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1.
Epigenetics ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538540

RESUMO

DNA methylation microarrays have been the platform of choice for epigenome-wide association studies in epidemiology, but declining costs have rendered targeted bisulphite sequencing a feasible alternative. Nonetheless, the literature for researchers seeking guidance on which platform to choose is sparse. To fill this gap, we conducted a comparison study in which we processed cord blood samples from four newborns in duplicates using both the Illumina HumanMethylationEPIC BeadChip and the Illumina TruSeq Methyl Capture EPIC Kit, and evaluated both platforms in regard to coverage, reproducibility, and identification of differential methylation. We conclude that with current analytic goals microarrays still outperform bisulphite sequencing for precise quantification of DNA methylation.

2.
Epigenomics ; 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536415

RESUMO

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

3.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277270

RESUMO

DNA methylation may play a critical role in aging and age-related diseases. DNA methylation phenotypic age (DNAmPhenoAge) is a new aging biomarker and predictor of chronic disease risk. While smoking is a strong risk factor for chronic diseases and influences methylation, its influence on DNAmPhenoAge is unknown. We investigated associations of self-reported and epigenetic smoking indicators with DNAmPhenoAge acceleration in a longitudinal aging study in eastern Massachusetts. DNA methylation was measured in whole blood samples from multiple visits for 692 male participants in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study during 1999-2013. Acceleration was defined using residuals from linear regression of the DNAmPhenoAge on the chronological age. Cumulative smoking (pack-years) was significantly associated with DNAmPhenoAge acceleration, whereas self-reported smoking status was not. We observed significant validated associations between smoking-related loci and DNAmPhenoAge acceleration for 52 CpG sites, where 18 were hypomethylated and 34 were hypermethylated, mapped to 16 genes. The AHRR gene had the most loci (N = 8) among the 16 genes. We generated a smoking aging index based on these 52 loci, which showed positive significant associations with DNAmPhenoAge acceleration. These epigenetic biomarkers may help to predict age-related risks driven by smoking.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

6.
J Perinatol ; 39(7): 941-948, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prenatal sex hormones from maternal saliva are associated with birth-weight-for-gestational age. STUDY DESIGN: We measured salivary progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisone in 504 pregnant women in a Mexico City cohort. We performed linear and modified Poisson regression to examine associations of log-transformed hormones with birth-weight-for-gestational age z-scores and the risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) adjusting for maternal age, sex, BMI, parity, smoking, education, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: In total, 15% of infants were SGA and 2% were LGA. Each interquartile range increment in testosterone/estradiol ratio was associated with a 0.12 decrement in birth-weight-for-gestational age z-score (95% CI: -0.27 to -0.02) and a 50% higher risk of SGA versus appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) (95% CI: 1.13-1.99). CONCLUSION: Higher salivary testosterone/estradiol ratios may affect fetal growth, and identifying the predictors of hormone levels may be important to optimizing fetal growth.

8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A 'mortality risk score' (MS) based on ten prominent mortality-related cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites was previously associated with all-cause mortality, but has not been verified externally. We aimed to validate the association of MS with mortality and to compare MS with three aging biomarkers: telomere length (TL), DNA methylation age (DNAmAge) and phenotypic age (DNAmPhenoAge) to explore whether MS can serve as a reliable measure of biological aging and mortality. METHODS: Among 534 males aged 55-85 years from the US Normative Aging Study, the MS, DNAmAge and DNAmPhenoAge were derived from blood DNA methylation profiles from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and TL was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: A total of 147 participants died during a median follow-up of 9.4 years. The MS showed strong associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. After controlling for all potential covariates, participants with high MS (>5 CpG sites with aberrant methylation) had almost 4-fold all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 3.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.92-7.67) compared with participants with a low MS (0-1 CpG site with aberrant methylation). Similar patterns were observed with respect to CVD and cancer mortality. MS was associated with TL and DNAmPhenoAge acceleration but not with DNAmAge acceleration. Although the MS and DNAmPhenoAge acceleration were independently associated with all-cause mortality, the former exhibited a higher predictive accuracy of mortality than the latter. CONCLUSIONS: MS has the potential to be a prominent predictor of mortality that could enhance survival prediction in clinical settings.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
10.
Environ Res ; 172: 495-501, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852452

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In utero particulate matter exposure produces oxidative stress that impacts cellular processes that include telomere biology. Newborn telomere length is likely critical to an individual's telomere biology; reduction in this initial telomere setting may signal increased susceptibility to adverse outcomes later in life. We examined associations between prenatal particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measured in cord blood using a data-driven approach to characterize sensitive windows of prenatal PM2.5 effects and explore sex differences. METHODS: Women who were residents of Mexico City and affiliated with the Mexican Social Security System were recruited during pregnancy (n = 423 for analyses). Mothers' prenatal exposure to PM2.5 was estimated based on residence during pregnancy using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model. Leukocyte DNA was extracted from cord blood obtained at delivery. Duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to compare the relative amplification of the telomere repeat copy number to single gene (albumin) copy number. A distributed lag model incorporating weekly averages for PM2.5 over gestation was used in order to explore sensitive windows. Sex-specific associations were examined using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models. RESULTS: In models that included child's sex, mother's age at delivery, prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational age, birth season and assay batch, we found significant associations between higher PM2.5 exposure during early pregnancy (4-9 weeks) and shorter LTL in cord blood. We also identified two more windows at 14-19 and 34-36 weeks in which increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with longer LTL. In stratified analyses, the mean and cumulative associations between PM2.5 and shortened LTL were stronger in girls when compared to boys. CONCLUSIONS: Increased PM2.5 during specific prenatal windows was associated with shorter LTL and longer LTL. PM2.5 was more strongly associated with shortened LTL in girls when compared to boys. Understanding sex and temporal differences in response to air pollution may provide unique insight into mechanisms.

11.
Environ Int ; 126: 395-405, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploring the associations of air pollution and weather variables with blood leukocyte distribution is critical to understand the impacts of environmental exposures on the human immune system. OBJECTIVES: As previous analyses have been mainly based on data from cell counters, which might not be feasible in epidemiologic studies including large populations of long-stored blood samples, we aimed to expand the understanding of this topic by employing the leukocyte distribution estimated by DNA methylation profiles. METHODS: We measured DNA methylation profiles in blood samples using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from 1519 visits of 774 Caucasian males participating in the Normative Aging Study. Leukocyte distribution was estimated using Houseman's and Horvath's algorithms. Data on air pollution exposure, temperature, and relative humidity within 28 days before each blood draw was obtained. RESULTS: After fully adjusting for potential covariates, PM2.5, black carbon, particle number, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity were associated with the proportions of at least one subtype of leukocytes. Particularly, an interquartile range-higher 28-day average exposure of PM2.5 was associated with 0.147-, 0.054- and 0.101-unit lower proportions (z-scored) of plasma cells, naïve CD8+ T cells, and natural killers, respectively, and 0.059- and 0.161-unit higher proportions (z-scored) of naïve CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that short-term air pollution exposure, temperature, and relative humidity are associated with leukocyte distribution. Our study further provides a successful attempt to use epigenetic patterns to assess the influences of environmental exposures on human immune profiles.

12.
Epidemiology ; 30(2): 263-273, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trace metal concentrations may affect cardiometabolic risk, but the role of prenatal exposure is unclear. We examined (1) the relation between blood metal concentrations during pregnancy and child cardiometabolic risk factors; (2) overall effects of metals mixture (essential vs. nonessential); and (3) interactions between metals. METHODS: We measured 11 metals in maternal second-trimester whole blood in a prospective birth cohort in Mexico City. In children 4-6 years old, we measured body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, and blood pressure (N = 609); and plasma hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, and adiponectin (N = 411). We constructed cardiometabolic component scores using age- and sex-adjusted z scores and averaged five scores to create a global risk score. We estimated linear associations of each metal with individual z scores and used Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression to assess metal mixtures and interactions. RESULTS: Higher total metals were associated with lower HbA1c, leptin, and systolic blood pressure, and with higher adiponectin and non-HDL cholesterol. We observed no interactions between metals. Higher selenium was associated with lower triglycerides in linear (ß = -1.01 z score units per 1 unit ln(Se), 95% CI = -1.84, -0.18) and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression models. Manganese was associated with decreased HbA1c in linear models (ß = -0.32 and 95% CI = -0.61, -0.03). Antimony and arsenic were associated with lower leptin in Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression models. Essential metals were more strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk than were nonessential metals. CONCLUSIONS: Low essential metals during pregnancy were associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Metais/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Metais/classificação , México/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Int ; 125: 437-444, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753999

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lead (Pb) crosses the placenta and can cause oxidative stress, reduced fetal growth and neurological problems. The principal source of oxidative stress in human cells is mitochondria. Therefore, disruption of normal mitochondrial function during pregnancy may represent a primary mechanism behind the adverse effects of lead. We sought to assess the association of Pb exposure during pregnancy with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, a sensitive marker of mitochondrial function, in cord blood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study comprised mother-infant pairs from the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) study, a prospective birth-cohort that enrolled 1050 pregnant women from Mexico City who were receiving prenatal care between December 2007 and July 2011. Quantitative PCR was used to calculate relative MtDNA content (mitochondrial-to-nuclear DNA ratio (mtDNA/nDNA)) in cord blood. Lead concentrations in both maternal blood (2nd and 3rd trimester and at delivery day) and in cord blood were measured by ICP-MS. Multivariable regression models adjusting for multiple confounders were fitted with 410 mother-infant pairs for whom complete data for mtDNA content, lead levels, and covariates were available. RESULTS: Maternal blood Pb measured in the second (mean 3.79 µg/dL, SD 2.63; ß = 0.059, 95% CI 0.008, 0.111) and third trimester (mean 3.90 µg/dL; SD 2.84; ß = 0.054, 95% CI 0.002, 0.107) during pregnancy and PB in cord blood (mean 3.50 µg/dL, SD 2.59; ß = 0.050, 95% CI 0.004; 0.096) were associated with increased cord blood mtDNA content (mean 1.46, SD 0.44). In two-way interaction analyses, cord blood Pb marginally interacted with gestational age leading to an increase in mtDNA content for pre-term births (Benjamini-Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction; BH-FDR = 0.08). CONCLUSION: This study shows that lead exposure in pregnancy alters mtDNA content in cord blood; therefore, alteration of mtDNA content might be a mechanism underlying the toxicity of lead.

14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 15, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation microarrays are popular for epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), but spurious values complicate downstream analysis and threaten replication. Conventional cut-offs for detection p values for filtering out undetected probes were demonstrated in a single previous study as insufficient leading to many apparent methylation calls in samples from females in probes targeting the Y-chromosome. We present an alternative approach to calculate more accurate detection p values utilizing non-specific background fluorescence. We evaluate and compare our proposed approach of filtering observations with conventional ones by assessing the detection of Y-chromosome probes among males and females in 2755 samples from 17 studies on the 450K microarray and masking of large outliers between technical replicates and their impact downstream via an EWAS reanalysis. RESULTS: In contrast to conventional approaches, ours marks most Y-chromosome probes in females as undetected while removing a median of only 0.14% of the data per sample, catches more (30% vs. 6%) of large outliers (more than 20 percentage point difference between technical replicates), and helps to identify strong associations previously obfuscated by outliers between whole blood DNA methylation and chronological age in a well-powered EWAS (n = 729). CONCLUSIONS: We provide guidance for filtering both 450K and EPIC microarrays as an essential preprocessing step to reduce spurious values. An implementation (including a function compatible with objects from the popular minfi package) was added to ewastools, an R package for comprehensive quality control of DNA methylation microarrays. Scripts to reproduce all analyses are available at doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1443561 .

15.
Epidemiology ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trace metal concentrations may affect cardio-metabolic risk, but the role of prenatal exposure is unclear. We examined: 1) the relationship between blood metal concentrations during pregnancy and child cardio-metabolic risk factors; 2) overall effects of metals mixture (essential vs. nonessential); and 3) interactions between metals. METHODS: We measured 11 metals in maternal 2 trimester whole blood in a prospective birth cohort in Mexico City. In children 4-6 years old, we measured body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, and blood pressure (N=609); and plasma hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) , non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, and adiponectin (N=411). We constructed cardio-metabolic component scores using age- and sex-adjusted z-scores and averaged five scores to create a global risk score. We estimated linear associations of each metal with individual z-scores and used Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression to assess metal mixtures and interactions. RESULTS: Higher total metals were associated with lower HbA1c, leptin, and systolic blood pressure, and with higher adiponectin and non-HDL cholesterol. We observed no interactions between metals. Higher selenium was associated with lower triglycerides in linear (ß=-1.01 z-score units per 1 unit ln(Se), 95%CI = -1.84; -0.18) and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression models. Manganese was associated with decreased HbA1c in linear models (ß = -0.32 and 95% CI: -0.61, -0.03). Antimony and arsenic were associated with lower leptin in Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression models. Essential metals were more strongly associated with cardio-metabolic risk than were nonessential metals. CONCLUSIONS: Low essential metals during pregnancy were associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood.

16.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 161, 2018 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most research into myocardial infarctions (MIs) have focused on preventative efforts. For survivors, the occurrence of an MI represents a major clinical event that can have long-lasting consequences. There has been little to no research into the molecular changes that can occur as a result of an incident MI. Here, we use three cohorts to identify epigenetic changes that are indicative of an incident MI and their association with gene expression and metabolomics. RESULTS: Using paired samples from the KORA cohort, we screened for DNA methylation loci (CpGs) whose change in methylation is potentially indicative of the occurrence of an incident MI between the baseline and follow-up exams. We used paired samples from the NAS cohort to identify 11 CpGs which were predictive in an independent cohort. After removing two CpGs associated with medication usage, we were left with an "epigenetic fingerprint" of MI composed of nine CpGs. We tested this fingerprint in the InCHIANTI cohort where it moderately discriminated incident MI occurrence (AUC = 0.61, P = 6.5 × 10-3). Returning to KORA, we associated the epigenetic fingerprint loci with cis-gene expression and integrated it into a gene expression-metabolomic network, which revealed links between the epigenetic fingerprint CpGs and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant changes in DNA methylation after an incident MI. Nine of these CpGs show consistent changes in multiple cohorts, significantly discriminate MI in independent cohorts, and were independent of medication usage. Integration with gene expression and metabolomics data indicates a link between MI-associated epigenetic changes and BCAA metabolism.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Leucócitos/química , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Fatores de Risco
17.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 76, 2018 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increase in ambient temperatures (Ta) and emissions of greenhouse gases over the last century has focused attention on the effects of ambient temperatures on health outcomes. We aimed to investigate the association between Ta and the clinical measures of term low birth weight (tLBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) in singleton term infants using a decade of regional hospital data in southern Israel. METHODS: We linked all births in Soroka University Medical Center in the southern district of Israel insured by Clalit Health Services with pregnancy Ta estimated by our novel hybrid spatio-temporally resolved prediction model. Logistic regression generalized additive models and general linear models were used, with either tLBW or SGA as the dependent variable, modeling entire pregnancy and trimester-specific Ta adjusting for seasonality, time trend, particulate matter, maternal age, gravidity, parity, ethnicity, sex, poverty index and population density. RESULTS: The study population included 56,141 singleton term newborns, with 1716 (3.1%) cases of tLBW and 8634 (15.4%) cases of SGA. The average and the median Ta across the entire pregnancy were 19.9 (SD: 1.77, range: 14.6-24.9) degrees centigrade. The lowest Ta quartile (Ta = < 18.5) was associated with higher risk of tLBW (odds ratio = 1.33, 95%CI 1.11-1.58) while the highest Ta quartile (Ta > =21.3) was not significantly associated with tLBW (odds ratio = 1.17, 95%CI 0.99-1.38), in comparison to the two intermediate quartiles. When analyzing SGA as the dependent variable, the lowest Ta quartile was associated with significantly higher risk of SGA (odds ratio = 1.18, 95%CI 1.09-1.29) while the highest quartile was associated with significantly lower risk of SGA (odds ratio = 0.91, 95%CI 0.84-0.99) in comparison to the two intermediate quartiles. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that lower pregnancy Ta may increase the risk of tLBW and SGA, and higher pregnancy Ta may decrease the risk of SGA in singleton term infants in southern Israel.

18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 10(11): 3210-3228, 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414594

RESUMO

The discrepancy of DNA methylation age (DNAmAge) with chronological age (termed as age acceleration, AA) has been identified to be associated with many aging-related health outcomes including hypertension. Since taking antihypertensive medication (AHM) could prevent aging-related diseases caused by hypertension, we hypothesized that using AHM could also reduce the AA. We examined this hypothesis among 546 males aged 55-85 years by exploring the associations of AHM use with AA and its change rate (ΔAA) in two visits with a median follow-up of 3.86 years. Horvath DNAmAge was derived from DNA methylation profiles measured by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and information on AHM use was collected by physician interview. A general decreasing pattern of AA was observed between the two visits. After the fully adjusting for potential covariates including hypertension, any AHM use showed a cross-sectional significant association with higher AA at each visit, as well as a longitudinal association with increased ΔAA between visits. Particularly, relative to participants who never took any AHM, individuals with continuous AHM use had a higher ΔAA of 0.6 year/chronological year. This finding underlines that DNAmAge and AA may not be able to capture the preventive effects of AHMs that reduce cardiovascular risks and mortality.

19.
Epigenetics ; : 1-16, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412002

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with higher cardio-metabolic risk even in childhood and adolescence; whether this association is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms remains unclear. We examined the extent to which mid-childhood body mass index (BMI) z-score (median age 7.7 years) was associated with cardio-metabolic risk score in early adolescence (median age 12.9 years) via mid-childhood DNA methylation among 265 children in the Project Viva. We measured DNA methylation in leukocytes using the Infinium Human Methylation450K BeadChip. We assessed mediation CpG-by-CpG using epigenome-wide association analyses, high-dimensional mediation analysis, and natural effect models. We observed mediation by mid-childhood DNA methylation at 6 CpGs for the association between mid-childhood BMI z-score and cardio-metabolic risk score in early adolescence in the high-dimensional mediation analysis (accounting for 10% of the total effect) and in the natural effect model (ß = 0.04, P = 3.2e-2, accounting for 13% of the total effect). The natural direct effect of BMI z-score on cardio-metabolic risk score was still evident (ß = 0.27, P = 1.1e-25). We also observed mediation by mid-childhood DNA methylation at 5 CpGs that was in the opposite direction from the total effect (natural effect model: ß = -0.04, P = 2.0e-2). Mediation in different directions implies a complex role of DNA methylation in the association between BMI and cardio-metabolic risk and needs further investigation. Future studies with larger sample size and greater variability in cardio-metabolic risk will further help elucidate the role of DNA methylation for cardio-metabolic risk.

20.
Epigenetics ; : 1-17, 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343628

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an epigenetic regulator of gene transcription, which has been found to be both metastable and variable within human cohort studies. Currently, few studies have been done to identify metastable DNA methylation biomarkers associated with longitudinal lung function decline in humans. The identification of such biomarkers is important for screening vulnerable populations. We hypothesized that quantifiable blood-based DNA methylation alterations would serve as metastable biomarkers of lung function decline and aging, which may help to discover new pathways and/or mechanisms related to pulmonary pathogenesis. Using linear mixed models, we performed an Epigenome Wide Association Study (EWAS) between DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides and longitudinal lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75%) decline and aging with initial discovery in the Normative Aging Study, and replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg cohort. We identified two metastable epigenetic loci associated with either poor lung function and aging, cg05575921 (AHRR gene), or lung function independently of aging, cg06126421 (IER3 gene). These loci may inform basic mechanisms associated with pulmonary function, pathogenesis, and aging. Human epigenomic variation, may help explain features of lung function decline and related pathophysiology not attributable to DNA sequence alone, such as accelerated pulmonary decline in smokers, former smokers, and perhaps non-smokers. Our EWAS across two cohorts, therefore, will likely have implications for the human population, not just the elderly.

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