identifies the electronic structures of 2D PtSe2 layers undergoing the transition of horizontal-to-vertical layer orientation, further confirming the presence of this uniquely coupled structural-electrical transition. The advantage of low-temperature growth was further demonstrated by directly growing 2D PtSe2 layers of controlled orientation on polyimide polymeric substrates and fabricating their Kirigami structures, further strengthening the application potential of this material. Discussions on the growth mechanism behind the horizontal-to-vertical 2D layer transition are also presented.

12.
Nanotechnology ; 30(20): 202001, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30754027

RESUMO

Electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors have achieved great interest in the recent past due to their potential applications ranging from microelectronic devices to hybrid electric vehicles. Supercapacitors can provide high power densities but their inherently low energy density remains a great challenge. The high-performance supercapacitors utilize large electrode surface area for electrochemical double-layer capacitance and/or pseudocapacitance. To enhance the performance of supercapacitors, various strategies have been adopted such as electrode nanostructuring, hybrid electrode designs using nanocomposite electrodes and hybrid supercapacitor (HSC) configurations. Nanoarchitecturing of electrode-active materials is an effective way of enhancing the performance of supercapacitors as it increases the effective electrode surface area for enhanced electrode/electrolyte interaction. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in the novel electrode materials and various hybrid designs used in supercapacitors for obtaining high specific capacitance and energy density. A family of electrode-active materials including carbon nanomaterials, transition metal-oxides, transition metal-nitrides, transition metal-hydroxides, electronically conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are discussed in detail. The HSC configurations for attaining enhanced supercapacitor performance as well as strategies to integrate with other microelectronic devices/wearable fabrics are also included.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 915, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796248

RESUMO

While common growth models assume a structure-less liquid composed of atomic flow units, structural ordering has been shown in liquid metals. Here, we conduct in situ transmission electron microscopy crystallization experiments on metallic glass nanorods, and show that structural ordering strongly affects crystal growth and is controlled by nanorod thermal history. Direct visualization reveals structural ordering as densely populated small clusters in a nanorod heated from the glass state, and similar behavior is found in molecular dynamics simulations of model metallic glasses. At the same growth temperature, the asymmetry in growth rate for rods that are heated versus cooled decreases with nanorod diameter and vanishes for very small rods. We hypothesize that structural ordering enhances crystal growth, in contrast to assumptions from common growth models. The asymmetric growth rate is attributed to the difference in the degree of the structural ordering, which is pronounced in the heated glass but sparse in the cooled liquid.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1641, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733454

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (2D TMD) layers present an unusually ideal combination of excellent opto-electrical properties and mechanical tolerance projecting high promise for a wide range of emerging applications, particularly in flexible and stretchable devices. The prerequisite for realizing such opportunities is to reliably integrate large-area 2D TMDs of well-defined dimensions on mechanically pliable materials with targeted functionalities by transferring them from rigid growth substrates. Conventional approaches to overcome this challenge have been limited as they often suffer from the non-scalable integration of 2D TMDs whose structural and chemical integrity are altered through toxic chemicals-involved processes. Herein, we report a generic and reliable strategy to achieve the layer-by-layer integration of large-area 2D TMDs and their heterostructure variations onto a variety of unconventional substrates. This new 2D layer integration method employs water only without involving any other chemicals, thus renders distinguishable advantages over conventional approaches in terms of material property preservation and integration size scalability. We have demonstrated the generality of this method by integrating a variety of 2D TMDs and their heterogeneously-assembled vertical layers on exotic substrates such as plastics and papers. Moreover, we have verified its technological versatility by demonstrating centimeter-scale 2D TMDs-based flexible photodetectors and pressure sensors which are difficult to fabricate with conventional approaches. Fundamental principles for the water-assisted spontaneous separation of 2D TMD layers are also discussed.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 53, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631087

RESUMO

With the ever-increasing demand for low power electronics, neuromorphic computing has garnered huge interest in recent times. Implementing neuromorphic computing in hardware will be a severe boost for applications involving complex processes such as image processing and pattern recognition. Artificial neurons form a critical part in neuromorphic circuits, and have been realized with complex complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry in the past. Recently, metal-insulator-transition materials have been used to realize artificial neurons. Although memristors have been implemented to realize synaptic behavior, not much work has been reported regarding the neuronal response achieved with these devices. In this work, we use the volatile threshold switching behavior of a vertical-MoS2/graphene van der Waals heterojunction system to produce the integrate-and-fire response of a neuron. We use large area chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene and MoS2, enabling large scale realization of these devices. These devices can emulate the most vital properties of a neuron, including the all or nothing spiking, the threshold driven spiking of the action potential, the post-firing refractory period of a neuron and strength modulated frequency response. These results show that the developed artificial neuron can play a crucial role in neuromorphic computing.

16.
Nanoscale ; 10(37): 17525-17533, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211427

RESUMO

The intrinsically anisotropic crystallinity of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (2D TMD) layers enables a variety of intriguing material properties which strongly depend on the physical orientation of constituent 2D layers. For instance, 2D TMDs with vertically-aligned layers exhibit numerous dangling bonds on their 2D layer edge sites predominantly exposed on the surface, projecting significantly improved physical and/or chemical adsorption capability compared to their horizontally-oriented 2D layer counterparts. Such property advantages can be further promoted as far as the material can be integrated onto unconventional substrates of tailored geometry/functionality, offering vast opportunities for a wide range of applications which demand enhanced surface area/reactivity and mechanical flexibility. Herein, we report a new form of 2D TMDs, i.e., three-dimensionally ordered 2D molybdenum disulfide (2D MoS2) with vertically-aligned layers integrated on elastomeric substrates and explore their tunable multi-functionalities and technological promise. We grew large-scale (>2 cm2) vertically-aligned 2D MoS2 layers using a three-dimensionally patterned silicon dioxide (SiO2) template and directly transferred/integrated them onto flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates by taking advantage of the distinguishable water-wettability of 2D MoS2vs. SiO2. The excellent structural integrity of the integrated vertical 2D MoS2 layers was confirmed by extensive spectroscopy/microscopy characterization. In addition, the stretch-driven unique tunability of their optical and surface properties was also examined. Moreover, we applied this material for flexible humidity sensing and identified significantly improved (>10 times) sensitivity over conventionally-designed horizontal 2D MoS2 layers, further confirming their high potential for unconventional flexible technologies.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(36): 30623-30630, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059199

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layers exhibit superior optical, electrical, and structural properties unattainable in any traditional materials. Many of these properties are known to be controllable via external mechanical inputs, benefiting from their extremely small thickness coupled with large in-plane strain limits. However, realization of such mechanically driven tunability often demands highly complicated engineering of 2D TMD layer structures, which is difficult to achieve on a large wafer scale in a controlled manner. Herein, we explore centimeter-scale periodically corrugated 2D TMDs, particularly 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and report their mechanically tunable multifunctionalities. We developed a water-assisted process to homogeneously integrate few layers of 2D MoS2 on three-dimensionally corrugated elastomeric substrates on a large area (>2 cm2). The evolution of electrical, optical, and structural properties in these three-dimensionally corrugated 2D MoS2 layers was systematically studied under controlled tensile stretch. We identified that they present excellent electrical conductivity and photoresponsiveness as well as systematically tunable surface wettability and optical absorbance even under significant mechanical deformation. These novel three-dimensionally structured 2D materials are believed to offer exciting opportunities for large-scale, mechanically deformable devices of various form factors and unprecedented multifunctionalities.

18.
ACS Omega ; 3(12): 18943-18949, 2018 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31458458

RESUMO

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a powerful method employed for high-quality monolayer crystal growth of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides with much effort invested toward improving the growth process. Here, we report a novel method for CVD-based growth of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) by using thermally evaporated thin films of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) as the molybdenum (Mo) source for coevaporation. Uniform evaporation rate of MoO3 thin films provides uniform Mo vapors which promote highly reproducible single-crystal growth of MoS2 throughout the substrate. These high-quality crystals are as large as 95 µm and are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The bottom-gated field-effect transistors fabricated using the as-grown single crystals show n-type transistor behavior with a good on/off ratio of 106 under ambient conditions. Our results presented here address the precursor vapor control during the CVD process and is a major step forward toward reproducible growth of MoS2 for future semiconductor device applications.

19.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1980, 2017 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215011

RESUMO

Many physical phenomena deviate from their established frameworks when the system approaches relevant length scales governing the phenomena. In crystallization, the relevant length scales are the nucleation length set by the nucleus size and density, and the growth length set by diffusion fields. Here we observe unexpected crystallization phenomena at the nanoscale, using metallic glass (MG) nanorods and in situ transmission electron microscopy. The asymmetry between critical heating and cooling rates disappears for small MG nanorods. Strikingly, an apparent single crystalline phase with its composition similar to the glass composition is observed for very small rods, in contrast to bulk samples. We attribute this to the lack of nuclei in small MG nanorods that approach the nucleation length, thus coined the term, nucleus starvation. By controlling the MG nanorod diameter and crystallization kinetics, we can tune the number of nuclei in a nanorod, thereby tailoring the resulting crystallization phases.

20.
Small ; 13(48)2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125720

RESUMO

Mechanical fragility and insufficient light absorption are two major challenges for thin flexible crystalline Si-based solar cells. Flexible hybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/Si solar cells are demonstrated by applying scalable room-temperature processes for the fabrication of solar-cell components (e.g., preparation of SWNT thin films and SWNT/Si p-n junctions). The flexible SWNT/Si solar cells present an intrinsic efficiency ≈7.5% without any additional light-trapping structures. By using these solar cells as model systems, the charge transport mechanisms at the SWNT/Si interface are investigated using femtosecond transient absorption. Although primary photon absorption occurs in Si, transient absorption measurements show that SWNTs also generate and inject excited charge carriers to Si. Such effects can be tuned by controlling the thickness of the SWNTs. Findings from this study could open a new pathway for designing and improving the efficiency of photocarrier generation and absorption for high-performance ultrathin hybrid SWNT/Si solar cells.

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