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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442364

RESUMO

Nanoscale, low-phase-noise, tunable transmitter-receiver links are key for enabling the progress of wireless communication. We demonstrate that vortex-based spin-torque nano-oscillators, which are intrinsically low-noise devices because of their topologically protected magnetic structure, can achieve frequency tunability when submitted to local ion implantation. In the experiments presented here, the gyrotropic mode is excited with spin-polarized alternating currents and anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements yield discrete frequencies from a single device. Indeed, chromium-implanted regions of permalloy disks exhibit different saturation magnetization than neighboring, non-irradiated areas, and thus different resonance frequency, corresponding to the specific area where the core is gyrating. Our study proves that such devices can be fabricated without the need for further lithographical steps, suggesting ion irradiation can be a viable and cost-effective fabrication method for densely packed networks of oscillators.

2.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250635

RESUMO

Arrays of interacting 2D nanomagnets display unprecedented electromagnetic properties via collective effects, demonstrated in artificial spin ices and magnonic crystals. Progress toward 3D magnetic metamaterials is hampered by two challenges: fabricating 3D structures near intrinsic magnetic length scales (sub-100 nm) and visualizing their magnetic configurations. Here, we fabricate and measure nanoscale magnetic gyroids, periodic chiral networks comprising nanowire-like struts forming three-connected vertices. Via block copolymer templating, we produce Ni75Fe25 single-gyroid and double-gyroid (an inversion pair of single-gyroids) nanostructures with a 42 nm unit cell and 11 nm diameter struts, comparable to the exchange length in Ni-Fe. We visualize their magnetization distributions via off-axis electron holography with nanometer spatial resolution and interpret the patterns using finite-element micromagnetic simulations. Our results suggest an intricate, frustrated remanent state which is ferromagnetic but without a unique equilibrium configuration, opening new possibilities for collective phenomena in magnetism, including 3D magnonic crystals and unconventional computing.

3.
Small ; 15(49): e1904315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709700

RESUMO

The magnetization dynamics of individual Fe-filled multiwall carbon-nanotubes (FeCNT), grown by chemical vapor deposition, are investigated by microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) microscopy and corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. Currently, only static magnetometry measurements are available. They suggest that the FeCNTs consist of a single-crystalline Fe nanowire throughout the length. The number and structure of the FMR lines and the abrupt decay of the spin-wave transport seen in BLS indicate, however, that the Fe filling is not a single straight piece along the length. Therefore, a stepwise cutting procedure is applied in order to investigate the evolution of the ferromagnetic resonance lines as a function of the nanowire length. The results show that the FeCNT is indeed not homogeneous along the full length but is built from 300 to 400 nm long single-crystalline segments. These segments consist of magnetically high quality Fe nanowires with almost the bulk values of Fe and with a similar small damping in relation to thin films, promoting FeCNTs as appealing candidates for spin-wave transport in magnonic applications.

4.
Small ; 15(52): e1904738, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709733

RESUMO

Nanoscale modifications of strain and magnetic anisotropy can open pathways to engineering magnetic domains for device applications. A periodic magnetic domain structure can be stabilized in sub-200 nm wide linear as well as curved magnets, embedded within a flat non-ferromagnetic thin film. The nanomagnets are produced within a non-ferromagnetic B2-ordered Fe60 Al40 thin film, where local irradiation by a focused ion beam causes the formation of disordered and strongly ferromagnetic regions of A2 Fe60 Al40 . An anisotropic lattice relaxation is observed, such that the in-plane lattice parameter is larger when measured parallel to the magnet short-axis as compared to its length. This in-plane structural anisotropy manifests a magnetic anisotropy contribution, generating an easy-axis parallel to the short axis. The competing effect of the strain and shape anisotropies stabilizes a periodic domain pattern in linear as well as spiral nanomagnets, providing a versatile and geometrically controllable path to engineering the strain and thereby the magnetic anisotropy at the nanoscale.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(7): 077201, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491129

RESUMO

The main origin of the chiral symmetry breaking and, thus, for the magnetochiral effects in magnetic materials is associated with an antisymmetric exchange interaction, the intrinsic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Recently, numerous inspiring theoretical works predict that the bending of a thin film to a curved surface is often sufficient to induce similar chiral effects. However, these originate from the exchange or magnetostatic interactions and can stabilize noncollinear magnetic structures or influence spin-wave propagation. Here, we demonstrate that curvature-induced chiral effects are experimentally observable rather than theoretical abstraction and are present even in conventional soft ferromagnetic materials. We show that, by measuring the depinning field of domain walls in the simplest possible curve, a flat parabolic stripe, the effective exchange-driven DMI interaction constant can be quantified. Remarkably, its value can be as high as the interfacial DMI constant for thin films and can be tuned by the parabola's curvature.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9541, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266999

RESUMO

Spin-transfer torques (STTs) can be exploited in order to manipulate the magnetic moments of nanomagnets, thus allowing for new consumer-oriented devices to be designed. Of particular interest here are tuneable radio-frequency (RF) oscillators for wireless communication. Currently, the structure that maximizes the output power is an Fe/MgO/Fe-type magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a fixed layer magnetized in the plane of the layers and a free layer magnetized perpendicular to the plane. This structure allows for most of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) to be converted into output power. Here, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that the main mechanism sustaining steady-state precession in such structures is the angular dependence of the magnetoresistance. The TMR of such devices is known to exhibit a broken-linear dependence versus the applied bias. Our results show that the TMR bias dependence effectively quenches spin-transfer-driven precession and introduces a non-monotonic frequency dependence at high applied currents. This has an impact on devices seeking to work in the 'THz gap' due to their non-trivial TMR bias dependences.

7.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(4): 328-333, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804478

RESUMO

Spin waves offer intriguing perspectives for computing and signal processing, because their damping can be lower than the ohmic losses in conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits. Magnetic domain walls show considerable potential as magnonic waveguides for on-chip control of the spatial extent and propagation of spin waves. However, low-loss guidance of spin waves with nanoscale wavelengths and around angled tracks remains to be shown. Here, we demonstrate spin wave control using natural anisotropic features of magnetic order in an interlayer exchange-coupled ferromagnetic bilayer. We employ scanning transmission X-ray microscopy to image the generation of spin waves and their propagation across distances exceeding multiples of the wavelength. Spin waves propagate in extended planar geometries as well as along straight or curved one-dimensional domain walls. We observe wavelengths between 1 µm and 150 nm, with excitation frequencies ranging from 250 MHz to 3 GHz. Our results show routes towards the practical implementation of magnonic waveguides in the form of domain walls in future spin wave logic and computational circuits.

8.
Nano Lett ; 18(5): 2828-2834, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29620910

RESUMO

We present a detailed study on the static magnetic properties of individual permalloy nanotubes (NTs) with hexagonal cross-sections. Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measurements and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) are used to investigate their magnetic ground states and its stability. We find that the magnetization in zero applied magnetic field is in a very stable vortex state. Its origin is attributed to a strong growth-induced anisotropy with easy axis perpendicular to the long axis of the tubes. AMR measurements of individual NTs in combination with micromagnetic simulations allow the determination of the magnitude of the growth-induced anisotropy for different types of NT coatings. We show that the strength of the anisotropy can be controlled by introducing a buffer layer underneath the magnetic layer. The magnetic ground states depend on the external magnetic field history and are directly imaged using STXM. Stable vortex domains can be introduced by external magnetic fields and can be erased by radio-frequency magnetic fields applied at the center of the tubes via a strip line antenna.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(6): 067201, 2018 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481278

RESUMO

Typically, the chiral magnetic Skyrmion is a single-state excitation. Here we propose a system, where multiplet of Skyrmion states appears and one of these states can be the ground one. We show that the presence of a localized curvilinear defect drastically changes the magnetic properties of a thin perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnetic film. For a large enough defect amplitude a discrete set of equilibrium magnetization states appears forming a ladder of energy levels. Each equilibrium state has either a zero or a unit topological charge; i.e., topologically trivial and Skyrmion multiplets generally appear. Transitions between the levels with the same topological charge are allowed and can be utilized to encode and switch a bit of information. There is a wide range of geometrical and material parameters, where the Skyrmion level has the lowest energy. Thus, periodically arranged curvilinear defects can result in a Skyrmion lattice as the ground state.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(22): 227203, 2016 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27925729

RESUMO

In magnonics, spin waves are conceived of as electron-charge-free information carriers. Their wave behavior has established them as the key elements to achieve low power consumption, fast operative rates, and good packaging in magnon-based computational technologies. Hence, knowing alternative ways that reveal certain properties of their undulatory motion is an important task. Here, we show using micromagnetic simulations and analytical calculations that spin-wave propagation in ferromagnetic nanotubes is fundamentally different than in thin films. The dispersion relation is asymmetric regarding the sign of the wave vector. It is a purely curvature-induced effect and its fundamental origin is identified to be the classical dipole-dipole interaction. The analytical expression of the dispersion relation has the same mathematical form as in thin films with the Dzyalonshiinsky-Moriya interaction. Therefore, this curvature-induced effect can be seen as a "dipole-induced Dzyalonshiinsky-Moriya-like" effect.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(11): 117205, 2013 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25166572

RESUMO

Arrays of suitably patterned and arranged magnetic elements may display artificial spin-ice structures with topological defects in the magnetization, such as Dirac monopoles and Dirac strings. It is known that these defects strongly influence the quasistatic and equilibrium behavior of the spin-ice lattice. Here, we study the eigenmode dynamics of such defects in a square lattice consisting of stadiumlike thin film elements using micromagnetic simulations. We find that the topological defects display distinct signatures in the mode spectrum, providing a means to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze monopoles and strings that can be measured experimentally.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(5): 057201, 2010 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20366793

RESUMO

We present a micromagnetic study on the current-induced domain-wall motion in cylindrical Permalloy nanowires with diameters below 50 nm. The transverse domain walls forming in such thin, round wires are found to differ significantly from those known from flat nanostrips. In particular, we show that these domain walls are zero-mass micromagnetic objects. As a consequence, they display outstanding dynamic properties, most importantly the absence of a breakdown velocity generally known as the Walker limit. Our simulation data are confirmed by an analytic model which provides a detailed physical understanding. We further predict that a particular effect of the current-induced dynamics of these domain walls could be exploited to measure the nonadiabatic spin-transfer torque coefficient.

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