Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Gastric Cancer ; 23(1): 11-22, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with peritoneal metastases of gastric cancer have a poor prognosis with a median survival of 7 months. A benefit of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) could be shown in several selected patient cohorts but remains controversial. The aim of this study was, to reflect the results of a national German HIPEC registry initiated by the German Society of General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV). METHODS: The DGAV HIPEC registry StuDoQ|Peritoneum documents patients with peritoneal malignancy contributed from 52 hospitals. All consecutive documented patients from 2011 until 2016 (n = 3078) were treated with CRS and HIPEC and were analysed. A total of 315 (10%) suffered from gastric cancer and were analysed. RESULTS: A complete data set of 235 patients was available for this study, including 113 male (48.1%) and 122 female (51.9%) patients with a median age of 53.4 years (SD ± 11.9). The median PCI was 8.0 (range 1-30). A complete cytoreduction was achieved in 121 patients (71.6%). Postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grades 3-4) occurred in 40 patients (17%). The median overall survival (OS) time was 13 months. The 5-year survival rate was 6%. According to the PCI from 0-6 (n = 74); 7-15 (n = 70) and 16-39 (n = 24) the median OS differs significantly (18 months vs. 12 months vs. 5 months; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: CRS and HIPEC in selected patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal spread can improve survival when they are treated in centers. An accurate staging and patient selection are of major importance to achieve long-term survival.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2526, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803175

RESUMO

Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an established treatment option for malignancies located in the liver. RFA-induced irreversible coagulation necrosis leads to the release of danger signals and cellular content. Hence, RFA may constitute an endogenous in situ tumor vaccination, stimulating innate and adaptive immune responses, including tumor-antigen specific T cells. This may explain a phenomenon termed abscopal effect, namely tumor regression in untreated lesions evidenced after distant thermal ablation or irradiation. In this study, we therefore assessed systemic and local immune responses in individual patients treated with RFA. Methods: For this prospective clinical trial, patients with liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) receiving RFA and undergoing metachronous liver surgery for another lesion were recruited (n = 9) during a 5-year period. Tumor and non-malignant liver tissue samples from six patients were investigated by whole transcriptome sequencing and tandem-mass spectrometry, characterizing naturally presented HLA ligands. Tumor antigen-derived HLA-restricted peptides were selected by different predefined approaches. Further, candidate HLA ligands were manually curated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with epitope candidate peptides, and functional T cell responses were assessed by intracellular cytokine staining. Immunohistochemical markers were additionally investigated in surgically resected mCRC from patients treated with (n = 9) or without RFA (n = 7). Results: In all six investigated patients, either induced immune responses and/or pre-existing T cell immunity against the selected targets were observed. Multi-cytokine responses were inter alia directed against known tumor antigens such as cyclin D1 but also against a (predicted) mutation contained in ERBB3. Immunohistochemistry did not show a relevant influx of immune cells into distant malignant lesions after RFA treatment (n = 9) as compared to the surgery only mCRC group (n = 7). Conclusions: Using an individualized approach for target selection, RFA induced and/or boosted T cell responses specific for individual tumor antigens were more frequently detectable as compared to previously published observations with well-characterized tumor antigens. However, the witnessed modest RFA-induced immunological effects alone may not be sufficient for the rejection of established tumors. Therefore, these findings warrant further clinical investigation including the assessment of RFA combination therapies e.g., with immune stimulatory agents, cancer vaccination, and/or immune checkpoint inhibitors.

3.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 28, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although mutated HLA ligands are considered ideal cancer-specific immunotherapy targets, evidence for their presentation is lacking in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Employing a unique multi-omics approach comprising a neoepitope identification pipeline, we assessed exome-derived mutations naturally presented as HLA class I ligands in HCCs. METHODS: In-depth multi-omics analyses included whole exome and transcriptome sequencing to define individual patient-specific search spaces of neoepitope candidates. Evidence for the natural presentation of mutated HLA ligands was investigated through an in silico pipeline integrating proteome and HLA ligandome profiling data. RESULTS: The approach was successfully validated in a state-of-the-art dataset from malignant melanoma, and despite multi-omics evidence for somatic mutations, mutated naturally presented HLA ligands remained elusive in HCCs. An analysis of extensive cancer datasets confirmed fundamental differences of tumor mutational burden in HCC and malignant melanoma, challenging the notion that exome-derived mutations contribute relevantly to the expectable neoepitope pool in malignancies with only few mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that exome-derived mutated HLA ligands appear to be rarely presented in HCCs, inter alia resulting from a low mutational burden as compared to other malignancies such as malignant melanoma. Our results therefore demand widening the target scope for personalized immunotherapy beyond this limited range of mutated neoepitopes, particularly for malignancies with similar or lower mutational burden.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Exoma , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação
4.
Ann Surg ; 270(2): 327-332, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to report the first case of resection and partial liver segment 2-3 transplantation with delayed total hepatectomy (RAPID) from living donor in a patient affected of irresectable colorectal liver metastases (i-CRLM) BACKGROUND:: A renaissance of liver transplantation (LT) for i-CRLM has been recently observed. The Norwegian SECA trial demonstrated a 5-year overall survival rate of approximately 60%, notwithstanding early tumor recurrence. The RAPID technique was recently introduced as alternative to whole deceased donor LT, but it is limited by poor availability of splittable organs and many organisational aspects. In this context left lateral living donor LT may be the ideal solution. METHODS: Report about the technique and results of living donor RAPID procedure. TECHNIQUE: A 49 years old woman affected with i-CRLM from adenocarcinoma of right colon, underwent a left hepatectomy with ligation of right portal vein maintaining the right hepatic artery patent. Subsequently, the left lateral lobe from her son was implanted as auxiliary partial orthotopic LT. Two weeks later completion of hepatectomy was performed. RESULTS: The donor postoperative course was uneventful. The recipient developed postoperatively a slight small for size syndrome which spontaneously resolved. No graft dysfunction and no rejection were observed. At POM 5 micrometastases occurred in bones and lungs, which were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, respectively. Almost 2 years later the patient is alive, in good general condition, although slight progression of bone and lung metastases. CONCLUSIONS: LT poses a valid treatment option for i-CRLM. In times of organ paucity, "living donor-RAPID" procedure may represent a paradigm shift in the management of i-CRLM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Doadores Vivos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Clin Med ; 7(12)2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS), followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), combines radical surgery with abdominal heated chemotherapy, constituting a multimodal treatment approach. Since clear standards for HIPEC conduct in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are lacking, we aimed to provide a comprehensive structured survey. Data sources and study eligibility criteria: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, with keywords "HIPEC" and "colorectal cancer", according to established guidelines. Articles were systematically screened, selecting 87 publications complemented by 48 publications identified through extended search for subsequent synthesis and evaluation, extracting inter alia details on used drugs, dosage, temperature, exposure times, and carrier solutions. RESULTS: Compiled publications contained 171 reports on HIPEC conduct foremost with mitomycin C and oxaliplatin, but also other drugs and drug combinations, comprising at least 60 different procedures. We hence provide an overview of interconnections between HIPEC protocols, used drugs and carrier solutions as well as their volumes. In addition, HIPEC temperatures and dosing benchmarks, as well as an estimate of in vivo resulting drug concentrations are demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Owing to recent developments, HIPEC conduct and practices need to be reassessed. Unfortunately, imprecise and lacking reporting is frequent, which is why minimal information requirements should be established for HIPEC and the introduction of final drug concentrations for comparability reasons seems sensible.

6.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 144, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PTEN-hamartoma-tumor-syndrome (PHTS) is caused by germline mutations in Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) and predisposes to the development of several typical malignancies. Whereas PTEN mutations have been implicated in the occurrence of malignant mesotheliomas, the genetic landscape of verrucous carcinomas (VC) is largely uncharted. Both VC and malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas (MPM) are exceedingly rare and a potential link between these malignancies and PHTS has never been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We here describe the clinical course of a PHTS patient who, in addition to a typical thyroid carcinoma at the age of 36 years, developed a highly-differentiated oral VC and an epithelioid MPM six years later. The patient with a history of occupational asbestos exposure underwent cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for MPM. The clinical diagnosis of PHTS was consequently corroborated by a germline PTEN deletion. Sequencing of tumor tissue revealed a second hit in PTEN in the thyroid carcinoma and VC, confirmed by a PTEN loss and activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, additional somatic mutations in the thyroid carcinoma as well as in the VC were detected, whereas the genetics of MPM remained unrevealing. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We here report the very unusual clinical course of a patient with rare tumors that have a germline mutation first hit in PTEN in common. Since this patient was exposed to asbestos and current evidence suggests molecular mechanisms that might render PHTS patients particularly susceptible to mesothelioma, we strongly recommend PHTS patients to avoid even minimal exposure.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Verrucoso/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mesotelioma/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Humanos , Doenças Raras
7.
Cancer Res ; 78(16): 4627-4641, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789417

RESUMO

Immune cell infiltrates have proven highly relevant for colorectal carcinoma prognosis, making colorectal cancer a promising candidate for immunotherapy. Because tumors interact with the immune system via HLA-presented peptide ligands, exact knowledge of the peptidome constitution is fundamental for understanding this relationship. Here, we comprehensively describe the naturally presented HLA ligandome of colorectal carcinoma and corresponding nonmalignant colon (NMC) tissue. Mass spectrometry identified 35,367 and 28,132 HLA class I ligands on colorectal carcinoma and NMC, attributable to 7,684 and 6,312 distinct source proteins, respectively. Cancer-exclusive peptides were assessed on source protein level using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein analysis through evolutionary relationships (PANTHER), revealing pathognomonic colorectal carcinoma-associated pathways, including Wnt, TGFß, PI3K, p53, and RTK-RAS. Relative quantitation of peptide presentation on paired colorectal carcinoma and NMC tissue further identified source proteins from cancer- and infection-associated pathways to be overrepresented merely within the colorectal carcinoma ligandome. From the pool of tumor-exclusive peptides, a selected HLA-ligand subset was assessed for immunogenicity, with the majority exhibiting an existing T-cell repertoire. Overall, these data show that the HLA ligandome reflects cancer-associated pathways implicated in colorectal carcinoma oncogenesis, suggesting that alterations in tumor cell metabolism could result in cancer-specific, albeit not mutation-derived, tumor antigens. Hence, a defined pool of unique tumor peptides, attributable to complex cellular alterations that are exclusive to malignant cells, might comprise promising candidates for immunotherapeutic applications.Significance: Cancer-associated pathways are reflected in the antigenic landscape of colorectal cancer, suggesting that tumor-specific antigens do not necessarily have to be mutation-derived but may also originate from other alterations in cancer cells. Cancer Res; 78(16); 4627-41. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Imunoterapia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Espectrometria de Massas , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
8.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 314(3): E266-E273, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138227

RESUMO

The liver is a central regulator of whole body glucose, and lipid homeostasis and hepatokines, like fetuin-A, have been identified as markers and mediators of fatty liver-induced cardiometabolic risk. The closely related protein fetuin-B was shown to be upregulated in the fatty liver and to impact on glucose homeostasis in mice. In the present study we aimed to test the relevance of these findings in humans. In 55 subjects, hepatic mRNA expression of both hepatokines, fetuin-A and fetuin-B, associated positively with liver triglyceride content, whereas only fetuin-A expression associated with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. In 220 subjects who underwent precise metabolic phenotyping, circulating fetuin-A, but not fetuin-B, associated positively with liver fat content, and negatively with insulin sensitivity, measured during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and during the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp. Both circulating fetuin-A and fetuin-B correlated positively with the glucose area under the curve during the OGTT, but after additional adjustment for insulin sensitivity this relationship remained significant only for fetuin-B. In conclusion, despite the fact that the two hepatokines, fetuin-A and fetuin-B, are upregulated in the state of hepatic steatosis in humans, it appears that they differently impact on glucose homeostasis. Our data are in agreement with observations that fetuin-A can alter insulin signaling and that fetuin-B may regulate glucose homeostasis via so far unknown effects, possibly on glucose effectiveness.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fetuína-B , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Fetuína-B/análise , Fetuína-B/genética , Fetuína-B/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/análise , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/genética , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/metabolismo
9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 24(6): 1650-1657, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28160138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is used to treat peritoneal surface malignancies with application of cytostatic drugs such as oxaliplatin (OX) after cytoreductive surgery. Despite its increased use, evidence for optimal drug dosage, and notably duration of HIPEC, is scarce. METHODS: In this study, OX distribution was comprehensively assessed in nine patients during HIPEC (300 mg OX/m2 body surface area in Physioneal solution for 30 min). Oxaliplatin and its derivatives were measured in peritoneal perfusates over time by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and the resulting total platinum concentration in tissue was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Additionally, a novel impedance-based real-time cytotoxicity assay was used to evaluate the bioactivity of perfusates ex vivo. RESULTS: Compared with amounts of OX expected in peritoneal perfusates by calculation, only 10-15% of the parent drug could be detected by LC-MS during HIPEC. Notably, the study additionally detected platinum compounds consistent with OX transformation, accounting for a further fraction of the applied drug. The cytotoxic properties of perfusates remained unchanged during HIPEC, with only a slight but significant attenuation evidenced after 30 min. CONCLUSIONS: The bioactivity of peritoneal perfusates ex vivo is a useful parameter for evaluating the actual cytotoxic potential of OX and its derivatives used in HIPEC over time, overcoming important limitations and disadvantages associated with respective drug monitoring only. Ex vivo cytotoxicity assays may be a promising tool to aid guiding future standardization and harmonization of HIPEC protocols based on drug-mediated effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional , Protocolos Clínicos , Hipertermia Induzida , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Prognóstico
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 101(12): 4743-4751, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27715400

RESUMO

CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Acute pharmacological inhibition of 11ß-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase 1 (11ß-HSD1), which converts cortisone into the much more potent cortisol in peripheral tissues, results in reduction of total, visceral, and liver fat but not insulin resistance. We now investigated whether lifelong alterations of 11ß-HSD1 activity similarly affect these cardiometabolic risk parameters by studying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 11ß-HSD1-coding gene (HSD11B1). DESIGN/METHODS: Liver fat content was measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and total and visceral fat mass by 1H-magnetic resonance tomography in 327 subjects. Insulin sensitivity (IS) was estimated during an oral glucose tolerance test and the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp (n = 219). Nine SNPs covering the whole HSD11B1 gene were genotyped. RESULTS: After correction for multiple testing, liver fat content strongly correlated with three SNPs, rs2235543, rs12565406, and rs4844880 (P = .0002, P = .001, and P = .0009, respectively), independently of gender and age. There was a nominal association of these SNPs with hepatic IS but only of rs4844880 with whole-body IS. Subjects homozygous for the major allele had an adjusted odds ratio of 2.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-3.90) for rs2235543, 2.06 (95% CI 1.08-4.13) for rs12565406, and 1.95 (95% CI 1.13-3.49) for rs4844880 for having nonalcoholic fatty liver disease compared with carriers of the minor allele. Less strong associations of these SNPs with visceral fat mass were observed. In liver biopsies, carriers of the minor alleles of rs2235543 and rs12565406 had significantly lower HSD11B1 mRNA expression (n = 105, P = .034 and P = .0086, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: 11ß-HSD1 may be an important enzyme in the pathogenesis of fatty liver and visceral obesity and a promising target for their treatment.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/genética , Adiposidade , Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Obesidade Abdominal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade Abdominal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem
11.
World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther ; 7(3): 434-9, 2016 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27602245

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the clinical impact of post-hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) leukopenia, intraperitoneal and combined intravenous/intraperitoneal drug administrations were compared. METHODS: Two patient cohorts were retrospectively analyzed regarding the incidence of postoperative leukopenia. The first cohort (n = 32) received Mitomycin C (MMC)-based HIPEC intraperitoneally (35 mg/m² for 90 min) and the second cohort (n = 10) received a bi-directional therapy consisting of oxaliplatin (OX) (300 mg/m(2) for 30 min) intraperitoneally and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 400 mg/m² plus folinic acid 20 mg/m² intravenously. The following data were collected retrospectively: Age, sex, length of operation, length of hospital stay, amount of resection including extent of peritonectomy, peritoneal cancer index, CC (completeness of cytoreduction)-status and leukocyte-count before cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC, on days 3, 7 and 14 after CRS and HIPEC. HIPEC leukopenia was defined as < 4000 cells/m³. RESULTS: Leukopenia occurred statistically more often in the MMC than in the OX/5-FU-group (10/32 vs 0/10; P = 0.042). Leukopenia set-on was on day 7 after CRS and MMC-HIPEC and lasted for two to three days. Three patients (33%) required medical treatment. Patients affected by leukopenia were predominantly female (7/10 patients) and older than 50 years (8/10 patients). The length of hospital stay tended to be higher in the MMC-group without reaching statistical significance (22.5 ± 11 vs 16.5 ± 3.5 d). Length of operation (08:54 ± 01:44 vs 09:48 ± 02:28 h) were comparable between patients with and without postoperative leukopenia. Prior history of systemic chemotherapy did not trigger post-HIPEC leukopenia. Occurrence of leucopenia did not trigger surgical site infections, intraabdominal abscess formations, hospital-acquired pneumonia or anastomotic insufficiencies. CONCLUSION: Surgeons must be aware that there is a higher incidence of postoperative leukopenia in MMC-based HIPEC protocols primarily affecting females and older patients.

12.
Sci Rep ; 6: 26745, 2016 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27228955

RESUMO

Circulating trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) levels predict cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly by impacting on cholesterol metabolism and oxidative stress. Because hepatic TMAO production is regulated by insulin signalling and it is unclear whether and to what extent circulating TMAO levels associate with CVD risk, independently of insulin resistance and its important determinants fatty liver and visceral obesity, we have now addressed this question in 220 subjects who participated in the Tübingen Lifestyle Intervention Program. Visceral fat mass (r = 0.40, p < 0.0001), liver fat content (r = 0.23, p = 0.0005) and TMAO levels (r = 0.26, p < 0.0001) associated positively, and insulin sensitivity associated negatively (r = -0.18, p = 0.009) with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Higher TMAO levels (std.-Beta 0.11, p = 0.03) predicted increased cIMT, independently of age, sex and visceral fat mass. While during the lifestyle intervention most cardiovascular risk parameters improved, mean TMAO levels did not change (p = 0.18). However, cIMT decreased significantly (p = 0.0056) only in subjects in the tertile with the largest decrease of TMAO levels (>20%). We provide novel information that increased serum TMAO levels associate with increased cIMT, independently of established cardiovascular risk markers, including insulin resistance, visceral obesity and fatty liver. Furthermore, the decrease of cIMT during a lifestyle intervention may be related to the decrease of TMAO levels.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Aterosclerose/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Metilaminas/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0145563, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26726810

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms govern vital functions. Their disruption provokes metabolic imbalance favouring obesity and type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the role of clock genes in human prediabetes. To this end, genotype-phenotype associations of 121 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging ARNTL, ARNTL2, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2, PER3, and TIMELESS were assessed in a study population of 1,715 non-diabetic individuals metabolically phenotyped by 5-point oral glucose tolerance tests. In subgroups, hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps, intravenous glucose tolerance tests, and magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy were performed. None of the tested SNPs was associated with body fat content, insulin sensitivity, or insulin secretion. Four CRY2 SNPs were associated with fasting glycaemia, as reported earlier. Importantly, carriers of these SNPs' minor alleles revealed elevated fasting glycaemia and, concomitantly, reduced liver fat content. In human liver tissue samples, CRY2 mRNA expression was directly associated with hepatic triglyceride content. Our data may point to CRY2 as a novel switch in hepatic fuel metabolism promoting triglyceride storage and, concomitantly, limiting glucose production. The anti-steatotic effects of the glucose-raising CRY2 alleles may explain why these alleles do not increase type-2 diabetes risk.


Assuntos
Criptocromos/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Pleura Peritoneum ; 1(3): 145-158, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911618

RESUMO

The peritoneum consists of a layer of mesothelial cells on a connective tissue base which is perfused with circulatory and lymphatic vessels. Total effective blood flow to the human peritoneum is estimated between 60 and 100 mL/min, representing 1-2 % of the cardiac outflow. The parietal peritoneum accounts for about 30 % of the peritoneal surface (anterior abdominal wall 4 %) and is vascularized from the circumflex, iliac, lumbar, intercostal, and epigastric arteries, giving rise to a quadrangular network of large, parallel blood vessels and their perpendicular offshoots. Parietal vessels drain into the inferior vena cava. The visceral peritoneum accounts for 70 % of the peritoneal surface and derives its blood supply from the three major arteries that supply the splanchnic organs, celiac and superior and inferior mesenteric. These vessels give rise to smaller arteries that anastomose extensively. The visceral peritoneum drains into the portal vein. Drugs absorbed are subject to first-pass hepatic metabolism. Peritoneal inflammation and cancer invasion induce neoangiogenesis, leading to the development of an important microvascular network. Anatomy of neovessels is abnormal and characterized by large size, varying diameter, convolution and blood extravasation. Neovessels have a defective ultrastructure: formation of large "mother vessels" requires degradation of venular and capillary basement membranes. Mother vessels give birth to numerous "daughter vessels". Diffuse neoangiogenesis can be observed before appearance of macroscopic peritoneal metastasis. Multiplication of the peritoneal capillary surface by neoangiogenesis surface increases the part of cardiac outflow directed to the peritoneum.

15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 100(12): E1568-74, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26439088

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Previous studies revealed that the common sequence variant I148M in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) is associated with liver fat content and liver diseases, but not with insulin resistance. Recent data suggest that the PNPLA3 I148M variant has reduced retinyl-palmitate lipase activity in hepatic stellate cells. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the PNPLA3 I148M variant is associated with elevated retinyl-palmitate storage in human liver as a potential link to the clinical pathology. Design/Setting and Participants: Using HPLC, we quantified the retinoid metabolites in liver tissue extracts obtained from 42 human subjects, including 13 heterozygous and six homozygous carriers of the minor PNPLA3 I148M variant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Retinyl-palmitate is elevated in human livers of homozygous PNPLA3 I148M allele carriers Results: The PNPLA3 I148M variant was associated with a significant increase (1.4-fold) in liver fat. The content of retinyl-palmitate was elevated and the ratio of retinol/retinyl-palmitate was reduced in liver extracts obtained from homozygous PNPLA3 I148M minor allele carriers. In a multivariate model including liver fat content, these differences remained significant independent of liver fat content. The content of the minor retinyl-fatty acid esters was similarly increased in homozygous PNPLA3 I148M carriers. CONCLUSIONS: The increased content of hepatic retinyl-palmitate and the reduced ratio of retinol/retinyl-palmitate in PNPLA3 I148M minor allele carriers support in vitro findings of an altered retinyl-palmitate lipase activity. Our results indicate that the PNPLA3 I148M variant is relevant for the retinyl-palmitate content in human liver, providing a possible link to chronic liver disease.


Assuntos
Lipase/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Palmitatos/metabolismo , Retinoides/metabolismo , Idoso , Alelos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Vitamina A/metabolismo
16.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 400(6): 693-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26245705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) prolongs survival in selected patients with peritoneal metastases. Since this procedure is likely to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality, it remains controversial whether it is also suitable for patients older than 70 years. METHODS: Consecutive patients with radiographic evidence of peritoneal metastases (PM) were scheduled for CRS and HIPEC at the Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed categorizing patients with respect to age into elderly (age ≥ 70) and non-elderly patients (age < 70). RESULTS: Between June 2005 and March 2014, 381 patients with a median age of 55 [14-77] years could be enrolled with 29 patients (8 %) being at least 70 years old. Both groups were comparable for tumor-related parameters including PCI, CC-status, time in operating room, and visceral resections. However, there was a difference in patient-related factors such as cardio-pulmonary comorbidities and ASA score. We found no difference in overall and recurrence-free survival between the two groups. Surgery-related mortality was 0.9 % in patients younger than 70 years whereas no patient died in the elderly group. Overall morbidity was 47 % in the younger and 76 % in the elderly group (p = 0.048). There was no difference in Clavien-Dindo grade III-IV morbidity. Logistic regression analysis proved age as an independent risk factor for increased overall morbidity in elderly patients. CONCLUSION: In elderly patients, CRS and HIPEC are associated with increased overall morbidity but neither Dindo III-IV morbidity nor surgery-related mortality.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Invest Surg ; 28(3): 160-6, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25565126

RESUMO

AIM: In locally advanced ovarian cancer with bowel involvement appropriate surgical treatment is still controversial. Objective was to delineate factors to select those most likely to benefit from radical surgery in patients with locally advanced ovarian cancer. METHODS: Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated 207 consecutive patients with primary stage IIB-IV ovarian cancer who underwent primary surgery between 2000 and 2007. Every patient received stage-related surgery and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 53.5 months. Data collected included stage, histology, extent of cytoreduction and type of bowel resection. Univariate survival analyses were performed to investigate variables associated with outcome. RESULTS: Optimal cytoreduction (OCR) (R ≤ 1 cm) was achieved in 76.8%. Most patients presented histologic grade 2/3 (96.6%), serous ovarian cancers (84.1%) and lymph node involvement (52.2%). Complete cytoreduction (R = 0 mm) has significant best prognostic impact in FIGO IIB-IV (p = .026). Regarding bowel involvement, bowel resection was performed in 82 patients (39.6%). In this subgroup of patients complete cytoreduction led to significant better overall survival than R > 0 mm-1 cm, even in FIGO IIIC-IV patients (p = .027); this fact is independent of bowel resection. Noticeably, for survival bowel resection achieving residual tumor mass below 1 cm was also one main prognostic factor and even recurrence rate was associated with residual tumor mass. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the major prognostic factor in patients with advanced ovarian cancer needing colorectal resection is completeness of cytoreduction. Therefore, in advanced ovarian cancer patients, multivisceral surgery is indicated to achieve OCR (R ≤ 1 cm) with or without bowel resection with best prognostic impact.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Gastric Cancer ; 14(2): 117-22, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25061539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been shown to improve survival in select patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal metastases. It remains unclear, however, whether this multimodal treatment protocol is also beneficial for signet-ring cell gastric cancer (SRC) patients with peritoneal metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data of patients scheduled for upfront systemic chemotherapy consisting of 5-FU (2,600 mg/m(2)), folinic acid (200 mg/m(2)), docetaxel (50 mg/m(2)), and oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) followed by CRS and HIPEC using cisplatin (50 mg/m(2)) at the Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Eighteen consecutive patients for whom irresectability has been ruled out by a computed tomography scan were enrolled. However, complete cytoreduction could only be achieved in 72% of patients. When categorizing patients with respect to the completeness of cytoreduction, we found no difference between both groups considering tumor- or patient-related factors. The overall complication rate following complete cytoreduction and HIPEC was 46%. Within a median follow-up of 6.6 (0.5~31) months, the median survival for CRS and HIPEC patients was 8.9 months as opposed to 1.1 months for patients where complete cytoreduction could not be achieved. Following complete cytoreduction and HIPEC, progression-free survival was 6.2 months. CONCLUSIONS: In SRC with peritoneal metastases, the prognosis appears to remain poor irrespective of complete CRS and HIPEC. Moreover, complete cytoreduction could not be achieved in a considerable percentage of patients. In SRC, CRS and HIPEC should be restricted to highly selective patients in order to avoid exploratory laparotomy.

19.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 40(5): 1121-8, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24923481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of different histologically proven primary tumors based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients underwent simultaneous MR/PET after clinically indicated (18) F-FDG-PET/CT. For all patients, histology of the primary tumor was obtained. MR protocol comprised anatomical imaging and axial DWI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and FDG-PET were co-registered for evaluation of ADC and standard uptake value (SUV) of peritoneal lesions. Both lesion- and patient-based analysis was performed. Up to four peritoneal lesions were evaluated per patient. Mean and maximum standard uptake value (SUVmean , SUVmax ), mean and minimum ADC (ADCmean , ADCmin ) of each lesion were assessed. Spearman rank correlation (rs ) of ADC and SUV were calculated. SUV and ADC of ovarian and colorectal cancer lesions were compared using Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Measurable lesions (n = 52) were found in 20 of 41 PC patients. Moderate, but significant correlation existed between ADC and SUV in the lesion-based as well as the patient-based analysis (lesion-based: SUVmean versus ADCmean rs = -0.58; SUVmax versus ADCmin rs = -0.56, all P < 0.0001; patient-based: SUVmean versus ADCmean rs = -0.64, P = 0.002; SUVmax versus ADCmin rs = -0.60, P = 0.005). ADC and SUV differed significantly between ovarian and colorectal cancer lesions (ADCmin : P < 0.0001; ADCmean : P < 0.0001; SUVmax : P = 0.002; SUVmean : P = 0.005). Overall, mucinous tumor entities showed a tendency to higher ADC and lower SUV. CONCLUSION: PC lesions showed significant differences in glucose uptake and diffusion characteristics depending on primary tumor histology. These differences should be considered when interpreting FDG-PET and DWI in PC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 399(5): 589-94, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24817542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This investigation aims to assess morbidity, mortality and postoperative outcomes of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (REOC) with peritoneal metastases (PM). METHODS: Consecutive patients with radiographic evidence of REOC with PM were scheduled for CRS and HIPEC at the Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 90 patients were analyzed. Complete cytoreduction and HIPEC could be performed in 69 % of patients. When categorizing patients with respect to the completeness of cytoreduction (CC-0/1 vs CC-2/3), there was no difference considering baseline demographic characteristics. Cumulative morbidity was 42 %. Morbidity rates did not statistically differ between CC-0/1 patients with HIPEC and CC-2/3 patients without HIPEC. No surgery-related and 90-day postoperative mortality was observed. In CC-0/1 patients, median overall survival was 35 months as opposed to 14 months in CC-2/3 patients. There was no difference in survival with respect to the peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) as long as complete cytoreduction could be achieved. CONCLUSIONS: CRS and HIPEC can be performed with acceptable morbidity and low mortality in specialized centres. Our data do not suggest that HIPEC necessarily increases the risk of postoperative adverse events.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional/métodos , Hipertermia Induzida , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/secundário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/secundário , Ovariectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA