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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(1): 339-342, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612543

RESUMO

The first quasi-binary acetonitriletriide Sr3 [C2 N]2 has been synthesised and characterised. The nearly colourless crystals were obtained from the reaction of Sr metal, graphite, and elemental N2 , generated by decomposition of Sr(N3 )2 , in a sealed Ni ampoule with the aid of an alkali metal flux. The structure of this compound was analysed via single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the identity of the [C2 N]3- anion was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and further investigated by quantum-chemical methods. Computed interatomic distances within the [C2 N]3- anion strikingly match the obtained experimental data.

2.
Chemistry ; 25(56): 12966-12980, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418972

RESUMO

Thermotropic ionic liquid crystals based on the flavylium scaffold have been synthesized and studied for their structure-properties relationship for the first time. The mesogens were probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy (POM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Low numbers of alkoxy side chains resulted in smectic (SmA) and lamello-columnar (LamCol ) phases, whereas higher substituted flavylium salts showed Colro as well as ordered and disordered columnar (Colho , Colhd ) mesophases. Mesophase width ranged from 13 K to 220 K, giving access to room temperature liquid crystals. The optical properties of the synthesized compounds were probed towards absorption and emission properties. Strong absorption with maxima between 444 and 507 nm was observed, and some chromophores were highly emissive with quantum yields up to 99 %. Ultimately, mesogenic and dye properties were examined by temperature-dependent emissive experiments in the solid state.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 151(4): 041106, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370559

RESUMO

The second-order approximate internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster singles and doubles method icMRCC2 is defined and tested. The method is designed to bridge the gap between multireference perturbation theory and single-reference second-order approximate coupled-cluster theory (CC2). By including semi-internal double excitations into the zeroth-order expansion, the new method is able to reliably describe the coupling between excitations within the active space and the entire single-excitation spectrum. This helps, for instance, to provide a balanced treatment of valence and ionic states in polyenes (as explicitly demonstrated for cyclopentadiene) and to arrive at a more complete coverage of the excitation spectrum without the need to include diffuse orbitals into the active space. Good performance is also seen for notoriously difficult molecules such as C2 and CN. Furthermore, the multireference extension removes the main failures of single-reference CC2 theory, such as in the case of ozone.

4.
J Chem Phys ; 150(18): 184110, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091924

RESUMO

We report the extended explicitly correlated approximate coupled-cluster singles and doubles CC2(F12*)-XSP method suitable for response properties. Equations are derived using an automated approach and have subsequently been hand-coded into the computer program KOALA, in which for all two-electron integrals, density fitting is employed. Numerical results are presented for the lowest two vertical singlet excitation energies of a set of selected molecules. The results show that the CC2(F12*)-XSP method provides the correct basis-set limit with no bias to the ground state, and an excellent agreement with reference CC2 values using large basis sets is found. Using Dunning's aug-cc-pVTZ basis, the CC2(F12*)-XSP method yields excitation energies which are converged within 1 mEh to the basis-set limit for valence excitations.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 150(19): 194107, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117768

RESUMO

Linear and quadratic approximations to the internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster (icMRCC) method are implemented and analyzed by using the linked and unlinked coupled-cluster formalisms. This includes methods based on perturbation theory as well as the coupled-electron pair approximation, CEPA(0). The similarities and differences between all the approximations serve to highlight and provoke discussion about methodological peculiarities of the icMRCC ansatz. When calculating potential energy curves (PECs), discontinuities are observed for the linear icMRCC energies. Using a diagrammatic representation, the terms that cause but also reduce these discontinuities are identified. For benchmarking test cases such as calculating PECs, singlet-triplet splittings, and barrier heights, the multireference CEPA(0) approximation performs well; however, it suffers from a lack of size consistency and so cannot represent a step forward to the goal of developing a computationally cheap and accurate icMRCC method.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 150(15): 151101, 2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005090

RESUMO

The distinguishable cluster approximation applied to coupled cluster doubles equations greatly improves absolute and relative energies. We apply the same approximation to the triples equations and demonstrate that it can also improve the results of the coupled cluster method with singles, doubles, and triples. The resulting method has a nominal computational scaling of O(N7) in the real-space representation, and is orbital invariant, size extensive, and exact for three electrons.

7.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(4): 2291-2305, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794385

RESUMO

The internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster (icMRCC) method is analyzed through third order in perturbation theory. Up to second order, the icMRCC perturbation expansion is equivalent to that of the standard Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory, which is based on a linear ansatz for the wave function, and the resulting theory is, depending on the employed zeroth-order Hamiltonian, equivalent to either second-order complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2), N-electron valence perturbation theory (NEVPT2), or Fink's retention of the excitation degree perturbation theory (REPT2). At third order, the icMRCC perturbation expansion features additional terms in comparison to the Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory, but these are shown to be nearly negligibly small by both analytic arguments and numerical examples. Considering these systematic cancellations, however, may be important in future work on approximations to icMRCC theory. In addition, we provide an extensive set of tests of the second and third-order perturbation theories based on three different zeroth-order Hamiltonians, namely, the projected effective Fock operator as used for CASPT, the Dyall Hamiltonian as used for NEVPT, and the Fink Hamiltonian used for REPT. While the third-order variant of REPT often gives absolute energies that are rather close to values from higher level calculations, the results for relative energies and spectroscopic constants such as harmonic frequencies, give a less clear picture and a general conclusion about any best zeroth-order Hamiltonian does not emerge from our data. For small active spaces, REPT is rather prone to intruder state problems.

8.
J Comput Chem ; 39(24): 1979-1989, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315587

RESUMO

On the example of an aggregate of two perylenebisimide (PBI) molecules the character of the lowest excited electronic states in terms of charge transfer (CT) and Frenkel exciton (FE) configurations is investigated as a function of the intermolecular arrangement. A minimal model Hamiltonian based on two FE and two CT configurations at the frontier-orbitals CIS (FOCIS) level is shown to represent a simple and comprehensible approach providing insight into the physical significance of the model Hamiltonian matrix elements. The recently introduced analysis and diabatization procedure (Liu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 143, 084106 ) method is used to extract the energies of the configurations and their interactions (the model Hamiltonian parameters) also from the accurate CC2 approach. An analysis in terms of diabatic energy profiles and their interactions shows that the FOCIS parameters give a qualitatively correct description of the adiabatic excited state energy profiles. Comparison with CC2 reveals, however, the presence of avoided crossings at FOCIS level, associated with a large character change (CT/FE) of the excited states as a function of the aggregate structure, which represents the major drawback of FOCIS results. We show that proper amendment of the FOCIS-derived parameters allows to accurately represent the potential energy surfaces and crossings of the excited dimer states as a function of the aggregate structure. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

9.
J Chem Phys ; 149(15): 154109, 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342453

RESUMO

While the title question is a clear "yes" from purely theoretical arguments, the case is less clear for practical calculations with finite (one-particle) basis sets. To shed further light on this issue, the convergence to the basis set limit of CCSD (coupled cluster theory with all single and double excitations) and of different approximate implementations of CCSD-F12 (explicitly correlated CCSD) has been investigated in detail for the W4-17 thermochemical benchmark. Near the CBS ([1-particle] complete basis set) limit, CCSD and CCSD(F12*) agree to within their respective uncertainties (about ±0.04 kcal/mol) due to residual basis set incompleteness error, but a nontrivial difference remains between CCSD-F12b and CCSD(F12*), which is roughly proportional to the degree of static correlation. The observed basis set convergence behavior results from the superposition of a rapidly converging, attractive, CCSD[F12]-CCSD-F12b difference (consisting mostly of third-order terms) and a more slowly converging, repulsive, fourth-order difference between CCSD(F12*) and CCSD[F12]. For accurate thermochemistry, we recommend CCSD(F12*) over CCSD-F12b if at all possible. There are some indications that the nZaPa family of basis sets exhibits somewhat smoother convergence than the correlation consistent family.

10.
J Chem Phys ; 149(6): 064101, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111121

RESUMO

Internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster (icMRCC) theory is extended to the computation of first-order properties (expectation values). We use the previously defined Lagrange formulation of the energy functional to derive the required equations for the Lagrange multipliers and arrive at an expression for first-order properties according to the generalized Hellmann-Feynman theorem, analogous to single-reference coupled-cluster theory. The present formulation does not include orbital relaxation, but in line with previous experience in coupled-cluster theory, the single-excitation cluster operator can recover a significant portion of orbital relaxation. Further aspects of the theory that arise from the internal contraction approach are discussed. Using automated derivation techniques, we have implemented a pilot code for icMRCCSD and icMRCCSDT for testing the method numerically. We find good agreement with full configuration interaction for several properties of boron monohydride and dipole moment curves of hydrogen fluoride and chromium hydride. A particular focus is given to spin-dependent properties: The hyperfine coupling tensors of Σ and Π radicals have been computed and compared to experiment and previous computations. We discuss the problem of describing spin polarization with properly spin-adapted wavefunctions, which requires either including pseudo-triple excitations or employing sufficiently flexible reference functions.

11.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 14(2): 693-709, 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29345927

RESUMO

Internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (icMRCC) theory is embedded within multireference perturbation theory (MRPT) to calculate energy differences in large strongly correlated systems. The embedding scheme is based on partitioning the orbital spaces of a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function, with a truncated virtual space constructed by transforming selected projected atomic orbitals (PAOs). MRPT is applied to the environment using a subtractive embedding approach that also allows for multilayer embedding. Benchmark calculations are presented for biradical bond dissociation, spin splitting in a heterocyclic carbene and hydrated Fe(II), and for the super-exchange coupling constant in solid nickel oxide. The method is further applied to two large transition metal complexes with a triple-ζ basis set: an iron complex with 175 atoms and 2939 basis functions, and a nickel complex with 231 atoms, and 4175 basis functions.

12.
J Org Chem ; 82(24): 13468-13480, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131630

RESUMO

In order to study the impact of regioisomeric diene ligands on the formation and catalytic activity of Rh complexes, a series of C2- and CS-symmetric 2,5-disubstituted bicyclo[3.3.0]octa-2,5-dienes C2-L and CS-L, respectively, were synthesized from Weiss diketone by simultaneous deprotonation/electrophilic trapping of both oxo functions, and the catalytic behavior was studied in the presence of [RhCl(C2H4)2]2. Complexes [RhCl(C2-L)]2 bearing C2-symmetric ligands catalyzed effectively the asymmetric arylation of N-tosylaldimines to (S)-diarylamines with yields and ee values up to 99%. In Hayashi-Miyaura reactions, however, the complexes showed poor catalytic activity. When complexes [RhCl(CS-L)]2 with CS-symmetric ligand or mixtures of [RhCl(C2-L)]2 and [RhCl(CS-L)]2 were employed in 1,2-additions, racemic addition products were observed, suggesting a C═C isomerization of the diene ligands. X-ray crystal structure analysis of both Rh complexes formed from the [RhCl(C2H4)2]2 precursor and ligands C2-L and CS-L revealed that only the C2-symmetric ligand C2-L coordinated to the Rh, whereas CS-L underwent a Rh-catalyzed C═C isomerization to rac-C2-L, which then gave the racemic [RhCl(rac-C2-L)]2 complex. DFT calculations of the relative stabilities of the Rh complexes and the proposed intermediates provided a mechanistic rationale via Rh-mediated hydride transfer.

13.
J Chem Phys ; 147(18): 184109, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141436

RESUMO

We report an implementation for employing the algebraic diagrammatic construction to second order [ADC(2)] ab initio electronic structure level of theory in nonadiabatic dynamics simulations in the framework of the SHARC (surface hopping including arbitrary couplings) dynamics method. The implementation is intended to enable computationally efficient, reliable, and easy-to-use nonadiabatic dynamics simulations of intersystem crossing in organic molecules. The methodology is evaluated for the 2-thiouracil molecule. It is shown that ADC(2) yields reliable excited-state energies, wave functions, and spin-orbit coupling terms for this molecule. Dynamics simulations are compared to previously reported results using high-level multi-state complete active space perturbation theory, showing favorable agreement.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(45): 39821-39829, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052974

RESUMO

Nickel oxide (NiO) is a widely used material for efficient hole extraction in optoelectronic devices. However, its surface characteristics strongly depend on the processing history and exposure to adsorbates. To achieve controllability of the electronic and chemical properties of solution-processed nickel oxide (sNiO), we functionalize its surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-cyanophenylphosphonic acid. A detailed analysis of infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chemisorption of the molecules with a nominal layer thickness of around one monolayer and gives an insight into the chemical composition of the SAM. Density functional theory calculations reveal the possible binding configurations. By the application of the SAM, we increase the sNiO work function by up to 0.8 eV. When incorporated in organic solar cells, the increase in work function and improved energy level alignment to the donor does not lead to a higher fill factor of these cells. Instead, we observe the formation of a transport barrier, which can be reduced by increasing the conductivity of the sNiO through doping with copper oxide. We conclude that the widespread assumption of maximizing the fill factor by only matching the work function of the oxide charge extraction layer with the energy levels in the active material is a too narrow approach. Successful implementation of interface modifiers is only possible with a sufficiently high charge carrier concentration in the oxide interlayer to support efficient charge transfer across the interface.

15.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(11): 5291-5316, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953375

RESUMO

With the objective of analyzing which kind of reference data is appropriate for benchmarking quantum chemical approaches for transition metal compounds, we present the following, (a) a collection of 60 transition metal diatomic molecules for which experimentally derived dissociation energies, equilibrium distances, and harmonic vibrational frequencies are known and (b) a composite computational approach based on coupled-cluster theory with basis set extrapolation, inclusion of core-valence correlation, and corrections for relativistic and multireference effects. The latter correction was obtained from internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster (icMRCC) theory. This composite approach has been used to obtain the dissociation energies and spectroscopic constants for the 60 molecules in our data set. In accordance with previous studies on a subset of molecules, we find that multireference corrections are rather small in many cases and CCSD(T) can provide accurate reference values, if the complete basis set limit is explored. In addition, the multireference correction improves the results in cases where CCSD(T) is not a good approximation. For a few cases, however, strong deviations from experiment persist, which cannot be explained by the remaining error in the computational approach. We suggest that these experimentally derived values require careful revision. This also shows that reliable reference values for benchmarking approximate computational methods are not always easily accessible via experiment and accurate computations may provide an alternative way to access them. In order to assess how the choice of reference data affects benchmark studies, we tested 10 DFT functionals for the molecules in the present data set against experimental and calculated reference values. Despite the differences between these two sets of reference values, we found that the ranking of the relative performance of the DFT functionals is nearly independent of the chosen reference.

16.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(7): 3171-3184, 2017 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28609618

RESUMO

We combine internally contracted multireference coupled cluster theory with a four-component treatment of scalar-relativistic effects based on the spin-free Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. This strategy allows for a rigorous treatment of static and dynamic correlation as well as scalar-relativistic effects, which makes it viable to describe molecules containing heavy transition elements. The use of a spin-free formalism limits the impact of the four-component treatment on the computational cost to the non-rate-determining steps of the calculations. We apply the newly developed method to the lowest singlet and triplet states of the monoxides of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium and show how the interplay between electronic correlation and relativistic effects explains the electronic structure of such molecules.

17.
Chemistry ; 23(17): 4149-4159, 2017 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28134472

RESUMO

A series of MIDA (N-methylimino diacetic acid) boronates carrying 4-alkoxy, 3,4-bisalkoxy, or 3,4,5-trisalkoxyphenyl substituents were synthesized and their mesomorphic properties characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy (POM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques such as small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS, respectively). Most derivatives were liquid crystalline. In the case of mono- and bisalkoxy-substituted derivatives, C6 chains already induced smectic A (SmA) mesophases despite the bulky MIDA head group. With increasing chain length, columnar hexagonal (Colh ) phases replaced SmA phases in the disubstituted series. Quantum chemical calculations on a series of MIDA boronates show that the B-N bond is a dative bond with a positive charge on the boron atom and negative charges on the nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In addition, no π-interaction between the aryl moiety and B-N bond was found, thus the mesogenic unit is electronically decoupled from the MIDA head group. These theoretical findings were supported by IR and Raman spectra as well as by asingle crystal structure analysis of 4-ethoxyphenyl MIDA boronate. Calculations of the electrostatic potential of the MIDA boronate reveal a special polarity pattern that can support the formation of a two-dimensional network and is likely to explain the liquid crystalline self-assembly. The absence of any electronic cross-talk between the MIDA head group and B-aryl or B-alkyl substituents allows the efficient tailoring of the mesophase type through variation of the substituents.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(48): 33021-33030, 2016 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27886292

RESUMO

The final step of the water formation network on interstellar grain surfaces starting from the H + O2 route is the reaction between H and H2O2. This reaction is known to have a high activation energy and therefore at low temperatures it can only proceed via tunneling. To date, however, no rate constants are available at temperatures below 200 K. In this work, we use instanton theory to compute rate constants for the title reaction with and without isotopic substitutions down to temperatures of 50 K. The calculations are based on density functional theory, with additional benchmarks for the activation energy using unrestricted single-reference and multireference coupled-cluster single-point energies. Gas-phase bimolecular rate constants are calculated and compared with available experimental data not only for H + H2O2 → H2O + OH, but also for H + H2O2 → H2 + HO2. We find a branching ratio where the title reaction is favored by at least two orders of magnitude at 114 K. In the interstellar medium this reaction predominantly occurs on water surfaces, which increases the probability that the two reactants meet. To mimic this, one, two, or three spectator H2O molecules are added to the system. Eley-Rideal bimolecular and Langmuir-Hinshelwood unimolecular rate constants are presented here. The kinetic isotope effects for the various cases are compared to experimental data as well as to expressions commonly used in astrochemical models. Both the rectangular barrier and the Eckart approximations lead to errors of about an order of magnitude. Finally, fits of the rate constants are provided as input for astrochemical models.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(44): 30241-30253, 2016 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722417

RESUMO

We have constructed a new potential energy surface for the title reaction, based on the internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster method. The calculated barrier height is 1.59 ± 0.08 kcal mol-1. This value is much lower than that obtained in previous ab initio calculations and it is close to the experimentally suggested value. Other features of the [F,H,Cl] system are also analysed, such as van der Waals minima and conical intersections. The rate constant and the vibrational and rotational distributions of the products were calculated using a fully converged time independent quantum mechanical approach. The calculated rate constant agrees well with the experimental values. Qualitative agreement for the vibrational distribution is obtained and it is shown that it is strongly influenced by the initial rotational state distribution.

20.
J Chem Phys ; 144(7): 074103, 2016 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26896972

RESUMO

The internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (icMRCC) theory is reexamined in a multistate framework. The new derivation starts from the Bloch equations employing a wave operator similar to the one originally employed by Jeziorski and Monkhorst [Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)], but allows for a multideterminantal model-space basis. The resulting working equations are a generalization of state-universal multireference coupled-cluster (SU-MRCC) theory. In the case of truncated cluster operators, energies and wave functions depend on the choice of the model-space basis. It is shown that the state-specific solutions of the original icMRCC theory exactly diagonalize the effective Hamiltonian of the multistate theory and thus decouple the multistate equations. While this in principle means that icMRCC is a multistate theory, we find that truncated icMRCC theory still shows minor artifacts close to avoided crossings, which can be removed by considering a true multistate ansatz. The results also shed new light on the orbital variance of the original SU-MRCC theory.

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