Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 285
Filtrar
1.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584131

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metabolomics technologies have identified numerous blood biomarkers for type 2 diabetes risk in case-control studies of middle-aged and older individuals. We aimed to validate existing and identify novel metabolic biomarkers predictive of future diabetes in large cohorts of young adults. METHODS: NMR metabolomics was used to quantify 229 circulating metabolic measures in 11,896 individuals from four Finnish observational cohorts (baseline age 24-45 years). Associations between baseline metabolites and risk of developing diabetes during 8-15 years of follow-up (392 incident cases) were adjusted for sex, age, BMI and fasting glucose. Prospective metabolite associations were also tested with fasting glucose, 2 h glucose and HOMA-IR at follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 229 metabolic measures, 113 were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in meta-analysis of the four cohorts (ORs per 1 SD: 0.59-1.50; p< 0.0009). Among the strongest biomarkers of diabetes risk were branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (OR 1.31-1.33) and triacylglycerol within VLDL particles (OR 1.33-1.50), as well as linoleic n-6 fatty acid (OR 0.75) and non-esterified cholesterol in large HDL particles (OR 0.59). The metabolic biomarkers were more strongly associated with deterioration in post-load glucose and insulin resistance than with future fasting hyperglycaemia. A multi-metabolite score comprised of phenylalanine, non-esterified cholesterol in large HDL and the ratio of cholesteryl ester to total lipid in large VLDL was associated with future diabetes risk (OR 10.1 comparing individuals in upper vs lower fifth of the multi-metabolite score) in one of the cohorts (mean age 31 years). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Metabolic biomarkers across multiple molecular pathways are already predictive of the long-term risk of diabetes in young adults. Comprehensive metabolic profiling may help to target preventive interventions for young asymptomatic individuals at increased risk.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adult class II/III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) has significant adverse health outcomes. Early prevention and treatment are critical, but prospective childhood risk estimates are lacking. This study aimed to define the prospective risk of adult class II/III obesity, using childhood BMI. METHODS: Children ages 3-19 years enrolled in cohorts of the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) consortium with measured BMI assessments in childhood and adulthood were included. Prospective risk of adult class II/III obesity was modeled based on childhood age, sex, race, and BMI. RESULTS: A total of 12,142 individuals (44% male, 85% white) were assessed at median age 14 [Interquartile range, IQR: 11, 16] and 33 [28, 39] years. Class II/III adult obesity developed in 6% of children with normal weight; 29% of children with overweight; 56% of children with obesity; and 80% of children with severe obesity. However, 38% of the 1440 adults with class II/III obesity (553/1440) were normal weight as children. Prospective risk of adult class II/III obesity varied by age, sex, and race within childhood weight status classifications, and is notably higher for girls, black participants, and those in the United States. The risk of class II/III obesity increased with older adult age. CONCLUSIONS: Children with obesity or severe obesity have a substantial risk of adult class II/III obesity, and observed prospective risk estimates are now presented by age, sex, race, and childhood BMI. Clinical monitoring of children's BMI for adult class II/III obesity risk may be especially important for females and black Americans.

3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined how combinations of clinical indicators at various ages predict overweight/obesity development, as well as resolution, by 10-11 and 14-15 years of age. METHODS: Data were derived from Birth (N = 3469) and Kinder (N = 3276) cohorts of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, followed from ages 2-3 and 4-5 years, respectively. Every two years, 25 potential obesity-relevant clinical indicators were quantified. Overweight/obesity was defined using International Obesity Taskforce cutpoints at 10-11 years and 14-15 years. RESULTS: In both cohorts, three factors predicted both development and resolution of overweight/obesity in multivariable models. Among normal weight children, increased odds of developing overweight/obesity were associated with higher child (odd ratio (OR) 1.67-3.35 across different study waves) and maternal (OR 1.05-1.09) BMI, and inversely with higher maternal education (OR 0.60-0.62, when assessed at age 2-7 years). Lower odds of resolving existing overweight/obesity were related with higher child (OR 0.51-0.79) and maternal (OR 0.89-0.95) BMI, and inversely with higher maternal education (OR 1.62-1.92, when assessed at age 2-5 years). The prevalence of overweight/obesity at the age of 14-15 years was 13% among children with none of these risk factors at age 6-7 years, compared with 71% among those with all 3 risk factors (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: From early childhood onwards, child and maternal BMI and maternal education predict overweight/obesity onset and resolution by adolescence. A simple risk score, easily available to child health clinicians, could help target treatment or prevention.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3922, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477727

RESUMO

More than 7 million individuals have been conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) and there is clear evidence that ART is associated with a range of adverse early life outcomes, including rare imprinting disorders. The periconception period and early embryogenesis are associated with widespread epigenetic remodeling, which can be influenced by ART, with effects on the developmental trajectory in utero, and potentially on health throughout life. Here we profile genome-wide DNA methylation in blood collected in the newborn period and in adulthood (age 22-35 years) from a unique longitudinal cohort of ART-conceived individuals, previously shown to have no differences in health outcomes in early adulthood compared with non-ART-conceived individuals. We show evidence for specific ART-associated variation in methylation around birth, most of which occurred independently of embryo culturing. Importantly, ART-associated epigenetic variation at birth largely resolves by adulthood with no direct evidence that it impacts on development and health.

5.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494819869816, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464561

RESUMO

Aims: Disparity in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and risk factor levels between urban and rural regions has been confirmed worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how living in different community types (urban-rural) in childhood and adulthood are related to cardiovascular risk factors and surrogate markers of CVD such as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Methods: The study population comprised 2903 participants (54.1% female, mean age 10.5 years in 1980) of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had been clinically examined in 1980 (age 3-18 years) and had participated in at least one adult follow-up (2001-2011). Results: In adulthood, urban residents had lower systolic blood pressure (-1 mmHg), LDL-cholesterol (-0.05 mmol/l), lower body mass index (-1.0 kg/m2) and glycosylated haemoglobin levels (-0.05 mmol/mol), and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (19.9 v. 23.7%) than their rural counterparts. In addition, participants continuously living in urban areas had significantly lower IMT (-0.01 mm), LVM (1.59 g/m2.7) and pulse wave velocity (-0.22 m/s) and higher carotid artery compliance (0.07%/10 mmHg) compared to persistently rural residents. The differences in surrogate markers of CVD were only partially attenuated when adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Participants living in urban communities had a more favourable cardiovascular risk factor profile than rural residents. Furthermore, participants continuously living in urban areas had less subclinical markers related to CVD compared with participants living in rural areas. Urban-rural differences in cardiovascular health might provide important opportunities for optimizing prevention by targeting areas of highest need.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, cutoff points for childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity have been based on population-specific percentiles derived from cross-sectional data. To obtain cutoff points that might better predict overweight and obesity in young adulthood, we examined the association between childhood body-mass index (BMI) and young adulthood BMI status in a longitudinal cohort. METHODS: In this study, we used data from the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) Consortium (which included seven childhood cohorts from the USA, Australia, and Finland) to establish childhood overweight and obesity cutoff points that best predict BMI status at the age of 18 years. We included 3779 children who were followed up from 1970 onwards, and had at least one childhood BMI measurement between ages 6 years and 17 years and a BMI measurement specifically at age 18 years. We used logistic regression to assess the association between BMI in childhood and young adulthood obesity. We used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to assess the ability of fitted models to discriminate between different BMI status groups in young adulthood. The cutoff points were then compared with those defined by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), which used cross-sectional data, and tested for sensitivity and specificity in a separate, independent, longitudinal sample (from the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project [STRIP] study) with BMI measurements available from both childhood and adulthood. FINDINGS: The cutoff points derived from the longitudinal i3C Consortium data were lower than the IOTF cutoff points. Consequently, a larger proportion of participants in the STRIP study was classified as overweight or obese when using the i3C cutoff points than when using the IOTF cutoff points. Especially for obesity, i3C cutoff points were significantly better at identifying those who would become obese later in life. In the independent sample, the AUROC values for overweight ranged from 0·75 (95% CI 0·70-0·80) to 0·88 (0·84-0·93) for the i3C cutoff points, and the corresponding values for the IOTF cutoff points ranged from 0·69 (0·62-0·75) to 0·87 (0·82-0·92). For obesity, the AUROC values ranged from 0·84 (0·75-0·93) to 0·90 (0·82-0·98) for the i3C cutoff points and 0·57 (0·49-0·66) to 0·76 (0·65-0·88) for IOTF cutoff points. INTERPRETATION: The childhood BMI cutoff points obtained from the i3C Consortium longitudinal data can better predict risk of overweight and obesity in young adulthood than can standards that are currently used based on cross-sectional data. Such cutoff points should help to more accurately identify children at risk of adult overweight or obesity. FUNDING: None.

7.
J Lipid Res ; 60(9): 1622-1629, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270131

RESUMO

apoE, a key regulator of plasma lipids, mediates altered functionalities in lipoprotein metabolism and thus affects the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The significance of different apoE polymorphisms remains unclear; although the ε4 allele is clearly associated with increased cholesterol levels (which inform CAD risk), direct studies about apoE polymorphisms on CAD risk and development have yielded controversial results. Furthermore, certain species of ceramides-complex lipids abundant in plasma LDL-are markers of increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. Using a high-throughput MS approach, we quantified 30 molecular plasma ceramide species from a cohort of 2,160 apoE-genotyped (rs7412, rs429358) young adults enrolled in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. We then searched this lipidome data set to identify new indications of pathways influenced by apoE polymorphisms and possibly related to CAD risk. This approach revealed a previously unreported association between apoE polymorphism and a consistently documented high-risk CAD marker, Cer(d18:1/16:0). Compared with the apoE ε3/3 reference group, plasma levels of apoE ε4 were elevated and those of apoE ε2 were lowered in all subjects without evidence of apoE-by-sex interactions. apoE associated with seven ceramides that are connected to atherogenically potent macrophages and/or lipoprotein particles; these associations could indicate a plausible linkage between apoE polymorphism and ceramide metabolism, leading to adverse plasma LDL metabolism and atherogenesis. In conclusion, new evidence from plasma ceramides links apoE polymorphism with an increased risk of CAD and extends our understanding of the role of apoE in health and disease.

8.
Med J Aust ; 211(6): 265-270, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether socio-economic status at birth is associated with differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease - body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood lipid levels - during the first 25 years of life. DESIGN: Analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: 570 of 686 children born to Aboriginal mothers at the Royal Darwin Hospital during 1987-1990 and recruited for the Aboriginal Birth Cohort Study in the Northern Territory. Participants resided in 46 urban and remote communities across the NT. The analysed data were collected at three follow-ups: Wave 2 in 1998-2001 (570 participants; mean age, 11 years), Wave 3 in 2006-2008 (442 participants; mean age, 18 years), and Wave 4 in 2014-2016 (423 participants; mean age, 25 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiovascular disease risk factors by study wave and three socio-economic measures at the time of birth: area-level Indigenous Relative Socioeconomic Outcomes (IRSEO) index score and location (urban, remote) of residence, and parity of mother. RESULTS: Area-level IRSEO of residence at birth influenced BMI (P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.024), LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.010), and HDL-cholesterol levels (P < 0.001). Remoteness of residence at birth influenced BMI (P < 0.001), HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.001), and triglyceride levels (P = 0.043). Mother's parity at birth influenced BMI (P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Our longitudinal life course analyses indicate that area-level socio-economic factors at birth influence the prevalence of major cardiovascular disease risk factors among Indigenous Australians during childhood and early adulthood.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(Suppl 3): 23-33, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe a well-established marker of cardiovascular risk, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and related measures (artery distensibility and elasticity) in children aged 11-12 years old and mid-life adults, and examine associations within parent-child dyads. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study (Child Health CheckPoint), nested within a prospective cohort study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). SETTING: Assessment centres in seven Australian major cities and eight selected regional towns, February 2015 to March 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Of all participating CheckPoint families (n=1874), 1489 children (50.0% girls) and 1476 parents (86.8% mothers) with carotid IMT data were included. Survey weights and methods were applied to account for LSAC's complex sample design and clustering within postcodes and strata. OUTCOME MEASURES: Ultrasound of the right carotid artery was performed using standardised protocols. Primary outcomes were mean and maximum far-wall carotid IMT, quantified using semiautomated edge detection software. Secondary outcomes were carotid artery distensibility and elasticity. Pearson's correlation coefficients and multivariable linear regression models were used to assess parent-child concordance. Random effects modelling on a subset of ultrasounds (with repeated measurements) was used to assess reliability of the child carotid IMT measure. RESULTS: The average mean and maximum child carotid IMT were 0.50 mm (SD 0.06) and 0.58 mm (SD 0.05), respectively. In adults, average mean and maximum carotid IMT were 0.57 mm (SD 0.07) and 0.66 mm (SD 0.10), respectively. Mother-child correlations for mean and maximum carotid IMT were 0.12 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.23) and 0.10 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.21), respectively. For carotid artery distensibility and elasticity, mother-child correlations were 0.19 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25) and 0.11 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.18), respectively. There was no strong evidence of father-child correlation in any measure. CONCLUSIONS: We provide Australian values for carotid vascular measures and report a modest mother-child concordance. Both genetic and environmental exposures are likely to contribute to carotid IMT.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(Suppl 3): 106-117, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics is high throughput and cost-effective, with the potential to improve the understanding of disease and risk. We examine the circulating metabolic profile by quantitative NMR metabolomics of a sample of Australian 11-12 year olds children and their parents, describe differences by age and sex, and explore the correlation of metabolites in parent-child dyads. DESIGN: The population-based cross-sectional Child Health CheckPoint study nested within the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. SETTING: Blood samples collected from CheckPoint participants at assessment centres in seven Australian cities and eight regional towns; February 2015-March 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 1180 children and 1325 parents provided a blood sample and had metabolomics data available. This included 1133 parent-child dyads (518 mother-daughter, 469 mother-son, 68 father-daughter and 78 father-son). OUTCOME MEASURES: 228 metabolic measures were obtained for each participant. We focused on 74 biomarkers including amino acid species, lipoprotein subclass measures, lipids, fatty acids, measures related to fatty acid saturation, and composite markers of inflammation and energy homeostasis. RESULTS: We identified differences in the concentration of specific metabolites between childhood and adulthood and in metabolic profiles in children and adults by sex. In general, metabolite concentrations were higher in adults than children and sex differences were larger in adults than in children. Positive correlations were observed for the majority of metabolites including isoleucine (CC 0.33, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.38), total cholesterol (CC 0.30, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.35) and omega 6 fatty acids (CC 0.28, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.34) in parent-child comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the serum metabolite profiles from mid-childhood and adulthood in a population-based sample, together with a parent-child concordance. Differences in profiles by age and sex were observed. These data will be informative for investigation of the childhood origins of adult non-communicable diseases and for comparative studies in other populations.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(14): e011852, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286813

RESUMO

Background High-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance profiling of circulating metabolites is suggested as an adjunct for cardiovascular risk evaluation. The relationship between metabolites and subclinical atherosclerosis remains unclear, particularly among children. Therefore, we examined the associations of metabolites with carotid intima-media thickness ( cIMT ) and arterial pulse wave velocity ( PWV ). Methods and Results Data from two independent population-based studies was examined; (1) cross-sectional associations with cIMT and PWV in 1178 children (age 11-12 years, 51% female) and 1316 parents (mean age 45 years, 87% female) from the CheckPoint study (Australia); and (2) longitudinal associations in 4249 children (metabolites at 7-8 years, PWV at 10-11 years, 52% female), and cross-sectional associations in 4171 of their mothers (mean age 48 years, cIMT data) from ALSPAC (The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; UK ). Metabolites were measured by the same nuclear magnetic resonance platform in both studies, comprising of 69 biomarkers. Biophysical assessments included body mass index, blood pressure, cIMT and PWV . In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and blood pressure, there was no evidence of metabolite associations in either children or adults for cIMT at a 10% false discovery threshold. In CheckPoint adults, glucose was positively, and some high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol derived measures and amino acids (glutamine, histidine, tyrosine) inversely associated with PWV. Conclusions These data suggest that in children circulating metabolites have no consistent association with cIMT and PWV once adjusted for body mass index and blood pressure. In their middle-aged parents, some evidence of metabolite associations with PWV were identified that warrant further investigation.

12.
Eur J Public Health ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity in childhood and adolescence (youth) has been shown to associate with adult metabolic health. What is not known, is whether youth body mass index (BMI) associates with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) in adulthood, and if so, the age when the BMI to MHO association emerges. This study aimed to determine if BMI trajectories from youth to adulthood differed between adults with MHO and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). METHODS: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had measured weight and height up to eight times in individuals from youth (3-18 years in 1980) to adulthood (24-49 years). Adult MHO was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg m-2, normal fasting glucose (<5.6 mmol l-1), triglycerides (<1.695 mmol l-1), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (≥1.295 mmol l-1 females, ≥1.036 mmol l-1 males), blood pressure (<130/85 mmHg) and no medications for these conditions. BMI trajectories were compared for adults with MHO and MUHO using multilevel mixed models adjusted for age, sex and follow-up time. RESULTS: Mean (SD) follow-up time was 29 (3) years. Five hundred and twenty-four participants were obese in adulthood, 66 (12.6%) had MHO. BMI was similar through childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. BMI trajectories diverged at age 33, when individuals with MHO had at least 1.0 kg m-2 lower BMI than those with MUHO, significantly lower at 36 (-2.1 kg m-2, P = 0.001) and 42 years (-1.7 kg m-2; P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Adult MHO was characterized by lower adult BMI, not youth BMI. Preventing additional weight gain among adults who are obese may be beneficial for metabolic health.

13.
Hepatology ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169929

RESUMO

Fatty liver is a preventable cause of liver failure, but early risk factors for adulthood fatty liver are poorly understood. We examined the association of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage with adulthood fatty liver and tested adulthood risk factors of fatty liver as possible mediators of this link. The study population comprised 2,042 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Follow-up with repeated clinical examinations was 31 years. Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was assessed using data from parents' socioeconomic position and socioeconomic circumstances in participants' residential neighborhoods, categorized as high versus low socioeconomic disadvantage. Fatty liver was determined by ultrasound during the last follow up (2011) at ages 34-49 years. Childhood and adulthood risk factors, including metabolic biomarkers and life-style variables, were assessed in clinical examinations. 18.9% of the participants had fatty liver in adulthood. High childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with an increased risk of fatty liver (risk ratio[95% confidence interval] 1.42[1.18-1.70],P=0.0002). This association was robust to adjustment for age, sex, and childhood risk factors of fatty liver, including high body mass index, elevated insulin, and low birth weight (1.33[1.09-1.62],P=0.005). High childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was also associated with the development of risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood. Adulthood risk factors linking childhood socioeconomic disadvantage with fatty liver included waist circumference (proportion mediated of the total effect of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage 45%), body mass index (40%), systolic blood pressure (29%), insulin (20%), physical activity (15%), triglycerides (14%), and red meat consumption (7%). CONCLUSION: Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with multiple risk factors of fatty liver and increased likelihood of fatty liver in adulthood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 13(4): 345-351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has recently been shown that neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood is associated with obesity, hypertension, fatty liver, and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. However, it is largely unknown whether neighbourhood socioeconomic circumstances are important predictors of adiposity and associated measures in children, especially in those with severe obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the associations between neighbourhood socioeconomic factors with the severity of obesity, and related cardiometabolic risk factors in a cohort of obese children. METHODS: The Childhood Overweight BioRepository of Australia (COBRA) cohort study comprises 444 children (mean age 11.1years, mean BMI z-score 2.5). Neighbourhood socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage was evaluated based on postcode information by the national Australian Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) scores. Participants/parents also completed self-administered questionnaires on neighbourhood related facilities, family education and family income. RESULTS: In analyses adjusted for age, sex and pubertal status, SEIFA indicating neighbourhood education/occupation was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference and body fat%. Higher family education was associated with lower BMI. Neighbourhood walkability was related to lower waist circumference. Good shopping facilities in the neighbourhood were associated with increased risk of dyslipidemia and fatty liver, and the existence of parks and playgrounds nearby was related to dyslipidemia. CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that neighbourhood-related issues are associated with less severe adiposity among children with established obesity. Concerning cardiometabolic risk factors, shopping facilities were related to dyslipidemia and fatty liver. These findings suggest that increased awareness and efforts are needed to diminish socioeconomic inequalities between neighbourhoods.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8887, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222113

RESUMO

We analyzed the associations between whole blood microRNA profiles and the indices of glucose metabolism and impaired fasting glucose and examined whether the discovered microRNAs correlate with the expression of their mRNA targets. MicroRNA and gene expression profiling were performed for the Young Finns Study participants (n = 871). Glucose, insulin, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured, the insulin resistance index (HOMA2-IR) was calculated, and the glycemic status (normoglycemic [n = 534]/impaired fasting glucose [IFG] [n = 252]/type 2 diabetes [T2D] [n = 24]) determined. Levels of hsa-miR-144-5p, -122-5p, -148a-3p, -589-5p, and hsa-let-7a-5p associated with glycemic status. hsa-miR-144-5p and -148a-3p associated with glucose levels, while hsa-miR-144-5p, -122-5p, -184, and -339-3p associated with insulin levels and HOMA2-IR, and hsa-miR-148a-3p, -15b-3p, -93-3p, -146b-5p, -221-3p, -18a-3p, -642a-5p, and -181-2-3p associated with HbA1c levels. The targets of hsa-miR-146b-5p that correlated with its levels were enriched in inflammatory pathways, and the targets of hsa-miR-221-3p were enriched in insulin signaling and T2D pathways. These pathways showed indications of co-regulation by HbA1c-associated miRNAs. There were significant differences in the microRNA profiles associated with glucose, insulin, or HOMA-IR compared to those associated with HbA1c. The HbA1c-associated miRNAs also correlated with the expression of target mRNAs in pathways important to the development of T2D.

16.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(15): 1605-1612, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Promoting ideal cardiovascular health behaviors is an objective of the American Heart Association 2020 goals. We hypothesized that ideal health behaviors of parents are associated with health behaviors of their adult offspring, and that higher socioeconomic position in either generation enhances intergenerational associations of ideal health behaviors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: We included 1856 Young Finns Study participants who had repeated measurements of socioeconomic position (education, income, occupation), smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet from 2001, 2007 and 2011, and data on parental socioeconomic position and health behaviors from 1980. We calculated the total number of ideal behaviors in both generations using American Heart Association definitions. Intergenerational associations were examined using ordinal and linear multilevel regression with random intercepts, in which each participant contributed one, two or three measurements of adult health behaviors (2001, 2007, 2011). All analyses were adjusted for offspring sex, birth year, age, parental education and single parenthood. RESULTS: Overall, parental ideal health behaviors were associated with ideal behaviors among offspring (odds ratio (OR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.17, 1.39). Furthermore, ORs for these intergenerational associations were greater among offspring whose parents or who themselves had higher educational attainment (OR 1.56 for high vs. OR 1.19 for low parental education; P = 0.01 for interaction, OR 1.32 for high vs. OR 1.04 for low offspring education; P = 0.02 for interaction). Similar trends were seen with parental income and offspring occupation. Results from linear regression analyses were similar. CONCLUSIONS: These prospective data suggest higher socioeconomic position in parents or in their adult offspring strengthens the intergenerational continuum of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors.

17.
Hypertension ; 73(6): 1224-1230, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067199

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) tracking (maintaining a BP percentile) across life is not well defined but is important in predicting which children will become hypertensive adults. We computed BP tracking in subjects with BP measured in childhood and adulthood and performed logistic regression to determine the ability of childhood BP to predict adult hypertension (N=5035, 46.7 years, 74.2% white, 17.7% black; 39.6% male). Prevalence of hypertension was 29%. Correlations between systolic BP for child and adolescent were r=0.48; for adolescent and young adult were r=0.40, and for child and young adult were r=0.24 (all P<0.0001). Participants self-reporting adult hypertension were less likely to be white (38.7% black, 27.6% white, 20.9% other; P<0.0001) and female (26.4% females, 32.9% male, P<0.0001). Participants with adult hypertension were more likely to have higher BP and adiposity by age 10 years and abnormal lipids and glucose by age 16 years. There was a graded increase in the frequency of self-reported adult hypertension across the BP change groups, even within the persistently normotensive group (X2<0.0001) from 19% in children with a systolic BP% persistently below the median to 80% for individuals with elevated BP in both childhood and adolescence. Although our precision to predict which individual child is at risk of adult BP-related cardiovascular disease is weak, an increase in systolic BP and body mass index percentile from childhood to adolescence should signal a need for lifestyle intervention to prevent future sustained hypertension-related cardiovascular disease.

18.
Atherosclerosis ; 285: 93-101, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pro-inflammatory diet may be a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We examine associations of two inflammatory diet scores with preclinical cardiovascular phenotypes at two life course stages. METHODS: Participants: 1771 children (49% girls) aged 11-12 years and 1793 parents (87% mothers, mean age 43.7 (standard deviation 5.2) years) in the Child Health CheckPoint Study. MEASURES: 23 items in the Australian National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey were used to derive two inflammatory diet scores based on: 1) published evidence of associations with C-reactive protein (literature-derived score), and 2) empirical associations with CheckPoint's inflammatory biomarker (glycoprotein acetyls, GlycA-derived score). Cardiovascular phenotypes assessed vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness, retinal vessel calibre) and function (pulse wave velocity, blood pressure). ANALYSES: Linear regression models were conducted, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position and child pubertal status, plus a sensitivity analysis also including BMI (z-score for children). RESULTS: In adults, both inflammatory diet scores showed small associations with adverse cardiovascular function and microvascular structure. Per standard deviation higher GlycA-derived diet score, pulse wave velocity was 0.17  m/s faster (95% CI 0.11 to 0.22), mean arterial pressure was 1.85  mmHg (1.34-2.37) higher, and retinal arteriolar calibre was 1.29 µm narrower (-2.10 to -0.49). Adding BMI to models attenuated associations towards null. There was little evidence of associations in children. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support cumulative adverse effects of a pro-inflammatory diet on preclinical cardiovascular phenotypes across the life course. Associations evident by mid-life were not present in childhood, when preventive measures should be instituted.

19.
Metabolomics ; 15(5): 75, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific patterns of metabolomic profiles relating to cardiometabolic disease are associated with increased weight in adults. In youth with obesity, metabolomic data are sparse and associations with adiposity measures unknown. OBJECTIVES: Primary, to determine associations between adiposity measures and metabolomic profiles with increased cardiometabolic risks in youth with obesity. Secondary, to stratify associations by sex and puberty. METHODS: Participants were from COBRA (Childhood Overweight BioRepository of Australia; a paediatric cohort with obesity). Adiposity measures (BMI, BMI z-score, %truncal and %whole body fat, waist circumference and waist/height ratio), puberty staging and NMR metabolomic profiles from serum were assessed. Statistics included multivariate analysis (principal component analysis, PCA) and multiple linear regression models with false discovery rate adjustment. RESULTS: 214 participants had metabolomic profiles analyzed, mean age 11.9 years (SD ± 3.1), mean BMI z-score 2.49 (SD ± 0.24), 53% females. Unsupervised PCA identified no separable clusters of individuals. Positive associations included BMI z-score and phenylalanine, total body fat % and lipids in medium HDL, and waist circumference and tyrosine; negative associations included total body fat % and the ratio of docosahexaenoic acid/total fatty acids and histidine. Stratifying by sex and puberty, patterns of associations with BMI z-score in post-pubertal males included positive associations with lipid-, cholesterol- and triglyceride-content in VLDL lipoproteins; total fatty acids; total triglycerides; isoleucine, leucine and glycoprotein acetyls. CONCLUSION: In a paediatric cohort with obesity, increased adiposity measures, especially in post-pubertal males, were associated with distinct patterns in metabolomic profiles.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(11): e012707, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140354

RESUMO

Background Telomere length has been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood, but its relationship to preclinical cardiovascular phenotypes across the life course remains unclear. We investigated associations of telomere length with vascular structure and function in children and midlife adults. Methods and Results Population-based cross-sectional CheckPoint (Child Health CheckPoint) study of 11- to 12-year-old children and their parents, nested within the LSAC (Longitudinal Study of Australian Children). Telomere length (telomeric genomic DNA [T]/ß-globin single-copy gene [S] [T/S ratio]) was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from blood-derived genomic DNA. Vascular structure was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness, and vascular function was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity and carotid elasticity. Mean (SD) T/S ratio was 1.09 (0.55) in children (n=1206; 51% girls) and 0.81 (0.38) in adults (n=1343; 87% women). Linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, revealed no evidence of an association between T/S ratio and carotid intima-media thickness, carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, or carotid elasticity in children. In adults, longer telomeres were associated with greater carotid elasticity (0.14% per 10-mm Hg higher per unit of T/S ratio; 95% CI, 0.04%-0.2%; P=0.007), but not carotid intima-media thickness (-0.9 µm; 95% CI, -14 to 13 µm; P=0.9) or carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (-0.10 m/s; 95% CI, -0.3 to 0.07 m/s; P=0.2). In logistic regression analysis, telomere length did not predict poorer vascular measures at either age. Conclusions In midlife adults, but not children, there was some evidence that telomere length was associated with vascular elasticity but not thickness. Associations between telomere length and cardiovascular phenotypes may become more evident in later life, with advancing pathological changes.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA