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1.
Am Heart J ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urgent recognition and treatment are needed in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), however this may be difficult during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with a national lock-down. We aimed to examine the incidence of ACS after national lock-down. METHODS: The Danish government announced national lock-down on March 11 2020 and first phase of reopening was announced on April 6. Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified first-time ACS admissions in A) January 1 - May 7 2017-2019, and B) January 1 - May 6 2020. Incidence rates of ACS admissions per week for the 2017-2019-period and the 2020-period were computed and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The number of ACS admissions were 8,204 (34.6% female, median age 68.3 years) and 2,577 (34.0% female, median age 68.5 years) for the 2017-2019- and 2020-period, respectively. No significant differences in IRRs were identified for weeks 1-9 (January 1 - March 4) for 2020 compared with week 1-9 for 2017-2019. In 2020, significant lower IRRs were identified for week 10 (March 5-11) IRR=0.71 (95% CI: 0.58-0.87), week 11 (12-18 March) IRR=0.68 (0.56-0.84), and week 14 (2 - 8 April) IRR=0.79 (0.65-0.97). No significant differences in IRRs were identified for week 15-18 (April 9 - May 6). In subgroup analysis, we identified that the main result was driven by male patients, and patients ≥60 years. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic with an established national lock-down we identified a significant decline around 30% in the incidence of ACS admissions. Along with the reopening of society, ACS admissions were stabilized at levels equal to previous years.

2.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e041122, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the long-term absolute risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease after kidney donation in living kidney donors. DESIGN: Living kidney donors were matched to 10 controls from the general population. SETTING: Multiple Danish national registries were used to identify living kidney donors from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2017 nationwide. PARTICIPANTS: 1262 living kidney donors and 12 620 controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. RESULTS: The median age of living kidney donors was 52 (men 43%). Hypertension developed in 50 (4%) and 231 (1.8%) with a median follow-up of 7 years (IQR 3.3-12.1 years with a maximum follow-up of 22 years) and 6.9 years (IQR 3.2-11.7 years and maximum follow-up of 22 years) for donors and controls, respectively. The absolute risk of hypertension was 2.3% (95% CI 1.4% to 3.2%) and 1.2% (95% CI 1.0% to 1.4%), 4.2% (95% CI 2.8% to 5.7%) and 2.4% (95% CI 2.1% to 2.8%), 8.6% (95% CI 6.0% to 11.3%) and 3.3% (95% CI 2.8% to 3.8%) within 5, 10, 15 years for donors and controls, respectively. The ratio of the 10-year absolute risks for hypertension was 1.64 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.88) for donors compared with the controls. Two donors and four controls developed renal replacement therapy requiring end-stage renal disease during follow-up. The absolute risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes was 7.3% (95% CI 5.7% to 9.5%) and 8.3% (95% CI 7.7% to 9.0%), 1.7% (95% CI 0.7% to 2.8%) and 3.2% (95% CI 2.7% to 3.6%) at 10 years for donors and controls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Living kidney donors have an increased long-term absolute risk of hypertension compared with controls from the general population.

3.
Europace ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200171

RESUMO

AIMS: The Cardiac Arrhythmias and RIsk Stratification after Myocardial infArction (CARISMA) study was an observational trial including 312 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%. Primary percutaneous intervention (pPCI) was introduced 2 years after start of the enrolment, dividing the population into two groups: pre- and post-pPCI. This substudy sought to describe the influence of the mode of revascularization on long-term risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), bradyarrhythmia, and ventricular tachycardia and the subsequent risk of relevant major cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included the 268 patients without a history of AF. All patients received an implantable cardiac monitor (ICM) and were followed for 2 years. The choice of revascularization was made by the treating team independently of the trial and retrospectively divided into pPCI, subacute PCI, primary thrombolysis, or no revascularization. Endpoints were new-onset arrhythmia and MACE.A total of 77 patients received no revascularization, whereas 49 received thrombolysis only and 142 received any PCI. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for developing any arrhythmia and the subsequently risk of MACE were increased in non-revascularized or thrombolysed patients compared with PCI-patients (any arrhythmia, non-revascularization: HR = 1.7, P = 0.01 and thrombolysis: HR = 1.6, P = 0.05; MACE, non-revascularization: HR = 3.1, P = 0.05 and thrombolysis: HR = 3.1, P = 0.08). All HRs were adjusted for significant baseline and clinically considered covariates and stratified for calendar year. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that the long-term risk of arrhythmia documented by an ICM and the subsequent risk of MACE were increased in non-revascularized or thrombolysed patients compared with PCI-patients in a post-MI population with LVEF <40%.

4.
Am Heart J ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) patients has been associated with a worse outcome. Similarly, excessive supraventricular ectopic activity (ESVEA) has been linked to development of AF, stroke and death. This study aimed to investigate AF and ESVEA's association with outcomes and effect of prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation in non-ischemic HF patients. METHODS: A total of 850 patients with non-ischemic HF, left ventricle ejection fraction ≤35%, and elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptides underwent 24-hours Holter recording. The presence of AF (≥30 seconds) and ESVEA (≥30 supraventricular ectopic complexes (SVEC) per hour or run of SVEC ≥20 beats) were registered. Outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death (CVD) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). RESULTS: AF was identified in 188 patients (22%), and ESVEA in 84 patients (10%). After 4 years and 11 months of follow-up, a total of 193 patients (23%) had died. AF was associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.44; CI 1.04-1.99; P=0.03) and CVD (HR 1.59; CI 1.07-2.36; P=0.02). ESVEA was associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.73; CI 1.16-2.57; P=0.0073) and CVD (HR 1.76; CI 1.06-2.92; P=0.03). Neither AF nor ESVEA was associated with SCD. ICD implantation was not associated with an improved prognosis for neither AF (P-value for interaction=0.17), nor ESVEA (P-value for interaction=0.68). CONCLUSION: Both AF and ESVEA were associated with worsened prognosis in non-ischemic HF. However, ICD implantation was not associated with an improved prognosis for either group.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5881, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208748

RESUMO

Microbiota-host-diet interactions contribute to the development of metabolic diseases. Imidazole propionate is a novel microbially produced metabolite from histidine, which impairs glucose metabolism. Here, we show that subjects with prediabetes and diabetes in the MetaCardis cohort from three European countries have elevated serum imidazole propionate levels. Furthermore, imidazole propionate levels were increased in subjects with low bacterial gene richness and Bacteroides 2 enterotype, which have previously been associated with obesity. The Bacteroides 2 enterotype was also associated with increased abundance of the genes involved in imidazole propionate biosynthesis from dietary histidine. Since patients and controls did not differ in their histidine dietary intake, the elevated levels of imidazole propionate in type 2 diabetes likely reflects altered microbial metabolism of histidine, rather than histidine intake per se. Thus the microbiota may contribute to type 2 diabetes by generating imidazole propionate that can modulate host inflammation and metabolism.

7.
Circ Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164553

RESUMO

Background: The impact of heart failure (HF) duration on outcomes and treatment effect is largely unknown. We aim to compare baseline patient characteristics, outcomes and the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, in relation to time from diagnosis of HF in DAPA-HF. Methods: HF duration was categorized as ≥2 to ≤12 months, >1-2 years, >2-5 years and >5 years. Outcomes were adjusted for prognostic variables and analyzed using Cox regression. The primary endpoint was the composite of worsening HF or cardiovascular death. Treatment effect was examined within each duration category and by duration threshold. Results: The number of patients in each category was: 1098 (≥2 to ≤12 months), 686 (>1-2 years), 1105 (>2-5 years) and 1855 (>5 years). Longer-duration HF patients were older and more comorbid with worse symptoms. The rate of the primary outcome (per 100 person-years) increased with HF duration: 10.2 (95% CI 8.7-12.0) for ≥2 to ≤12 months, 10.6 (8.7-12.9) >1-2 years, 15.5 (13.6-17.7) >2-5 years and 15.9 (14.5-17.6) for >5 years. Similar trends were seen for all other outcomes. The benefit of dapagliflozin was consistent across HF duration and on threshold analysis. The hazard ratio for the primary outcome ≥2 to ≤12 months was 0.86 (0.63-1.18), >1-2 years 0.95 (0.64-1.42), >2-5 years 0.74 (0.57-0.96) and >5 years 0.64 (0.53-0.78), P-interaction=0.26. The absolute benefit was greatest in longest duration HF, with a number needed-to-treat of 18 for HF >5 years, compared with 28 for ≥2 to ≤12 months. Conclusions: Longer-duration HF patients were older, had more comorbidity and symptoms, and higher rates of worsening HF and death. The benefits of dapagliflozin were consistent across HF duration. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

8.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494820964974, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and influenza are major health concerns and constitute a high economic burden. However, few data are available on the associated risk of pneumonia and influenza and work exposure on a large population scale. AIM: This study aimed to examine the associated risk of pneumonia and influenza by type of work exposure. METHODS: By cross-linking administrative Danish registries, we classified people in 10 different profession types. The main outcome was hospitalisation with pneumonia or influenza. A multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the associated incidence rate ratio (IRR) of being hospitalised with pneumonia or influenza by type of profession. RESULTS: A total of 1,327,606 people added risk time to the analyses. In a multivariable model, work in day care, public transportation, sewers and nursing home care was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation with pneumonia compared to work within public administration: IRR=1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.28), IRR=1.21 (95% CI 1.09-1.34), IRR=1.61 (95% CI 1.19-2.19) and IRR=1.10 (95% CI 1.03-1.18), respectively. In a multivariable analysis, people working within public transportation were associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation with influenza compared to people working within public administration: IRR=2.54 (95% CI 1.79-3.58). CONCLUSIONS: Working in day care, public transportation, sewers and nursing home care increased the associated risk of hospitalisation with pneumonia, and working within public transportation increased the associated risk of being hospitalised with influenza compared to working within public administration.

10.
J Electrocardiol ; 63: 28-34, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is clinically diagnosed by significant ST-segment elevation (STE) in the electrocardiogram (ECG). The importance of the sum of significant ST-segment elevation (∑STE) before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) - considered an indicator of the degree of ischemia - is sparse. We evaluated the association of ∑STE before PPCI with respect to area at risk, infarct size and myocardial salvage. METHODS: A total of 503 patients with STEMI and available cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) were included. CMR was performed at day 1 (interquartile range [IQR], 1-1) and at follow-up at day 92 (IQR, 88-96). The ECG before PPCI with the most prominent STE was used for analysis. RESULTS: ∑STE divided into quartiles were progressive linearly associated with area at risk (p < 0.001), final infarct size (p < 0.001) and extent of microvascular obstruction (p < 0.001) and inverse linearly associated with final myocardial salvage (p < 0.001). Similar results were found for linear regression analyses. However, ∑STE was not associated with final myocardial salvage in patients with pre-PCI TIMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction) flow 0/1 (p = 0.24) in contrast to patients with pre-PCI TIMI flow 2/3 (p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with STEMI presenting within 12 h of symptom onset, the degree of STE in the ECG before PPCI is a marker of the extent of myocardium at risk that in turn affects the infarct size in patients with pre-PCI TIMI flow 0/1, whereas the degree of STE in patients with pre-PCI TIMI flow 2/3 is a marker of the extent of the myocardium at risk as well as myocardial salvage - both affecting the myocardial damage.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been proposed to identify patients at higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes, but existing evidence is conflicting. Thus, it is unclear whether pre-existing CVDs are independently important predictors for severe COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide Danish cohort of hospital-screened COVID-19 patients aged > =40, we investigated if pre-existing CVDs predict the 30-day risk of (1) composite outcome of severe COVID-19 and (2) all-cause mortality. We estimated 30-day risks using a Cox regression model including age, sex, each CVD comorbidity, COPD-asthma, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. To illustrate CVD comorbidities' importance, we evaluated the predicted risks of death and severe infection, for each sex, along ages 40 - 85. 4,090 COVID-19 hospital-screened patients were observed as of August 26, 2020; 22.1% had ≥ 1 CVD, 23.7% had severe infection within 30 days and 12.6% died. Predicted risks of both outcomes at age 75 among men with single CVD comorbidities did not differ in clinically meaningful amounts compared to men with no comorbidities risks for the composite outcome of severe infection; women with heart failure (28.2%; 95% CI 21.1%-37.0%) or atrial fibrillation (30.0%; 95% CI: 24.2%-36.9%) showed modest increases compared to women with no comorbidities (24.0%; 95% CI: 21.4%-26.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The results showing only modest effects of CVDs on increased risks of poor COVID-19 outcomes are important in allowing public health authorities and clinicians to provide more tailored guidance to cardiovascular patients, who have heretofore been grouped together as high-risk due to their disease status.

12.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2878-2881, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the benefits of dapagliflozin in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and type 2 diabetes in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF) varied by background glucose-lowering therapy (GLT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the effect of study treatment by the use or not of GLT and by GLT classes and combinations. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or urgent visit requiring intravenous therapy) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: In the 2,139 type 2 diabetes patients, the effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent by GLT use or no use (hazard ratio 0.72 [95% CI 0.58-0.88] vs. 0.86 [0.60-1.23]; interaction P = 0.39) and across GLT classes. CONCLUSIONS: In DAPA-HF, dapagliflozin improved outcomes irrespective of use or no use of GLT or by GLT type used in patients with type 2 diabetes and HFrEF.

13.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 175, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between blood pressure and mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is controversial, with concern for increased risk associated with excessively lowered blood pressure. METHODS: We evaluated whether prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) altered the relationship between baseline blood pressure and all-cause mortality in 5852 patients with T2DM and a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who participated in the ELIXA (Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial. Risk of death was assessed in Cox models adjusted for age, sex, race, heart rate, BMI, smoking, diabetes duration, insulin use, HbA1c, eGFR, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), urine albumin/creatinine ratio, treatment allocation and prior coronary revascularization. RESULTS: Although overall there was no significant association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality (hazard ratio per 10 mmHg lower SBP 1.05 (95% CI 0.99-1.12) P = 0.10), lower SBP was significantly associated with higher risk of death (hazard ratio per 10 mmHg lower SBP 1.13 (95% CI 1.04-1.22) P = 0.002) in 2325 patients with additional CVD (index ACS+ at least one of the following prior to randomization: myocardial infarction other than the index ACS, stroke or heart failure). In 3527 patients with only the index ACS no significant association was observed (hazard ratio per 10 mmHg lower SBP 0.95 (0.86-1.04) P = 0.26; P for interaction 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The association between blood pressure and mortality was modified by additional CVD history in patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent coronary event. When blood pressures measured after an acute coronary event are used to assess the risk of death in patients with type 2 diabetes, the cardiovascular history needs to be taken into consideration. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01147250, first posted June 22, 2010.

14.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 182(41)2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046187

RESUMO

Acute heart failure is a common and severe condition in Danish emergency hospitals. Hypertensive pulmonary oedema, cardiogenic shock and congestive heart failure are the most common phenotypes. The aim of this review is to summarise the most recent international guidelines for acute triage and treatment of acute heart failure. Afterload is reduced with nitrates, congestion is treated with intravenous loop-diuretics, and in selected patients, cardiac output could be increased by inotropic drugs or mechanical support devices.

15.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040613

RESUMO

Background: Many patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have chronic kidney disease (CKD) which complicates pharmacological management and is associated with worse outcomes. We assessed the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF, according to baseline kidney function, in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). We also examined the effect of dapagliflozin on kidney function after randomization. Many patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have chronic kidney disease (CKD) which complicates pharmacological management and is associated with worse outcomes. We assessed the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF, according to baseline kidney function, in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). We also examined the effect of dapagliflozin on kidney function after randomization. Methods: HFrEF patients with or without type 2 diabetes and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 ml/min/1.73m2 were enrolled in DAPA-HF. We calculated the incidence of the primary outcome (CV death or worsening HF) according to eGFR category at baseline (<60 and ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2) as well as using eGFR at baseline as a continuous measure. Secondary cardiovascular outcomes and a pre-specified composite renal outcome (≥ 50% sustained decline eGFR, end stage renal disease (ESRD) or renal death) were also examined, along with decline in eGFR over time. Results: Of 4742 with a baseline eGFR, 1926 (41%) had eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary and secondary outcomes did not differ by eGFR category or examining eGFR as a continuous measurement. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) for the primary endpoint in patients with CKD was 0.71 (0.59, 0.86) vs. 0.77 (0.64, 0.93) in those with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 (interaction p=0.54). The composite renal outcome was not reduced by dapagliflozin (HR=0.71, 95% CI 0.44, 1.16; p=0.17) but the rate of decline in eGFR between day 14 and 720 was less with dapagliflozin, -1.09 (-1.41, -0.78) vs. placebo -2.87 (-3.19, -2.55) ml/min/1.73m2 per year (p<0.001). This was observed in those with and without type 2 diabetes (p for interaction=0.92) Conclusions: Baseline kidney function did not modify the benefits of dapagliflozin on morbidity and mortality in HFrEF and dapagliflozin slowed the rate of decline in eGFR, including in patients without diabetes. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03036124.

16.
Am Heart J ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The DANHEART trial is a multicenter, randomized (1:1), parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in chronic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This investigator driven study will include 1500 HFrEF patients and test in a 2 × 2 factorial design: 1) if hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate reduces the incidence of death and hospitalization with worsening heart failure vs. placebo (H-HeFT) and 2) if metformin reduces the incidence of death, worsening heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke vs. placebo in patients with diabetes or prediabetes (Met-HeFT). METHODS: Symptomatic, optimally treated HFrEF patients with LVEF ≤40% are randomized to active vs. placebo treatment. Patients can be randomized in either both H-HeFT and Met-HeFT or to only one of these study arms. In this event-driven study, it is anticipated that 1300 patients should be included in H-HeFT and 1100 in Met-HeFT and followed for an average of 4 years. RESULTS: As of May 2020, 296 patients have been randomized at 20 centers in Denmark. CONCLUSION: The H-HeFT and Met-HeFT studies will yield new knowledge about the potential benefit and safety of 2 commonly prescribed drugs with limited randomized data in patients with HFrEF.

17.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a life-threatening disease, yet substantial variation in reported incidences of the disease exist. We aimed to conduct a contemporary, nationwide study of the temporal changes in incidence of IE. METHODS: We included all Danish cases of first-time IE (1997-2017) using nationwide registries. Patients were grouped into three seven-year intervals (1997-2003, 2004-2010, 2011-2017). Crude annual incidence rates (IR) per 100,000 person-years (PY) were examined overall and per subgroups: age, sex, patients without prior prosthetic heart valve or a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated adjusting for age-group, sex and diabetes. RESULTS: We identified 8675 patients with IE. Over time, patients were older at diagnosis with a median age of 66.2 years (interquartile range, IQR: 51.5-76.5) and 72.2 years (IQR 62.2-79.9) in 1997-2003 and 2011-2017, respectively. The overall IR increased from 5.0/100,000 PY (95% CI: 4.4-5.6) to 10.5/100,000 PY (95% CI: 9.6-11.3) from 1997 to 2017. IR for patients without prior prosthetic heart valve or a CIED increased from 4.9/100,000 PY (95% CI: 4.3-5.5) to 6.4/100,000 PY (95% CI: 5.8-7.1) (P ≤ 0.0001 for interaction). The IR in males increased from 5.6/100,000 PY (95% CI: 4.7-6.5) to 14.2/100,000 PY (95% CI: 12.9-15.6). The IR in females increased from 4.3/100,000 PY (95% CI: 3.6-5.2) to 6.7/100,000 PY (95% CI: 5.8-7.7). IRR (adjusted for age-groups, sex and diabetes) increased over time (IRR = 1.60 (1.39-1.85) in 2017 vs 1997). CONCLUSION: The incidence of IE more than doubled during the study period. The increase was mainly seen among men and elderly patients only partly explained by the increase in patients with prior heart valve prosthesis or a CIED.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 134: 8-13, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933755

RESUMO

Guidelines recommend the use of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and clinical scores to risk stratify patients after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). High sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) is predictive of outcome after STEMI but the predictive value of hs-cTnT relative to other risk assessment tools has not been established. We aimed to compare the predictive value of hs-cTnT to other risk assessment tools in patients with STEMI. A subset of 578 patients with STEMI were included in this post-hoc study from the Third DANish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients with ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction trial. Patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) during index hospitalization as well as TTE at 1 year after their STEMI. The predictive value of hs-cTnT was compared with CKMB, infarct size (IS)/left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) assessed with CMR, LVEF assessed at discharge with TTE and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk-scores. The primary outcome was LV systolic dysfunction defined as LVEF ≤40% after 1 year on TTE. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed no significant difference between hs-cTnT and early CMR-assessed IS or LVEF in predicting subsequent LVEF ≤40%. Area under the curve for hs-cTnT was 0.82, 0.85 for IS (p = 0.22), and 0.87 for LVEF (p = 0.23). For predischarge TTE-assessed LVEF, the value was 0.85 (p = 0.45), 0.63 for creatine kinase-MB (p <0.001), 0.61 for the GRACE score (p <0.001), and 0.70 for the TIMI score (p = 0.02). A peak hs-cTnT value <3,500 ng/L ruled out LVEF ≤40% with probability of 98%. In conclusion, in patients presenting with STEMI undergoing PCI, hs-cTnT level strongly predicted long-term LV dysfunction and could be used as a clinical risk stratification tool to identify patients at high risk of progressing to LV dysfunction due to its general availability and high-predictive accuracy.

19.
Circulation ; 142(17): 1623-1632, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure), dapagliflozin, added to guideline-recommended therapies, reduced the risk of mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization. We examined the frequency and significance of episodes of outpatient HF worsening, requiring the augmentation of oral therapy, and the effects of dapagliflozin on these additional events. METHODS: Patients in New York Heart Association functional class II to IV, with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% and elevation of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), were eligible. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening HF (HF hospitalization or an urgent HF visit requiring intravenous therapy) or cardiovascular death, whichever occurred first. An additional prespecified exploratory outcome was the primary outcome plus worsening HF symptoms/signs leading to the initiation of new, or the augmentation of existing, oral treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 36% more patients experienced the expanded, in comparison with the primary, composite outcome. In the placebo group, 684 of 2371 (28.8%) patients and, in the dapagliflozin group, 527 of 2373 (22.2%) participants experienced the expanded outcome (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.65-0.82]; P<0.0001). Each component of the composite was reduced significantly by dapagliflozin. Over the median follow-up of 18.2 months, the number of patients needed to treat with dapagliflozin to prevent 1 experiencing an episode of fatal or nonfatal worsening was 16. Among the 4744 randomly assigned patients, the first episode of worsening was outpatient augmentation of treatment in 407 participants (8.6%), an urgent HF visit with intravenous therapy in 20 (0.4%), HF hospitalization in 489 (10.3%), and cardiovascular death in 295 (6.2%). The adjusted risk of death from any cause (in comparison with no event) after an outpatient worsening was hazard ratio, 2.67 (95% CI, 2.03-3.52); after an urgent HF visit, the adjusted risk of death was hazard ratio, 3.00 (95% CI, 1.39-6.48); and after a HF hospitalization, the adjusted risk of death was hazard ratio, 6.21 (95% CI, 5.07-7.62). CONCLUSION: In DAPA-HF, outpatient episodes of HF worsening were common, were of prognostic importance, and were reduced by dapagliflozin. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT03036124.

20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 705, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high mortality. Surgery may improve survival and reduce complications, but the balance between benefit and harm is difficult and may be closely related to age and type of surgical intervention. We aimed to examine how age and type of left-sided surgical intervention modified mortality in patients undergoing surgery for IE. METHODS: By crosslinking nationwide Danish registries we identified patients with first-time IE undergoing surgical treatment 2000-2017. Patients were grouped by age < 60 years, 60-75 years, and ≥ 75 years. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to examine factors associated with 90-day mortality. RESULTS: We included 1767 patients with IE undergoing surgery, 735 patients < 60 years (24.1% female), 766 patients 60-75 years (25.8% female), and 266 patients ≥75 years (36.1% female). The proportions of patients undergoing surgery were 35.3, 26.9, and 9.1% for patients < 60 years, 60-75 years, and > 75 years, respectively. Mortality at 90 days were 7.5, 13.9, and 22.3% (p < 0.001) for three age groups. In adjusted analyses, patients 60-75 years and patients ≥75 years were associated with a higher mortality, HR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.48-2.29) and HR = 2.47 (95% CI: 1.88-3.24) as compared with patients < 60 years. Factors associated with 90-day mortality were: mitral valve surgery, a combination of mitral and aortic valve surgery as compared with isolated aortic valve surgery, age, diabetes, and prosthetic heart valve implantation prior to IE admission. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing surgery for IE, mortality increased significantly with age and 1 in 5 died above age 75 years. Mitral valve surgery as well as multiple valve interventions augmented mortality further.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Endocardite/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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