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1.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 178, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induction therapy is crucial in kidney transplantation and constitutes an important cornerstone for long-term allograft survival. Alemtuzumab is a depleting CD52-specific antibody with T- and B-cell activity, leading to prolonged lymphocyte depletion for up to 12 months, with profound immunosuppression and an associated risk of serious infections. Current concepts aim to optimize dosing strategies to reduce side effects. Here we present data from an ongoing centre protocol consisting of low-dose alemtuzumab induction and tailored immunosuppression in sensitized patients undergoing kidney transplantation. METHODS: 10-year results of the protocol were analysed. Low-dose alemtuzumab induction consisted of a single dose of 20 mg intraoperatively, followed by tacrolimus and corticosteroids for initial immunosuppression, with mycophenolate mofetil suspended until a total lymphocyte count (TLC) >5% or 200/µl was reached. RESULTS: Between 01/2007 and 04/2017, 46 patients were treated in accordance with the protocol in 48 kidney transplantations. Median PRAmax was 43 [22-76; IQR] %; all patients had negative CDC-crossmatch prior to transplantation. Low-dose alemtuzumab was well tolerated. Median time to TLC recovery was 77 [62-127; IQR] d. Within a median follow-up of 3.3 [1.5-5.6; IQR] years, 12 (25%) patients developed BPAR, 10 of which were antibody-mediated (3 acute, 7 chronic ABMR). Death-censored 5-year allograft survival was 79.2%, with an excellent allograft function at the end of follow-up. There was no increased rate of infections, in particular viral infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our protocol, comprising low-dose alemtuzumab induction, initial suspension of mycophenolate mofetil and triple maintenance immunosuppression, provides excellent patient and allograft outcome in sensitized renal allograft recipients.

2.
Chirurg ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value and safety of percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB) in brain-dead donors before organ removal and its impact on organ allocation and costs of liver transplantation (LT) in the Eurotransplant (ET) region is still a matter of ongoing debate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A PLB was performed in 36 brain-dead organ donors. The complication rate, ultrasonography findings, macroscopic evaluation and histological results of PLB and donor characteristics were analyzed. Additionally, a nationwide survey was conducted among 11 liver transplantation experts. The need for PLB and its impact on the liver allocation process were evaluated. Possible cost savings were calculated for different scenarios based on cost data provided by the German Organ Transplantation Foundation. RESULTS: No complications of PLB were observed. The survey revealed that the PLB has a substantial impact on the allocation of donor organs, especially in organs fulfilling extended donor criteria (EDC). The cost calculation revealed an enormous potential for cost savings due to an optimized organ allocation process and avoidance of futile organ procurement. CONCLUSION: The PLB is a safe procedure and has tremendous potential for the optimization of the organ allocation process before organ procurement by reducing the cold ischemia time, avoiding unnecessarily discarding donor organs and saving costs. These data emphasize the clinical relevance and impact of PLB on the organ allocation process.

3.
Endoscopy ; 52(5): 377-382, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of iatrogenic esophageal perforation (IEP) is challenging. Endoscopic negative pressure therapy (ENPT) is an emerging and effective tool for the treatment of gastrointestinal and anastomotic leaks. We have used ENPT as first-line therapy for IEP since 2017. The aim of this study was to present our results with this strategy in patients with IEP. METHODS: Nine patients were treated with ENPT for IEP between August 2017 and August 2019. Their treatment characteristics, including duration of therapy, strategy used, and outcomes, were analyzed. Treatment included ENPT with open-pore film drainage (OFD) and open-pore polyurethane foam drainage (OPD). RESULTS: Early diagnosis (< 24 hours) of IEP occurred in four patients. After a mean (standard deviation) of 19.0 (13.5) days of ENPT, 6.4 (3.4) endoscopies, and 38.1 (40.3) days of hospitalization, endoscopic treatment was effective and successful in all of the patients. Additional video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was done in four patients. CONCLUSIONS: ENPT is an effective new method for the management of IEP. ENPT with OFD and OPD can be combined with minimally invasive operative methods for sepsis control in IEP.

5.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study compares an endoscopic microcatheter and a nebulizer for delivering Pressurized IntraPeritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC). METHODS: This is an in vitro and ex vivo study in an established model (inverted bovine urinary bladder). Four parameters were compared to determine the performance of a micro-perforated endoscopic spray catheter vs. state-of-the art, nozzle technology: (1) surface coverage and pattern with methylene blue on blotting paper at three different distances; (2) median aerodynamic diameter (MAD) of aerosol droplets with three different solutions (H2O, Glc 5% and silicon oil); (3) depth of tissue penetration of doxorubicin (DOX) and (4) tissue concentration of cisplatin (CIS) and DOX using standard clinical solutions. RESULTS: The spray area covered by the microcatheter was larger (p < 0.001) but its pattern was inhomogenous than with the nozzle technology. We found that aerosol droplets were larger in the test group than in the control group for all three solutions tested. Median tissue penetration of DOX was lower (980 µm) with the microcatheter than with the nebulizer (1235 µm) and distribution was more heterogeneous ( = 0.003) with the microcatheter. The median tissue concentration of DOX and CIS was lower and concentration of DOX was more heterogeneous with the microcatheter (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This investigation has revealed that microcatheter technology generates larger aerosol droplet size, less drug tissue penetration and lower drug tissue concentration than the current nozzle technology. In the absence of clinical studies, use of microcatheters for delivering PIPAC can not be recommended at this stage.

6.
Int J Surg ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302748

RESUMO

Liver transplantation for colorectal cancer has regained renewed interest with reported good overall survival in selected patients. The scarcity of grafts is a major obstacle to wider implementation and exploration of this field of transplant oncology. The use of small segmental auxiliary grafts from deceased or living donors might be one way to expand the donor pool with minimal negative impact on the waiting list for deceased donor transplantation and minimal risk for the donor in case of living donor liver transplantation. This review provides an insight into the physiological background for this technique and summarizes technical and surgical considerations and the experiences with this novel concept. Although the international experience still is very limited, the short term outcome could suggest that this is technically feasible. There is not sufficient data to assess long term oncological outcome. The RAPID concept (i.e. resection and partial liver segment 2-3 transplantation with delayed total hepatectomy) is still an experimental surgical procedure and should be reserved for prospective clinical trials. Herein, we describe the main technical issues of RAPID procedure from deceased and from living donor as well and report preliminary results of the first cases performed worldwide.

7.
Chirurg ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The range of indications for laparoscopic procedures has been continuously widened in recent years. At the same time, however, the diagnostic and therapeutic role of laparoscopy in the management of blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma remains controversial. METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out in PubMed from 2008 to 2019 on the use of laparoscopy in blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Studies were analyzed in terms of relevant operative and perioperative event rates (rate of missed injuries, conversion rate, postoperative complication rate). On the basis of this analysis, an algorithm for the use of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma was developed for clinical practice. RESULTS: A total of 15 full texts with 5869 patients were found. With a rate of 1.4%, laparoscopically missed injuries were very rare for both penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma. Of all trauma laparoscopies 29.3% were converted to open surgery (laparotomy). Among the non-converted laparoscopies 60.5% were therapeutic. Complications occurred after trauma laparoscopy in 8.6% of cases. CONCLUSION: By means of systematic laparoscopic exploration, missed injuries in abdominal trauma are extremely rare, so that concerns in this respect no longer seem justified. A large proportion of intra-abdominal injuries can be treated using laparoscopy or laparoscopically assisted procedures.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 122, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, complete surgical resection represents the only potentially curative treatment option for Biliary Tract Cancer (BTC) including Gallbladder Cancer (GBC). Even after curative resection, 5-year OS is only 20-40%. Gallbladder carcinoma is relatively rare, but still the fifth most common neoplasm of the digestive tract and even the most frequent cancer of the biliary system. Gallbladder carcinoma is suspected preoperatively in only 30% of all pts., while the majority of cases are discovered incidentally by the pathologist after cholecystectomy for a benign indication. For improving curative rates in BTC and GBC, early systemic therapy combined with radical resection seems to be a promising approach. The earliest moment to apply chemotherapy would be in front of radical surgery. The encouraging results of neoadjuvant/perioperative concepts in other malignancies provide an additional rationale to use this treatment in the early phase of GBC management and even ICC/ECC. Especially because data regarding pure adjuvant chemotherapy in BTC's are conflicting. METHODS: This is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label phase III study including pts. with incidentally discovered GBCs after simple cholecystectomy in front of radical liver resection and pts. with resectable/ borderline resectable cholangiocarcinomas (ICC/ ECC) scheduled to receive perioperative chemotherapy (Gemcitabine + Cisplatin 3 cycles pre- and post-surgery) or surgery alone followed by a therapy of investigator's choice. Primary endpoint is OS; secondary endpoints are PFS, R0-resection rate, toxicity, perioperative morbidity, mortality and QoL. A total of N = 333 patients with GBC or BTC will be included. Recruitment has started in August 2019. DISCUSSION: The current proposed phase III GAIN study investigates whether induction chemotherapy followed by radical resection in ICC/ECC and re-resection in IGBC (and - if possible - postoperative chemotherapy) prolongs overall survival compared to radical surgery alone for incidental gallbladder carcinoma and primary resectable or borderline resectable cholangiocarcinoma. Utilizing a neoadjuvant approach including a second radical surgery will help to raise awareness for the necessity of radical surgery, especially second radical completion surgery in IGBC and improve the adherence to the guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03673072 from 17.09.2018. EudraCT number: 2017-004444-38 from 02.11.2017.

9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 138: 111188, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045649

RESUMO

Hepatotoxicity is among the most frequent reasons for drug withdrawal from the market. Therefore, there is an urgent need for reliable predictive in vitro tests, which unfailingly identify hepatotoxic drug candidates, reduce drug development time, expenses and the number of test animals. Currently, human hepatocytes represent the gold standard. However, the use of hepatocytes is challenging since the cells are not constantly available and lose their metabolic activity in culture. To solve these problems many different approaches have been developed in the past decades. The aim of this review is to present these approaches and to discuss the possibilities and limitations as well as future opportunities and directions.

10.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 46(4 Pt A): 613-619, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) plays metabolic, kinase and translational roles in Peritoneal metastasis (PM) of gastric origin and is associated with chemoresistance. Silencing PGK1 might potentiate the effect of chemotherapy. METHODS: In an orthoptic xenograft nude mice model, human gastric cancer cells (MKN45) were grown in 22 donor animals. Solid tumors were then grafted into the gastric subserosa of 102 recipient animals and allowed to grow for 10 days. Animals were randomized into 7 groups: Five test groups: 1) Mitomycin C (MMC), 2) MMC and small hairpin RNA silencing of PGK1 with an adenoviral vector (Adv-shPGK1), 3) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 4) 5-FU and Adv-shPGK1, 5) Adv-shPGK1 alone; two control groups: 1) Sham (NaCl 0.9%), 2) empty viral vector. Intraperitoneal therapy was administered on postoperative day (POD) 11 and 18. Animals were sacrificed at POD 21, analysis was blinded to therapy. RESULTS: Adding Adv-shPGK1 to 5-FU reduced the number (0.23 ± 0.43 vs. 1.36 ± 1.00, p = 0.005) and weight (0,005 ± 0.012 mg vs. 0.05 ± 0.08 mg, p = 0.002) of PM as compared to 5-FU alone. The effect of adding Adv-shPGK1 to MMC did not reach statistical significance. Mortality was not increased by adding Adv-shPGK1 to chemotherapy but was increased by Adv-shPGK1 alone as compared to sham. CONCLUSION: In this experimental model, combined therapy with chemotherapy and Adv-shPGK1 improves control of PM of gastric origin as compared to chemotherapy alone and might counteract chemoresistance of PM. A systemic toxicity of Adv-shPGK1 cannot be excluded.

11.
Gastric Cancer ; 23(1): 11-22, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with peritoneal metastases of gastric cancer have a poor prognosis with a median survival of 7 months. A benefit of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) could be shown in several selected patient cohorts but remains controversial. The aim of this study was, to reflect the results of a national German HIPEC registry initiated by the German Society of General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV). METHODS: The DGAV HIPEC registry StuDoQ|Peritoneum documents patients with peritoneal malignancy contributed from 52 hospitals. All consecutive documented patients from 2011 until 2016 (n = 3078) were treated with CRS and HIPEC and were analysed. A total of 315 (10%) suffered from gastric cancer and were analysed. RESULTS: A complete data set of 235 patients was available for this study, including 113 male (48.1%) and 122 female (51.9%) patients with a median age of 53.4 years (SD ± 11.9). The median PCI was 8.0 (range 1-30). A complete cytoreduction was achieved in 121 patients (71.6%). Postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grades 3-4) occurred in 40 patients (17%). The median overall survival (OS) time was 13 months. The 5-year survival rate was 6%. According to the PCI from 0-6 (n = 74); 7-15 (n = 70) and 16-39 (n = 24) the median OS differs significantly (18 months vs. 12 months vs. 5 months; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: CRS and HIPEC in selected patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal spread can improve survival when they are treated in centers. An accurate staging and patient selection are of major importance to achieve long-term survival.

12.
Obes Surg ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Management of staple line leaks (SLL) after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) modality in the management of sleeve leaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight patients were treated with EVT for SLL. Therapy data and outcome measures including duration of therapy, therapy success, and change of treatment strategy were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, SLL occurred in 1.6% of patients who underwent SG. After 9.8 ± 8.6 days of EVT, 3.3 ± 2.2 endoscopies, and 19 ± 15.1 days of hospitalization, endoscopic treatment using EVT was successful in seven out of eight patients (87.5%). CONCLUSIONS: EVT is an effective method for the management of staple line leaks after sleeve gastrectomy. The use of the intraluminal open-pore film drainage (OFD) could be considered as an advantageous modality of EVT, regarding placement and complications.

13.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2526, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803175

RESUMO

Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an established treatment option for malignancies located in the liver. RFA-induced irreversible coagulation necrosis leads to the release of danger signals and cellular content. Hence, RFA may constitute an endogenous in situ tumor vaccination, stimulating innate and adaptive immune responses, including tumor-antigen specific T cells. This may explain a phenomenon termed abscopal effect, namely tumor regression in untreated lesions evidenced after distant thermal ablation or irradiation. In this study, we therefore assessed systemic and local immune responses in individual patients treated with RFA. Methods: For this prospective clinical trial, patients with liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) receiving RFA and undergoing metachronous liver surgery for another lesion were recruited (n = 9) during a 5-year period. Tumor and non-malignant liver tissue samples from six patients were investigated by whole transcriptome sequencing and tandem-mass spectrometry, characterizing naturally presented HLA ligands. Tumor antigen-derived HLA-restricted peptides were selected by different predefined approaches. Further, candidate HLA ligands were manually curated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with epitope candidate peptides, and functional T cell responses were assessed by intracellular cytokine staining. Immunohistochemical markers were additionally investigated in surgically resected mCRC from patients treated with (n = 9) or without RFA (n = 7). Results: In all six investigated patients, either induced immune responses and/or pre-existing T cell immunity against the selected targets were observed. Multi-cytokine responses were inter alia directed against known tumor antigens such as cyclin D1 but also against a (predicted) mutation contained in ERBB3. Immunohistochemistry did not show a relevant influx of immune cells into distant malignant lesions after RFA treatment (n = 9) as compared to the surgery only mCRC group (n = 7). Conclusions: Using an individualized approach for target selection, RFA induced and/or boosted T cell responses specific for individual tumor antigens were more frequently detectable as compared to previously published observations with well-characterized tumor antigens. However, the witnessed modest RFA-induced immunological effects alone may not be sufficient for the rejection of established tumors. Therefore, these findings warrant further clinical investigation including the assessment of RFA combination therapies e.g., with immune stimulatory agents, cancer vaccination, and/or immune checkpoint inhibitors.

14.
Pleura Peritoneum ; 4(3): 20190017, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667331

RESUMO

Background: Optimization of intraperitoneal drug delivery systems requires functional models. We proposed the Inverted Bovine Urinary Bladder Model (IBUB), but IBUB does not allow repeated measurements over time and there is a significant biological variability between organs. Methods: A further development of IBUB is presented, based on the physical principle of communicating vessels. Fresh bovine bladders were inverted so that the peritoneum lines up the inner surface. The IBUB and a second vessel were then interconnected under the same CO2 pressure and placed on two scales. The therapeutic solution (Doxorubicin 2.7 mg and Cisplatin 13.5 mg) was delivered via an aerosolizer. All experiments were in triplicate and blinded to the origin of samples, measurements in a GLP-certified laboratory. Results: The enhanced IBUB (eIBUB) model allows measurements of tissue drug concentration, depth of tissue penetration and spatial distribution. The homogeneous morphology of the peritoneum enables standardized, multiple tissue sampling. eIBUB minimizes biological variability between different bladders and eliminates the bias caused by the liquid collecting at the bottom of the model. Concentration of doxorubicin in the eIBUB (mean ± STDV: 18.5 ± 22.6 ng/mg) were comparable to clinical peritoneal biopsies (19.2 ± 38.6 ng/mg), as was depth of drug penetration (eIBUB: mean (min-max) 433 (381-486) µm, clinical ~ 500 µm). Conclusions: The eIBUB model is a simple and powerful ex vivo model for optimizing intraperitoneal drug delivery and represents an attractive alternative to animal models. Results obtained are similar to those obtained in the human patient.

15.
Visc Med ; 35(5): 305-311, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768394

RESUMO

Obesity is a chronic life-threatening disease, and bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment in those patients. The two main operations are laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). LSG carries a smaller risk for nutritional deficiencies, while gastric bypass procedures are associated with increased nutritional deficiencies because the procedure is more complex and changes the gastrointestinal anatomy. Recent studies comparing LSG and RYGB have proven that these types of operation may lead to a similar weight reduction effect but cause different micronutrient deficiencies. Types of malnutrition after bariatric surgery include protein-energy malnutrition and deficiencies of micronutrients, such as iron, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B12. Bariatric patients who do not adhere to the recommended diets are at a greater risk of developing relevant malnutrition. Therefore, life-long postoperative clinical and laboratory monitoring is necessary to diagnose deficiencies of vitamins, trace elements, and minerals and to correct them with supplements. Unfortunately, no standardized aftercare regimes exist for these patients, and the costs for nutritional supplements are paid by the patients themselves.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683709

RESUMO

: Patients with peritoneal metastasis (PM) of gastrointestinal and gynecological origin present with a nutritional deficit characterized by increased resting energy expenditure (REE), loss of muscle mass, and protein catabolism. Progression of peritoneal metastasis, as with other advanced malignancies, is associated with cancer cachexia anorexia syndrome (CAS), involving poor appetite (anorexia), involuntary weight loss, and chronic inflammation. Eventual causes of mortality include dysfunctional metabolism and energy store exhaustion. Etiology of CAS in PM patients is multifactorial including tumor growth, host response, cytokine release, systemic inflammation, proteolysis, lipolysis, malignant small bowel obstruction, ascites, and gastrointestinal side effects of drug therapy (chemotherapy, opioids). Metabolic changes of CAS in PM relate more to a systemic inflammatory response than an adaptation to starvation. Metabolic reprogramming is required for cancer cells shed into the peritoneal cavity to resist anoikis (i.e., programmed cell death). Profound changes in hexokinase metabolism are needed to compensate ineffective oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. During the development of PM, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays a key role in activating both aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, increasing the uptake of glucose, lipid, and glutamine into cancer cells. HIF-1α upregulates hexokinase II, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), pyruvate kinase muscle isoenzyme 2 (PKM2), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose transporters (GLUT) and promotes cytoplasmic glycolysis. HIF-1α also stimulates the utilization of glutamine and fatty acids as alternative energy substrates. Cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity interact with cancer-associated fibroblasts and adipocytes to meet metabolic demands and incorporate autophagy products for growth. Therapy of CAS in PM is challenging. Optimal nutritional intake alone including total parenteral nutrition is unable to reverse CAS. Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) stabilized nutritional status in a significant proportion of PM patients. Agents targeting the mechanisms of CAS are under development.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382615

RESUMO

The liver plays a pivotal role in whole-body carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. One of the key regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism are hepatokines, which are found among the liver secreted proteins, defined as liver secretome. To elucidate the composition of the human liver secretome and identify hepatokines in primary human hepatocytes (PHH), we conducted comprehensive protein profiling on conditioned medium (CM) of PHH. Secretome profiling using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified 691 potential hepatokines in PHH. Subsequently, pathway analysis assigned these proteins to acute phase response, coagulation, and complement system pathways. The secretome of PHH was compared to the secreted proteins of the liver hepatoma cell line HepG2. Although the secretome of PHH and HepG2 cells show a high overlap, the HepG2 secretome rather mirrors the fetal liver with some cancer characteristics. Collectively, our study represents one of the most comprehensive secretome profiling approaches for PHH, allowing new insights into the composition of the secretome derived from primary human material, and points out strength and weakness of using HepG2 cell secretome as a model for the analysis of the human liver secretome.


Assuntos
Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteômica/métodos , Via Secretória , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 24(5): 651-658, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397729

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the role of liver transplantation for unresectable colorectal liver metastases (u-CRLM) and to describe the intial experience with auxiliary living donor liver transplantation combined with two-stage hepatectomy for u-CRLM (i.e. living donor RAPID). RECENT FINDINGS: Patients affected with u-CRLM have a poor prognosis with 5 years overall survival (OS) rate less than 10% under standard modern chemotherapy.There is an actual international consensus that liver transplantation for u-CRLM represents a viable option in highly selected patients with OS rate at 5 years up to 80% notwithstanding high recurrence rates. Due to the scarcity of whole liver graft from deceased donors, the RAPID procedure (i.e. resection and partial liver segment 2-3 transplantation from deceased donors with delayed total hepatectomy) has been introduced as possible alternative. The RAPID procedure represents the most actual and modern fusion of the two most challenging procedures of modern hepatobiliary and liver transplant surgery: that is auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation and associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy. Although the deceased donor-RAPID procedure may show promising results, the basic problem of scarcity of organs from deceased donors and mainly the lack of splittable organs still remains. SUMMARY: The living donor RAPID, based on transplantation of left lateral segments from living donor, may represent the way out to this problem. It is feasible and safe (for both donor and recipient), but characterized by a very challenging high-end transplantological procedure.

20.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 11: 1758835919846402, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205501

RESUMO

Background: Efficacy of second-line systemic chemotherapy in recurrent gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis (RGCPM) is limited. We assessed the feasibility, safety and possible efficacy of pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) in patients with RGCPM after ⩾1 line of palliative intravenous chemotherapy. Methods: In this open-label, single-arm, monocentric phase II ICH-GCP clinical trial, patients were scheduled for three courses of PIPAC with cisplatin 7.5 mg/m2 and doxorubicin 1.5 mg/m2 (PIPAC C/D) every 6 weeks. Patients with bowel obstruction or extraperitoneal metastasis were ineligible. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit rate (CBR) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors based on clinical records. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), median time to progression (TTP), peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI), histological regression and ascites volume. Safety and tolerability were assessed by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4, quality of life (QoL) by EORTC-QLQ30 questionnaire. Results: A total of 25 patients were enrolled and available for the analysis of the primary endpoint. Of those 25 patients, 10 (40%) had a radiological complete, partial response or stable disease. Median OS [intention to treat (ITT)] was 6.7 months, median TTP was 2.7 months. Complete or major regression on histology were observed in 9/25 patients (36%, ITT) or 6/6 [100%, per protocol (PP)] patients. There were no suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions, no treatment-related deaths, no CTCAE grade 4 toxicity and three (12%) grade 3 toxicities. Changes in the QLQ-C30 scores during PIPAC C/D therapy were small and not significant. Conclusions: PIPAC C/D was well tolerated and active in patients with RGCPM. Survival was encouraging. Randomized controlled trials should now be designed in this indication.

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