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1.
ISME J ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479490

RESUMO

Invasive species are co-introduced with microbiota from their native range and also interact with microbiota found in the novel environment to which they are introduced. Host flexibility toward microbiota, or host promiscuity, is an important trait underlying terrestrial plant invasions. To test whether host promiscuity may be important in macroalgal invasions, we experimentally simulated an invasion in a common garden setting, using the widespread invasive macroalga Agarophyton vermiculophyllum as a model invasive seaweed holobiont. After disturbing the microbiota of individuals from native and non-native populations with antibiotics, we monitored the microbial succession trajectories in the presence of a new source of microbes. Microbial communities were strongly impacted by the treatment and changed compositionally and in terms of diversity but recovered functionally by the end of the experiment in most respects. Beta-diversity in disturbed holobionts strongly decreased, indicating that different populations configure more similar -or more common- microbial communities when exposed to the same conditions. This decline in beta-diversity occurred not only more rapidly, but was also more pronounced in non-native populations, while individuals from native populations retained communities more similar to those observed in the field. This study demonstrates that microbial communities of non-native A. vermiculophyllum are more flexibly adjusted to the environment and suggests that an intraspecific increase in host promiscuity has promoted the invasion process of A. vermiculophyllum. This phenomenon may be important among invasive macroalgal holobionts in general.

2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(11): e1008354, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180766

RESUMO

Systematic knockout studies in mice have shown that a large fraction of the gene replacements show no lethal or other overt phenotypes. This has led to the development of more refined analysis schemes, including physiological, behavioral, developmental and cytological tests. However, transcriptomic analyses have not yet been systematically evaluated for non-lethal knockouts. We conducted a power analysis to determine the experimental conditions under which even small changes in transcript levels can be reliably traced. We have applied this to two gene disruption lines of genes for which no function was known so far. Dedicated phenotyping tests informed by the tissues and stages of highest expression of the two genes show small effects on the tested phenotypes. For the transcriptome analysis of these stages and tissues, we used a prior power analysis to determine the number of biological replicates and the sequencing depth. We find that under these conditions, the knockouts have a significant impact on the transcriptional networks, with thousands of genes showing small transcriptional changes. GO analysis suggests that A930004D18Rik is involved in developmental processes through contributing to protein complexes, and A830005F24Rik in extracellular matrix functions. Subsampling analysis of the data reveals that the increase in the number of biological replicates was more important that increasing the sequencing depth to arrive at these results. Hence, our proof-of-principle experiment suggests that transcriptomic analysis is indeed an option to study gene functions of genes with weak or no traceable phenotypic effects and it provides the boundary conditions under which this is possible.

3.
mBio ; 11(6)2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203759

RESUMO

The composition of the plant microbiota may be altered by ecological and evolutionary changes in the host population. Seed-associated microbiota, expected to be largely vertically transferred, have the potential to coadapt with their host over generations. Strong directional selection and changes in the genetic composition of plants during domestication and cultivation may have impacted the assembly and transmission of seed-associated microbiota. Nonetheless, the effect of plant speciation and domestication on the composition of these microbes is poorly understood. Here, we have investigated the composition of bacteria and fungi associated with the wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides) and domesticated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). We show that vertically transmitted bacteria, but not fungi, of domesticated bread wheat species T. aestivum are less diverse and more inconsistent among individual plants compared to those of the wild emmer wheat species T. dicoccoides. We propagated wheat seeds under sterile conditions to characterize the colonization of seedlings by seed-associated microbes. Hereby, we show markedly different community compositions and diversities of leaf and root colonizers of the domesticated bread wheat compared to the wild emmer wheat. By propagating the wild emmer wheat and domesticated bread wheat in two different soils, we furthermore reveal a small effect of plant genotype on microbiota assembly. Our results suggest that domestication and prolonged breeding have impacted the vertically transferred bacteria, but only to a lesser extent have affected the soil-derived microbiota of bread wheat.IMPORTANCE Genetic and physiological changes associated with plant domestication have been studied for many crop species. Still little is known about the impact of domestication on the plant-associated microbiota. In this study, we analyze the seed-associated and soil-derived bacterial and fungal microbiota of domesticated bread wheat and wild emmer wheat. We show a significant difference in the seed-associated, but not soil-derived, bacterial communities of the wheat species. Interestingly, we find less pronounced effects on the fungal communities. Overall, this study provides novel insight into the diversity of vertically transmitted microbiota of wheat and thereby contributes to our understanding of wheat as a "metaorganism." Insight into the wheat microbiota is of fundamental importance for the development of improved crops.

4.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; : 106967, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031928

RESUMO

Hybridization can leave genealogical signatures in an organism's genome, originating from the parental lineages and persisting over time. This potentially confounds phylogenetic inference methods that aim to represent evolution as a strictly bifurcating tree. We apply a phylotranscriptomic approach to study the evolutionary history of, and test for inter-lineage introgression in the Salamandridae, a Holarctic salamanders group of interest in studies of toxicity and aposematism, courtship behavior, and molecular evolution. Although the relationships between the 21 currently recognized salamandrid genera have been the subject of numerous molecular phylogenetic studies, some branches have remained controversial and sometimes affected by discordances between mitochondrial vs. nuclear trees. To resolve the phylogeny of this family, and understand the source of mito-nuclear discordance, we generated new transcriptomic (RNAseq) data for 20 salamandrids and used these along with published data, including 28 mitochondrial genomes, to obtain a comprehensive nuclear and mitochondrial perspective on salamandrid evolution. Our final phylotranscriptomic data set included 5455 gene alignments for 40 species representing 17 of the 21 salamandrid genera. Using concatenation and species-tree phylogenetic methods, we find (1) Salamandrina sister to the clade of the "True Salamanders" (consisting of Chioglossa, Mertensiella, Lyciasalamandra, and Salamandra), (2) Ichthyosaura sister to the Near Eastern genera Neurergus and Ommatotriton, (3) Triturus sister to Lissotriton, and (4) Cynops paraphyletic with respect to Paramesotriton and Pachytriton. Combining introgression tests and phylogenetic networks, we find evidence for introgression among taxa within the clades of "Modern Asian Newts" and "Modern European Newts". However, we could not unambiguously identify the number, position, and direction of introgressive events. Combining evidence from nuclear gene analysis with the observed mito-nuclear phylogenetic discordances, we hypothesize a scenario with hybridization and mitochondrial capture among ancestral lineages of (1) Lissotriton into Ichthyosaura and (2) Triturus into Calotriton, plus introgression of nuclear genes from Triturus into Lissotriton. Furthermore, both mitochondrial capture and nuclear introgression may have occurred among lineages assigned to Cynops. More comprehensive genomic data will, in the future, allow testing this against alternative scenarios involving hybridization with other, extinct lineages of newts.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 159(6): 2130-2145.e5, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: After birth, the immune system matures via interactions with microbes in the gut. The S100 calcium binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9, and their extracellular complex form, S100A8-A9, are found in high amounts in human breast milk. We studied levels of S100A8-A9 in fecal samples (also called fecal calprotectin) from newborns and during infancy, and their effects on development of the intestinal microbiota and mucosal immune system. METHODS: We collected stool samples (n = 517) from full-term (n = 72) and preterm infants (n = 49) at different timepoints over the first year of life (days 1, 3, 10, 30, 90, 180, and 360). We measured levels of S100A8-A9 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and analyzed fecal microbiomes by 16S sRNA gene sequencing. We also obtained small and large intestine biopsies from 8 adults and 10 newborn infants without inflammatory bowel diseases (controls) and 8 infants with necrotizing enterocolitis and measured levels of S100A8 by immunofluorescence microscopy. Children were followed for 2.5 years and anthropometric data and medical information on infections were collected. We performed studies with newborn C57BL/6J wild-type and S100a9-/- mice (which also lack S100A8). Some mice were fed or given intraperitoneal injections of S100A8 or subcutaneous injections of Staphylococcus aureus. Blood and intestine, mesenterial and celiac lymph nodes were collected; cells and cytokines were measured by flow cytometry and studied in cell culture assays. Colon contents from mice were analyzed by culture-based microbiology assays. RESULTS: Loss of S100A8 and S100A9 in mice altered the phenotypes of colonic lamina propria macrophages, compared with wild-type mice. Intestinal tissues from neonatal S100-knockout mice had reduced levels of CX3CR1 protein, and Il10 and Tgfb1 mRNAs, compared with wild-type mice, and fewer T-regulatory cells. S100-knockout mice weighed 21% more than wild-type mice at age 8 weeks and a higher proportion developed fatal sepsis during the neonatal period. S100-knockout mice had alterations in their fecal microbiomes, with higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Feeding mice S100 at birth prevented the expansion of Enterobacteriaceae, increased numbers of T-regulatory cells and levels of CX3CR1 protein and Il10 mRNA in intestine tissues, and reduced body weight and death from neonatal sepsis. Fecal samples from term infants, but not preterm infants, had significantly higher levels of S100A8-A9 during the first 3 months of life than fecal samples from adults; levels decreased to adult levels after weaning. Fecal samples from infants born by cesarean delivery had lower levels of S100A8-A9 than from infants born by vaginal delivery. S100 proteins were expressed by lamina propria macrophages in intestinal tissues from infants, at higher levels than in intestinal tissues from adults. High fecal levels of S100 proteins, from 30 days to 1 year of age, were associated with higher abundance of Actinobacteria and Bifidobacteriaceae, and lower abundance of Gammaproteobacteria-particularly opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae. A low level of S100 proteins in infants' fecal samples associated with development of sepsis and obesity by age 2 years. CONCLUSION: S100A8 and S100A9 regulate development of the intestinal microbiota and immune system in neonates. Nutritional supplementation with these proteins might aide in development of preterm infants and prevent microbiota-associated disorders in later years.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676070

RESUMO

Due to ocean acidification and global warming, surface seawater of the western Baltic Sea is expected to reach an average of ∼1100 µatm pCO2 and an increase of ∼5°C by the year 2100. In four consecutive experiments (spanning 10-11 weeks each) in all seasons within 1 year, the abiotic factors temperature (+5°C above in situ) and pCO2 (adjusted to ∼1100 µatm) were tested for their single and combined effects on epibacterial communities of the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus and on bacteria present in the surrounding seawater. The experiments were set up in three biological replicates using the Kiel Outdoor Benthocosm facility (Kiel, Germany). Phylogenetic analyses of the respective microbiota were performed by bacterial 16S (V1-V2) rDNA Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing after 0, 4, 8, and 10/11 weeks per season. The results demonstrate (I) that the bacterial community composition varied in time and (II) that relationships between operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within an OTU association network were mainly governed by the habitat. (III) Neither single pCO2 nor pCO2:Temperature interaction effects were statistically significant. However, significant impact of ocean warming was detected varying among seasons. (IV) An indicator OTU (iOTU) analysis identified several iOTUs that were strongly influenced by temperature in spring, summer, and winter. In the warming treatments of these three seasons, we observed decreasing numbers of bacteria that are commonly associated with a healthy marine microbial community and-particularly during spring and summer-an increase in potentially pathogenic and bacteria related to intensified microfouling. This might lead to severe consequences for the F. vesiculosus holobiont finally affecting the marine ecosystem.

7.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4305-4314, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579104

RESUMO

A new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae was isolated from the biofilm of a stone at Nordstrand, a peninsula at the German North Sea shore. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain ANORD1T was most closely related to the validly described type strains Polaribacter porphyrae LNM-20T (97.0 %) and Polaribacter reichenbachii KMM 6386T (96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and clustered with Polaribacter gangjinensis K17-16T (96.0 %). Strain ANORD1T was determined to be mesophilic, Gram-negative, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Optimal growth was observed at 20-30 °C, within a salinity range of 2-7 % sea salt and from pH 7-10. Like other type strains of the genus Polaribacter, ANORD1T was tested negative for flexirubin-type pigments, while carotenoid-type pigments were detected. The DNA G+C content of strain ANORD1T was 30.6 mol%. The sole respiratory quinone detected was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The major fatty acids identified were C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C15 : 1 ω6c and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. Based on the polyphasic approach, strain ANORD1T represents a novel species in the genus Polaribacter, with the name Polaribacter septentrionalilitoris sp. nov. being proposed. The type strain is ANORD1T (=DSM 110039T=NCIMB 15081T=MTCC 12685T).


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Carotenoides/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Mar do Norte , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
8.
Mol Ecol ; 29(11): 2094-2108, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408381

RESUMO

Communities are shaped by scale dependent processes. To study the diversity and variation of microbial communities across scales, the invasive and widespread seaweed Agarophyton vermiculophyllum presents a unique opportunity. We characterized pro- and eukaryotic communities associated with this holobiont across its known distribution range, which stretches over the northern hemisphere. Our data reveal that community composition and diversity in the holobiont vary at local but also larger geographic scales. While processes acting at the local scale (i.e., within population) are the main structuring drivers of associated microbial communities, changes in community composition also depend on processes acting at larger geographic scales. Interestingly, the largest analysed scale (i.e., native and non-native ranges) explained variation in the prevalence of predicted functional groups, which could suggest a functional shift in microbiota occurred over the course of the invasion process. While high variability in microbiota at the local scale supports A. vermiculophyllum to be a generalist host, we also identified a number of core taxa. These geographically independent holobiont members imply that cointroduction of specific microbiota may have additionally promoted the invasion process.

9.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(12): 2408-2420, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450072

RESUMO

Propranolol is an ADRB2 blocker that regulates heart muscle contractions, smooth muscle relaxation, and glycogenolysis. In addition, an increasing number of applications in dermatology have been described, most prominently, the use as a first-line treatment for infantile hemangiomas. We here show that propranolol enhances IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis and reduces the release of ROS after immune complex stimulation. To obtain further molecular insights into the modulatory effects of propranolol in activated neutrophils, we performed RNA sequencing of immune complex-stimulated neutrophils in the absence and presence of the drug. We identified the transcriptomic signature of propranolol and demonstrated an ADR2-independent immunomodulatory effect. To determine if the anti-inflammatory transcriptomic signature of propranolol also translates into clinical effects, we next evaluated the impact of propranolol in a prototypical neutrophil-dependent skin disease, specifically, antibody transfer-induced epidermolysis bullosa acquisita in mice. To validate the identified propranolol gene signature obtained in human neutrophils, we analyzed a selection of genes by RT-PCR in mouse epidermolysis bullosa acquisita skin and confirmed TNF, among others, to be differentially regulated by propranolol treatment. Our data clearly indicate that, based on its molecular impact on immune complex-activated neutrophils, propranolol is a potential treatment option for neutrophil-mediated inflammatory skin diseases.

10.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 10(2): 365-389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Loss-of-function variants in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) impair the recognition of the bacterial cell wall component muramyl-dipeptide and are associated with an increased risk for developing Crohn's disease. Likewise, exposure to antibiotics increases the individual risk for developing inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we studied the long-term impact of NOD2 on the ability of the gut bacterial and fungal microbiota to recover after antibiotic treatment. METHODS: Two cohorts of 20-week-old and 52-week-old wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J and NOD2 knockout (Nod2-KO) mice were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and fecal samples were collected to investigate temporal dynamics of the intestinal microbiota (bacteria and fungi) using 16S ribosomal RNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 sequencing. In addition, 2 sets of germ-free WT mice were colonized with either WT or Nod2-KO after antibiotic donor microbiota and the severity of intestinal inflammation was monitored in the colonized mice. RESULTS: Antibiotic exposure caused long-term shifts in the bacterial and fungal community composition. Genetic ablation of NOD2 was associated with delayed body weight gain after antibiotic treatment and an impaired recovery of the bacterial gut microbiota. Transfer of the postantibiotic fecal microbiota of Nod2-KO mice induced an intestinal inflammatory response in the colons of germ-free recipient mice compared with respective microbiota from WT controls based on histopathology and gene expression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the bacterial sensor NOD2 contributes to intestinal microbial community composition after antibiotic treatment and may add to the explanation of how defects in the NOD2 signaling pathway are involved in the etiology of Crohn's disease.

11.
Gut ; 69(6): 1064-1075, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Failing to properly repair damaged DNA drives the ageing process. Furthermore, age-related inflammation contributes to the manifestation of ageing. Recently, we demonstrated that the efficiency of repair of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) rapidly declines with age. We therefore hypothesised that with age, the decline in DNA damage repair stems from age-related inflammation. DESIGN: We used DEN-induced DNA damage in mouse livers and compared the efficiency of their resolution in different ages and following various permutations aimed at manipulating the liver age-related inflammation. RESULTS: We found that age-related deregulation of innate immunity was linked to altered gut microbiota. Consequently, antibiotic treatment, MyD88 ablation or germ-free mice had reduced cytokine expression and improved DSBs rejoining in 6-month-old mice. In contrast, feeding young mice with a high-fat diet enhanced inflammation and facilitated the decline in DSBs repair. This latter effect was reversed by antibiotic treatment. Kupffer cell replenishment or their inactivation with gadolinium chloride reduced proinflammatory cytokine expression and reversed the decline in DSBs repair. The addition of proinflammatory cytokines ablated DSBs rejoining mediated by macrophage-derived heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results reveal a previously unrecognised link between commensal bacteria-induced inflammation that results in age-dependent decline in DNA damage repair. Importantly, the present study support the notion of a cell non-autonomous mechanism for age-related decline in DNA damage repair that is based on the presence of 'inflamm-ageing' cytokines in the tissue microenvironment, rather than an intrinsic cellular deficiency in the DNA repair machinery.

12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1915): 20191927, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718496

RESUMO

Not all genetic loci follow Mendel's rules, and the evolutionary consequences of this are not yet fully known. Genomic conflict involving multiple loci is a likely outcome, as restoration of Mendelian inheritance patterns will be selected for, and sexual conflict may also arise when sexes are differentially affected. Here, we investigate effects of the t haplotype, an autosomal male meiotic driver in house mice, on genome-wide gene expression patterns in males and females. We analysed gonads, liver and brain in adult same-sex sibling pairs differing in genotype, allowing us to identify t-associated differences in gene regulation. In testes, only 40% of differentially expressed genes mapped to the approximately 708 annotated genes comprising the t haplotype. Thus, much of the activity of the t haplotype occurs in trans, and as upregulation. Sperm maturation functions were enriched among both cis and trans acting t haplotype genes. Within the t haplotype, we observed more downregulation and differential exon usage. In ovaries, liver and brain, the majority of expression differences mapped to the t haplotype, and were largely independent of the differences seen in the testis. Overall, we found widespread transcriptional effects of this male meiotic driver in the house mouse genome.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Haplótipos , Camundongos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Microorganisms ; 7(11)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752268

RESUMO

Photosynthesis is a key process for the establishment and maintenance of life on earth, and it is manifested in several major lineages of the prokaryote tree of life. The evolution of photosynthesis in anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria is of major interest as these have the most ancient roots of photosynthetic systems. The phylogenetic relations between anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were compared on the basis of sequences of key proteins of the type-II photosynthetic reaction center, including PufLM and PufH (PuhA), and a key enzyme of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis, the light-independent chlorophyllide reductase BchXYZ. The latter was common to all anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, including those with a type-I and those with a type-II photosynthetic reaction center. The phylogenetic considerations included cultured phototrophic bacteria from several phyla, including Proteobacteria (138 species), Chloroflexi (five species), Chlorobi (six species), as well as Heliobacterium modesticaldum (Firmicutes), Chloracidobacterium acidophilum (Acidobacteria), and Gemmatimonas phototrophica (Gemmatimonadetes). Whenever available, type strains were studied. Phylogenetic relationships based on a photosynthesis tree (PS tree, including sequences of PufHLM-BchXYZ) were compared with those of 16S rRNA gene sequences (RNS tree). Despite some significant differences, large parts were congruent between the 16S rRNA phylogeny and photosynthesis proteins. The phylogenetic relations demonstrated that bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis had evolved in ancestors of phototrophic green bacteria much earlier as compared to phototrophic purple bacteria and that multiple events independently formed different lineages of aerobic phototrophic purple bacteria, many of which have very ancient roots. The Rhodobacterales clearly represented the youngest group, which was separated from other Proteobacteria by a large evolutionary gap.

14.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax0530, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616788

RESUMO

Species interactions and coevolution are integral to ecological communities, but we lack empirical information on when and how these interactions generate and purge genetic diversity. Using genomic time series data from host-virus experiments, we found that coevolution occurs through consecutive selective sweeps in both species, with temporal consistency across replicates. Sweeps were accompanied by phenotypic change (resistance or infectivity increases) and expansions in population size. In the host, population expansion enabled rapid generation of genetic diversity in accordance with neutral processes. Viral molecular evolution was, in contrast, confined to few genes, all putative targets of selection. This study demonstrates that molecular evolution during species interactions is shaped by both eco-evolutionary feedback dynamics and interspecific differences in how genetic diversity is generated and maintained.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Demografia , Retroalimentação , Variação Genética , Seleção Genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fenótipo , Densidade Demográfica
15.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555248

RESUMO

The biotechnological process of biogas production from organic material is carried out by a diverse microbial community under anaerobic conditions. However, the complex and sensitive microbial network present in anaerobic degradation of organic material can be disturbed by increased ammonia concentration introduced into the system by protein-rich substrates and imbalanced feeding. Here, we report on a simulated increase of ammonia concentration in a fed batch lab-scale biogas reactor experiment. Two treatment conditions were used simulating total ammonia nitrogen concentrations of 4.9 and 8.0 g/L with four replicate reactors. Each reactor was monitored concerning methane generation and microbial composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, while the transcriptional activity of the overall process was investigated by metatranscriptomic analysis. This allowed investigating the response of the microbial community in terms of species composition and transcriptional activity to a rapid upshift to high ammonia conditions. Clostridia and Methanomicrobiales dominated the microbial community throughout the entire experiment under both experimental conditions, while Methanosarcinales were only present in minor abundance. Transcription analysis demonstrated clostridial dominance with respect to genes encoding for enzymes of the hydrolysis step (cellulase, EC 3.2.1.4) as well as dominance of key genes for enzymes of the methanogenic pathway (methyl-CoM reductase, EC 2.8.4.1; heterodisulfide reductase, EC 1.8.98.1). Upon ammonia shock, the selected marker genes showed significant changes in transcriptional activity. Cellulose hydrolysis as well as methanogenesis were significantly reduced at high ammonia concentrations as indicated by reduced transcription levels of the corresponding genes. Based on these experiments we concluded that, apart from the methanogenic archaea, hydrolytic cellulose-degrading microorganisms are negatively affected by high ammonia concentrations. Further, Acholeplasma and Erysipelotrichia showed lower abundance under increased ammonia concentrations and thus might serve as indicator species for an earlier detection in order to counteract against ammonia crises.

16.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546679

RESUMO

In the anuran family Dendrobatidae, aposematic species obtain their toxic or unpalatable alkaloids from dietary sources, a process known as sequestering. To understand how toxicity evolved in this family, it is paramount to elucidate the pathways of alkaloid processing (absorption, metabolism, and sequestering). Here, we used an exploratory skin gene expression experiment in which captive-bred dendrobatids were fed alkaloids. Most of these experiments were performed with Dendrobates tinctorius, but some trials were performed with D. auratus, D. leucomelas and Allobates femoralis to explore whether other dendrobatids would show similar patterns of gene expression. We found a consistent pattern of up-regulation of genes related to muscle and mitochondrial processes, probably due to the lack of mutations related to alkaloid resistance in these species. Considering conserved pathways of drug metabolism in vertebrates, we hypothesize alkaloid degradation is a physiological mechanism of resistance, which was evidenced by a strong upregulation of the immune system in D. tinctorius, and of complement C2 across the four species sampled. Probably related to this strong immune response, we found several skin keratins downregulated, which might be linked to a reduction of the cornified layer of the epidermis. Although not conclusive, our results offer candidate genes and testable hypotheses to elucidate alkaloid processing in poison frogs.


Assuntos
Anuros/genética , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Esparteína/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacocinética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Pele/metabolismo , Esparteína/farmacocinética
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4077, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501432

RESUMO

Climatic conditions changing over time and space shape the evolution of organisms at multiple levels, including temperate lizards in the family Lacertidae. Here we reconstruct a dated phylogenetic tree of 262 lacertid species based on a supermatrix relying on novel phylogenomic datasets and fossil calibrations. Diversification of lacertids was accompanied by an increasing disparity among occupied bioclimatic niches, especially in the last 10 Ma, during a period of progressive global cooling. Temperate species also underwent a genome-wide slowdown in molecular substitution rates compared to tropical and desert-adapted lacertids. Evaporative water loss and preferred temperature are correlated with bioclimatic parameters, indicating physiological adaptations to climate. Tropical, but also some populations of cool-adapted species experience maximum temperatures close to their preferred temperatures. We hypothesize these species-specific physiological preferences may constitute a handicap to prevail under rapid global warming, and contribute to explaining local lizard extinctions in cool and humid climates.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Variação Genética , Genoma , Lagartos/genética , Lagartos/fisiologia , Temperatura , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Clima , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4097, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506438

RESUMO

Phenotypic variation of quantitative traits is orchestrated by a complex interplay between the environment (e.g. diet) and genetics. However, the impact of gene-environment interactions on phenotypic traits mostly remains elusive. To address this, we feed 1154 mice of an autoimmunity-prone intercross line (AIL) three different diets. We find that diet substantially contributes to the variability of complex traits and unmasks additional genetic susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTL). By performing whole-genome sequencing of the AIL founder strains, we resolve these QTLs to few or single candidate genes. To address whether diet can also modulate genetic predisposition towards a given trait, we set NZM2410/J mice on similar dietary regimens as AIL mice. Our data suggest that diet modifies genetic susceptibility to lupus and shifts intestinal bacterial and fungal community composition, which precedes clinical disease manifestation. Collectively, our study underlines the importance of including environmental factors in genetic association studies.


Assuntos
Cruzamentos Genéticos , Dieta , Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Animais não Endogâmicos , Anticorpos Antinucleares/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Microbiota , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Baço/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 140: 106573, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374259

RESUMO

Mygalomorph spiders of the family Theraphosidae, known to the broader public as tarantulas, are among the most recognizable arachnids on earth due to their large size and widespread distribution. Their use of urticating setae is a notable adaptation that has evolved exclusively in certain New World theraphosids. Thus far, the evolutionary history of Theraphosidae remains poorly understood; theraphosid systematics still largely relies on morphological datasets, which suffer from high degrees of homoplasy, and traditional Sanger sequencing of preselected genes failed to provide strong support for supra-generic clades. In this study, we provide the first robust phylogenetic hypothesis of theraphosid evolution inferred from transcriptome data. A core ortholog approach was used to generate a phylogeny from 2460 orthologous genes across 25 theraphosid genera, representing all of the major theraphosid subfamilies, except Selenogyrinae. Our phylogeny recovers an unprecedented monophyletic group that comprises the vast majority of New World theraphosid subfamilies including Aviculariinae, Schismatothelinae and Theraphosinae. Concurrently, we provide additional evidence for the integrity of questionable subfamilies, such as Poecilotheriinae and Psalmopoeinae, and support the non-monophyly of Ischnocolinae. The deeper relationships between almost all subfamilies are confidently inferred. We also used our phylogeny in tandem with published morphological data to perform ancestral state analyses on urticating setae, and contextualize our reconstructions with emphasis on the complex evolutionary history of the trait.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Sensilas/anatomia & histologia , Aranhas/anatomia & histologia , Aranhas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Funções Verossimilhança , Sensilas/ultraestrutura , Aranhas/classificação
20.
Elife ; 82019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436535

RESUMO

The de novo emergence of new genes has been well documented through genomic analyses. However, a functional analysis, especially of very young protein-coding genes, is still largely lacking. Here, we identify a set of house mouse-specific protein-coding genes and assess their translation by ribosome profiling and mass spectrometry data. We functionally analyze one of them, Gm13030, which is specifically expressed in females in the oviduct. The interruption of the reading frame affects the transcriptional network in the oviducts at a specific stage of the estrous cycle. This includes the upregulation of Dcpp genes, which are known to stimulate the growth of preimplantation embryos. As a consequence, knockout females have their second litters after shorter times and have a higher infanticide rate. Given that Gm13030 shows no signs of positive selection, our findings support the hypothesis that a de novo evolved gene can directly adopt a function without much sequence adaptation.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Oviductos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Gravidez
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