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1.
Nanoscale ; 11(37): 17262-17269, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246216

RESUMO

Perovskite nanoparticles have attracted the attention of research groups around the world for their impressive photophysical properties, facile synthesis and versatile surface chemistry. Here, we report a synthetic route that takes advantage of a suite of soluble precursors to generate CsPbBr3 perovskite nanoplatelets with fine control over size, thickness and optical properties. We demonstrate near unit cell precision, creating well characterized materials with sharp, narrow emission lines at 430, 460 and 490 nm corresponding to nanoplatelets that are 2, 4, and 6 unit cells thick, respectively. Nanoplatelets were characterized with optical spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to explicitly correlate growth conditions, thickness and resulting photophysical properties. Detailed in situ photoluminescence spectroscopic studies were carried out to understand and optimize particle growth by correlating light emission with nanoplatelet growth across a range of synthetic conditions. It was found that nanoplatelet thickness and emission wavelength increase as the ratio of oleic acid to oleyl amine or the reaction temperature is increased. Using this information, we control the lateral size, width and corresponding emission wavelength of the desired nanoplatelets by modulating the temperature and ratios of the ligand.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 58(6): 3950-3958, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830761

RESUMO

Creating highly stable inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3, where X = Cl, Br, and I) with excellent optical performance is challenging because their optical properties depend on their ionic structure and its inherent defects. Here, we present a facile and effective synthesis using a nanoconfinement strategy to grow Mn2+-doped CsPbCl3 nanocrystals embedded in dendritic mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs). The resulting nanocomposite is abbreviated as Cs(Pb x/Mn1- x)Cl3@MSNs and can serve as the orange emitter for white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). The MSN matrix was prepared via a templated sol-gel technique as monodispersed center-radial dendritic porous particles, with a diamater of ∼105 nm and an inner pore size of ∼13 nm. The MSN was then utilized as the matrix to initiate the growth of Mn-doped perovskite nanocrystals (NCs). The NCs in the resulting composite have an average diameter of 8 nm and a photoluminescence quantum yield of >30%. In addition, the optical properties of the Cs(Pb x/Mn1- x)Cl3@MSNs can be tuned by varying the Mn2+ doping level. The resulting composites presented a significantly improved resistance to ultraviolet (UV) light, temperature, and moisture compared to that of bare Cs(Pb0.72/Mn0.28)Cl3. Finally, we fabricated down-converting WLEDs by using Cs(Pb x/Mn1- x)Cl3@MSNs as the orange-emitting phosphor deposited onto UV-emitting chips, demonstrating their promising applications in solid-state lighting. This work provides a valuable approach to fabricating stable orange luminophores as replacements for traditional emitters in light-emitting diode devices.

3.
Nano Lett ; 19(4): 2489-2496, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848600

RESUMO

Colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals exhibit unique photophysical properties including high quantum yields, tunable emission colors, and narrow photoluminescence spectra that have marked them as promising light emitters for applications in diverse photonic devices. Randomly oriented transition dipole moments have limited the light outcoupling efficiency of all isotropic light sources, including perovskites. In this report we design and synthesize deep blue emitting, quantum confined, perovskite nanoplates and analyze their optical properties by combining angular emission measurements with back focal plane imaging and correlating the results with physical characterization. By reducing the dimensions of the nanocrystals and depositing them face down onto a substrate by spin coating, we orient the average transition dipole moment of films into the plane of the substrate and improve the emission properties for light emitting applications. We then exploit the sensitivity of the perovskite electronic transitions to the dielectric environment at the interface between the crystal and their surroundings to reduce the angle between the average transition dipole moment and the surface to only 14° and maximize potential light emission efficiency. This tunability of the electronic transition that governs light emission in perovskites is unique and, coupled with their excellent photophysical properties, introduces a valuable method to extend the efficiencies and applications of perovskite based photonic devices beyond those based on current materials.

4.
Nano Lett ; 17(11): 6759-6765, 2017 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968132

RESUMO

Despite the exceptional optoelectronic characteristics of the emergent perovskite nanocrystals, the ionic nature greatly limits their stability, and thus restricts their potential applications. Here we have adapted a self-assembly strategy to access a rarely reported nanorod suprastructure that provide excellent encapsulation of perovskite nanocrystals by polymer-grafted graphene oxide layers. Polyacrylic acid-grafted graphene oxide (GO-g-PAA) was used as a surface ligand during the synthesis of the CsPbX3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), yielding particles (5-12 nm) with tunable halide compositions that were homogeneously embedded in the GO-g-PAA matrix. The resulting NC-GO-g-PAA exhibits a higher photoluminescence quantum yield than previously reported encapsulated NCs while maintaining an easily tunable bandgap, allowing for emission spanning the visible spectrum. The NC-GO-g-PAA hybrid further self-assembles into well-defined nanorods upon solvent treatment. The resulting nanorod morphology imparts extraordinary chemical stability toward protic solvents such as methanol and water and much enhanced thermal stability. The introduction of barrier layers by embedding the perovskite NCs in the GO-g-PAA matrix, together with its unique assembly into nanorods, provides a novel strategy to afford robust perovskite emissive materials with environmental stability that may meet or exceed the requirement for optoelectronic applications.

5.
Nano Lett ; 17(7): 4534-4540, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28635294

RESUMO

We report controllable anisotropic light emission of photons originating from vertically aligned transition dipole moments in spun-cast films of CsPbBr3 nanocubes. By depositing films of nanocrystals on precoated substrates we can control the packing density and resultant radiation pattern of the emitted photons. We develop a technical framework to calculate the average orientation of light emitters, i.e., the angle between the transition dipole moment vector (TDM) and the substrate. This model is applicable to any emissive material with a known refractive index. Theoretical modeling indicates that oriented emission originates from an anisotropic alignment of the valence band and conduction band edge states on the ionic crystal lattice and demonstrates a general path to model the experimentally less accessible internal electric field of a nanosystem from the photoluminescent anisotropy. The uniquely accessible surface of the perovskite nanoparticles allows for perturbation of the normally isotropic emissive transition. The reported sensitive and tunable TDM orientation and control of emitted light will allow for applications of perovskite nanocrystals in a wide range of photonic technologies inaccessible to traditional light emitters.

6.
Nat Mater ; 15(1): 85-91, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26436340

RESUMO

Controlling the alignment of the emitting molecules used as dopants in organic light-emitting diodes is an effective strategy to improve the outcoupling efficiency of these devices. To explore the mechanism behind the orientation of dopants in films of organic host materials, we synthesized a coumarin-based ligand that was cyclometalated onto an iridium core to form three phosphorescent heteroleptic molecules, (bppo)2Ir(acac), (bppo)2Ir(ppy) and (ppy)2Ir(bppo) (bppo represents benzopyranopyridinone, ppy represents 2-phenylpyridinate, and acac represents acetylacetonate). Each emitter was doped into a 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl host layer, and the resultant orientation of their transition dipole moment vectors was measured by angle-dependent p-polarized photoluminescent emission spectroscopy. In solid films, (bppo)2Ir(acac) is found to have a largely horizontal transition dipole vector orientation relative to the substrate, whereas (ppy)2Ir(bppo) and (bppo)2Ir(ppy) are isotropic. We propose that the inherent asymmetry at the surface of the growing film promotes dopant alignment in these otherwise amorphous films. Modelling the net orientation of the transition dipole moments of these materials yields general design rules for further improving horizontal orientation.

7.
J Mater Chem A Mater ; 1(5): 1557-1565, 2013 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23589766

RESUMO

Systematic changes in the exocyclic substiution of core phthalocyanine platform tune the absorption properties to yield commercially viable dyes that function as the primary light absorbers in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Blends of these complementary phthalocyanines absorb a broader portion of the solar spectrum compared to a single dye, thereby increasing solar cell performance. We correlate grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering structural data with solar cell performance to elucidate the role of nanomorphology of active layers composed of blends of phthalocyanines and a fullerene derivative. A highly reproducible device architecture is used to assure accuracy and is relevant to films for solar windows in urban settings. We demonstrate that the number and structure of the exocyclic motifs dictate phase formation, hierarchical organization, and nanostructure, thus can be employed to tailor active layer morphology to enhance exciton dissociation and charge collection efficiencies in the photovoltaic devices. These studies reveal that disordered films make better solar cells, short alkanes increase the optical density of the active layer, and branched alkanes inhibit unproductive homogeneous molecular alignment.

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