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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e013101, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576773

RESUMO

Background Prehospital delay reduces the proportion of patients with stroke treated with recanalization therapies. We aimed to identify novel and modifiable risk factors for prehospital delay. Methods and Results We included patients with an ischemic stroke confirmed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, symptom onset within 24 hours and hospitalized in the Stroke Center of the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Trained study nurses interviewed patients and proxies along a standardized questionnaire. Prehospital delay was defined as >4.5 hours between stroke onset-or time point of wake-up-and admission. Overall, 336 patients were enrolled. Prehospital delay was observed in 140 patients (42%). The first healthcare professionals to be alarmed were family doctors for 29% of patients (97/336), and a quarter of these patients had a baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score of 4 or higher. The main modifiable risk factor for prehospital delay was a face-to-face visit to the family doctor (adjusted odds ratio, 4.19; 95% CI, 1.85-9.46). Despite transport by emergency medical services being associated with less prehospital delay (adjusted odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.71), a minority of patients (39%) who first called their family doctor were transported by emergency medical services to the hospital. The second risk factor was lack of awareness of stroke symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.36-7.24). Conclusions Almost 1 in 3 patients with a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke first called the family doctor practice. Face-to-face visits to the family doctor quadrupled the odds of prehospital delay. Efforts to reduce prehospital delay should address family doctors and their staffs as important partners in the prehospital pathway. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02798770.

3.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 90, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidences that oxidative stress plays a role in the associations between outdoor air pollution and asthma are growing. We aimed to study the role of plasma fluorescent oxidation products levels (FlOPs; an oxidative stress-related biomarker), as potential mediators, in the associations between outdoor air pollution and persistent asthma. METHODS: Analyses were conducted in 204 adult asthmatics followed up in the French case-control and family study on asthma (EGEA; the Epidemiological study of the Genetic and Environmental factors of Asthma). Persistent asthma was defined as having current asthma at EGEA2 (baseline, 2003-2007) and EGEA3 (follow-up, 2011-2013). Exposures to nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, road traffic, particulate matter with a diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 µm were estimated by ESCAPE models (2009-2010), and ozone (O3) by IFEN models (2004). We used a mediation analysis to assess the mediated effect by FlOPs levels and the interaction between FlOPs levels and air pollution. RESULTS: FlOPs levels increased with PM10 and O3 (adjusted ß = 0.04 (95%CI 0.001-0.08), aß = 0.04 (95%CI 0.009-0.07) per 10 µg/m3, respectively), and the risk of persistent asthma increased with FlOPs levels (aOR = 1.81 (95%CI 1.08-3.02)). The risk of persistent asthma decreased with exposures to NO2, NOx and PM2.5 (aOR ranging from 0.62 to 0.94), and increased with exposures to PM10, O3, O3-summer and road traffic, the greater effect being observed for O3 (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI 0.73-4.37, per 10 µg/m3). Using mediation analysis, we observed a positive total effect (aOR = 2.16, 95%CI 0.70-11.9), a positive direct effect of O3 on persistent asthma (OR = 1.68, 95%CI 0.57-7.25), and a positive indirect effect mediated by FIOPs levels (aOR = 1.28 (95%CI 1.01-2.29)) accounting for 41% of the total effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our results add insights on the role of oxidative stress in the association between air pollution and persistent asthma.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113121, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493628

RESUMO

There is limited evidence for short-term association between mortality and ambient air pollution in the Middle East and no study has evaluated exposure windows of about a month prior to death. We investigated all-cause non-accidental daily mortality and its association with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and the Air Quality Index (AQI) from March 2011 through March 2014 in the megacity of Tehran, Iran. Generalized additive quasi-Poisson models were used within a distributed lag linear modeling framework to estimate the cumulative effects of PM2.5, NO2, and the AQI up to a lag of 45 days. We further conducted multi-pollutant models and also stratified the analyses by sex, age group, and season. The relative risk (95% confidence interval (CI)) for all seasons, both sexes and all ages at lag 0 for PM2.5, NO2, and AQI were 1.004 (1.001, 1.007), 1.003 (0.999, 1.007), and 1.004 (1.001, 1.007), respectively, per inter-quartile range (IQR) increment (18.8 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 12.6 ppb for NO2, and 31.5 for AQI). In multi-pollutant models, the PM2.5 associations were almost independent from NO2. However, the RRs for NO2 were slightly attenuated after adjustment for PM2.5 but they were still largely independent from PM2.5. The cumulative relative risks (95% CI) per IQR increment reached maximum during the cooler months, including: 1.13 (1.06, 1.20) for PM2.5 at lag 0-31 (for females, all ages); 1.17 (1.10, 1.25) for NO2 at lag 0-45 (for males, all ages); and 1.13 (1.07, 1.20) for the AQI at lag 0-30 (for females, all ages). Generally, the RRs were slightly larger for NO2 than PM2.5 and AQI. We found somewhat larger RRs in females, age group >65 years of age, and in cooler months. In summary, positive associations were found in most models. This is the first study to report short-term associations between all-cause non-accidental mortality and ambient PM2.5 and NO2 in Iran.

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Environ Res ; 176: 108550, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limited evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms may partially mediate the adverse effects of air pollution on health. Our aims were to identify new genomic loci showing differential DNA methylation associated with long-term exposure to air pollution and to replicate loci previously identified in other studies. METHODS: A two-stage epigenome-wide association study was designed: 630 individuals from the REGICOR study were included in the discovery and 454 participants of the EPIC-Italy study in the validation stage. DNA methylation was assessed using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. NOX, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PMcoarse, traffic intensity and traffic load exposure were measured according to the ESCAPE protocol. A systematic review was undertaken to identify those cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpGs) associated with air pollution in previous studies and we screened for them in the discovery study. RESULTS: In the discovery stage of the epigenome-wide association study, 81 unique CpGs were associated with air pollution (p-value <10-5) but none of them were validated in the replication sample. Furthermore, we identified 15 CpGs in the systematic review showing differential methylation with a p-value fulfilling the Bonferroni criteria and 1673 CpGs fulfilling the false discovery rate criteria, all of which were related to PM2.5 or NO2. None of them was replicated in the discovery study, in which the top hits were located in an intergenic region on chromosome 1 (cg10893043, p-value = 6.79·10-5) and in the LRRC45 and PXK genes (cg05088605, p-value = 2.15·10-04; cg16560256, p-value = 2.23·10-04). CONCLUSIONS: Neither new genomic loci associated with long-term air pollution were identified, nor previously identified loci were replicated. Continued efforts to test this potential association are warranted.

7.
Environ Res ; 176: 108547, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247432

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution represents one of the biggest environmental risks to health. In this study, we estimated the avoidable mortality burden attributable to ambient air pollution in Tehran, and derived the economic impact associated with these health effects. Using PM2.5 data from ground-level air pollution measurements in Tehran, we estimated PM2.5 exposure for 349 neighborhoods in Tehran, by the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP-CE). We considered five scenarios related to PM2.5 levels: an increase to 35 µg/m3; a reduction to 25 µg/m3; a reduction to 15 µg/m3; a reduction to 10 µg/m3 (the WHO's air quality guideline value); and a full roll-back, assuming a reduction to 2.4 µg/m3. All scenarios used 2017 p.m.2.5 levels as a starting point. Using the concentration response function of the Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM), we estimated a total of 7146 (95% CI: 6596-7513) adult (age ≥25 years) deaths attributable to PM2.5 in 2017. The leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease (3437; 95% CI: 3315-3516), stroke (886; 95% CI: 693-1002), lower respiratory infections (531: 95% CI: 414-589), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (364; 95% CI: 271-420), and lung cancer (274; 95% CI: 236-298). The estimated total annual economic benefit (2017) of reducing PM2.5 concentration levels to 2.4 µg/m3 was USD 0.591 (95% CI: 0.447-0.624) billion per year, using the value of a life year (VOLY) approach, and USD 2.894 (95% CI: 2.671-3.043) billion per year, using the value of a statistical life (VSL) approach.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146441

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution is a leading environmental risk factor and its broad spectrum of adverse health effects includes a decrease in lung function. Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to be associated with both air pollution exposure and respiratory function. This study assesses the role of SES either as confounder or effect modifier of the association between ambient air pollution and lung function. Cross-sectional data from three European multicenter adult cohorts were pooled to assess factors associated with lung function, including annual means of home outdoor NO2. Pre-bronchodilator lung function was measured according to the ATS-criteria. Multiple mixed linear models with random intercepts for study areas were used. Three different factors (education, occupation and neighborhood unemployment rate) were considered to represent SES. NO2 exposure was negatively associated with lung function. Occupation and neighborhood unemployment rates were not associated with lung function. However, the inclusion of the SES-variable education improved the models and the air pollution-lung function associations got slightly stronger. NO2 associations with lung function were not substantially modified by SES-variables. In this multicenter European study we could show that SES plays a role as a confounder in the association of ambient NO2 exposure with lung function.

10.
Environ Int ; 125: 107-116, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the influence of long-term exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (TPM10) on heart rate variability (HRV) is weak. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of long-term exposure (10 years) with TPM10 on the regulation of the autonomic cardiovascular system and heart rate dynamics (HRD) in an aging general population, as well as potential modifying effects by the a priori selected factors sex, smoking status, obesity, and gene variation in selected glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). METHODS: We analyzed data from 1593 SAPALDIA cohort participants aged ≥ 50 years. For each participant, various HRV and HRD parameters were derived from 24-hour electrocardiogram recordings. Each parameter obtained was then used as the outcome variable in multivariable mixed linear regression models in order to evaluate the association with TPM10. Potential modifying effects were assessed using interaction terms. RESULTS: No association between long-term exposure to TPM10 and HRV/HRD was observed in the entire study population. However, HRD changes were found in subjects without cardiovascular morbidity and both HRD and HRV changes in non-obese subjects without cardiovascular morbidity. Subjects without cardiovascular morbidity with homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion appeared to be more susceptible to the effects of TPM10. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that long-term exposure to TPM10 triggers adverse changes in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. These adverse effects were more visible in the subjects without cardiovascular disease, in whom the overall relationship between TPM10 and HRV/HRD could not be masked by underlying morbidities and the potential counteracting effects of related drug treatments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/análise , Fumar
11.
Int J Public Health ; 64(4): 547-559, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Due to their small size, ultrafine particles (UFP) are believed to exert higher toxicity than larger particles. As numerous studies on health effects of UFP have been published since the last systematic review in 2013, we aim to systematically review the new literature. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and the specialized LUDOK database for studies published between 01.01.2011 and 11.05.2017 investigating health effects of ambient air pollution-related UFP. We included epidemiologic studies containing UFP measures and quantifiable measures of associations. Relevant data were extracted on the basis of previously developed evaluation criteria. RESULTS: We identified 85 original studies, conducting short-term (n = 75) and long-term (n = 10) investigations. Panel (n = 32), scripted exposure with predefined settings (n = 16) or time series studies (n = 11) were most frequent. Thirty-four studies adjusted for at least one other pollutant. Most consistent associations were identified for short-term effects on pulmonary/systemic inflammation, heart rate variability and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests adverse short-term associations with inflammatory and cardiovascular changes, which may be at least partly independent of other pollutants. For the other studied health outcomes, the evidence on independent health effects of UFP remains inconclusive or insufficient.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia
12.
Environ Pollut ; 247: 752-762, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721866

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between ambient air pollution and length of hospital stay (LOS) for children with lower-respiratory infection is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The association was examined using admission data for 75,432 children in Hanoi, aged 0-5 years, hospitalized with acute lower-respiratory infection (ALRI) and daily air pollutant levels in Hanoi between 2007 and 2016. We estimated the odds ratio of being discharged for an interquartile range (IQR) increment (IQR) of ambient pollutants during one to four days prior to admission date. We used pooled logistic regression models including a B-spline function of calendar time and terms describing the baseline odds, adjusting for meteorological factors, age, gender, residential location, week-day of admission, discharge on weekends or holidays, and number of respiratory hospitalizations one day prior to the discharge date. RESULTS: An IQR increase in O3 concentrations (85.8 µg/m3) was associated with a 5% (95%CI: 2%-8%) decrease in the odds of discharge from hospital among children with ALRI. Results were similar for PM10, but only for children aged 2-5 years. For the other pollutants, corresponding associations were close to null or in the opposite direction. For example, increase in CO was associated with shorter LOS. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first investigation of the associations between lengths of hospital stays and air pollutant levels prior to hospitalization in Asian children. Increased levels of O3 prior to admission predicted prolonged hospitalizations. The inconsistencies in the findings for other pollutants call for further investigations.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluentes Ambientais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Razão de Chances , Vietnã/epidemiologia
13.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 20, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fragility can have a negative effect on health systems and people's health, and poses considerable challenges for actors implementing health programmes. However, how such programmes, in turn, affect the overall fragility of a context is rarely considered. The Swiss Red Cross has been active in South Sudan and Haiti since 2008 and 2011, respectively, and commissioned a scoping study to shed new light on this issue within the frame of a learning process launched in 2015. METHODS: The study consisted of a document review, qualitative field research undertaken between June and August 2015 in South Sudan and Haiti, and two data triangulation/validation workshops. Semi-structured key informant interviews and focus group discussions included 49 purposively sampled participants who helped build a deeper understanding of what constitutes and drives fragility in the respective countries. Moreover, interviews and focus group discussions served to grasp positive and negative effects that the Swiss Red Cross's activities may have had on the overall state of fragility in the given contexts. RESULTS: Qualitative data from the two case studies suggest that the community-based health programmes implemented in South Sudan and Haiti may have influenced certain drivers of fragility. While impacts cannot be measured or quantified in the absence of a baseline (the projects were not originally designed to mitigate overall fragility), the study nevertheless reveals entry points for designing programmes that are responsive to the overall fragility context and contain more specific elements for navigating a more sustainable pathway out of fragility. There are, however, multiple challenges, especially considering the complexity of fragile and conflict-affected contexts where a multitude of local and international actors with different goals and strategies interfere in a rapidly changing setting. CONCLUSIONS: Health programmes may not only reach their health objectives but might potentially also contribute towards mitigating overall fragility. However, considerable hurdles remain for aid agencies, especially where scope for action is limited for a single actor and where engagement with state structures is difficult. Thus, cooperation and exchange with other aid and development actors across the spectrum has to be strengthened to increase the coherence of aid policies and interventions of actors both within and across the different aid communities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Assistência à Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Governo , Saúde Pública , Problemas Sociais , Conflitos Armados , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Haiti , Humanos , Masculino , Desastres Naturais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sudão do Sul
14.
Allergy ; 74(5): 953-963, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research based on cluster analyses led to the identification of particular phenotypes confirming phenotypic heterogeneity of asthma. The long-term clinical course of asthma phenotypes defined by clustering analysis remains unknown, although it is a key aspect to underpin their clinical relevance. We aimed to estimate risk of poor asthma events between asthma clusters identified 20 years earlier. METHODS: The study relied on two cohorts of adults with asthma with 20-year follow-up, ECRHS (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and EGEA (Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma). Regression models were used to compare asthma characteristics (current asthma, asthma exacerbations, asthma control, quality of life, and FEV1 ) at follow-up and the course of FEV1  between seven cluster-based asthma phenotypes identified 20 years earlier. RESULTS: The analysis included 1325 adults with ever asthma. For each asthma characteristic assessed at follow-up, the risk for adverse outcomes differed significantly between the seven asthma clusters identified at baseline. As compared with the mildest asthma phenotype, ORs (95% CI) for asthma exacerbations varied from 0.9 (0.4 to 2.0) to 4.0 (2.0 to 7.8) and the regression estimates (95% CI) for FEV1 % predicted varied from 0.6 (-3.5 to 4.6) to -9.9 (-14.2 to -5.5) between clusters. Change in FEV1 over time did not differ significantly across clusters. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that the long-term risk for poor asthma outcomes differed between comprehensive adult asthma phenotypes identified 20 years earlier, and suggest a strong tracking of asthma activity and impaired lung function over time.

15.
Indoor Air ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339304

RESUMO

The health impact of indoor air pollution in informal settlement households has not been extensively studied in South Africa. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between asthma and common indoor exposures among schoolchildren from four informal settlements located in two municipalities in the Western Cape Province. A total of 590 children, aged 9-11 years, were recruited. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was administered to caregivers. Pulmonary function assessment included spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Phadiatop test for atopy was done. The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was 3.4% (n = 20) among whom only 50% were on treatment. The prevalence of current wheeze was 12.9%, and 17.6% had airway obstruction (FEV1  < lower limit of normal), while 10.2% had airway inflammation (FeNO > 35 ppb). In adjusted logistic regression models, dampness, visible mold growth, paraffin use for cooking, and passive smoking were associated with a twofold to threefold increased risk in upper and lower airway outcomes. The strongest association was that of visible mold growth with rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio-aOR 3.37, 95% CI: 1.69-6.71). Thus, there is a need for improved diagnosis of childhood asthma and Indoor Air Quality in informal settlement households.

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Environ Res ; 167: 144-159, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014896

RESUMO

There is a growing number of studies on the association between ambient air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their results have been inconsistent. Consequently, a comprehensive review of this research area is needed. There was a wide variability in studied pregnancy outcomes, observed gestational windows of exposure, observed ambient air pollutants, applied exposure assessment methods and statistical analysis methods Gestational duration, preterm birth, (low) birth weight, and small for gestational age/intrauterine growth restriction were most commonly investigated pregnancy outcomes. Gestational windows of exposure typically included were whole pregnancy period, 1st, 2nd, 3rd trimester, first and last gestational months. Preterm birth was the outcome most extensively studied across various gestational windows, especially at the beginning and at the end of pregnancy. Particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide were the most commonly used markers of ambient air pollution. Continuous monitoring data were frequently combined with spatially more precisely modelled estimates of exposure. Exposure to particulate matter and ozone over the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with higher risk for preterm birth: the pooled effect estimates were 1.09 (1.03-1.16) per 10 µg/m3 increase in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10),1.24 (1.08-1.41) per 10 µg/m3 increase in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5), and 1.03 (1.01-1.04) per 10 ppb increase in ozone. For pregnancy outcomes other than PTB, ranges of observed effect estimates were reported due to smaller number of studies included in each gestational window of exposure. Further research is needed to link the routine pregnancy outcome data with spatially and temporally resolved ambient air pollution data, while adjusting for commonly defined confounders. Methods for assessing exposure to mixtures of pollutants, indoor air pollution exposure, and various other environmental exposures, need to be developed.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996511

RESUMO

Air pollution can cause many adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Land use regression (LUR) models are frequently used to describe small-scale spatial variation in air pollution levels based on measurements and geographical predictors. They are particularly suitable in resource limited settings and can help to inform communities, industries, and policy makers. Weekly measurements of NO2 and PM2.5 were performed in three informal areas of the Western Cape in the warm and cold seasons 2015⁻2016. Seasonal means were calculated using routinely monitored pollution data. Six LUR models were developed (four seasonal and two annual) using a supervised stepwise land-use-regression method. The models were validated using leave-one-out-cross-validation and tested for spatial autocorrelation. Annual measured mean NO2 and PM2.5 were 22.1 μg/m³ and 10.2 μg/m³, respectively. The NO2 models for the warm season, cold season, and overall year explained 62%, 77%, and 76% of the variance (R²). The PM2.5 annual models had lower explanatory power (R² = 0.36, 0.29, and 0.29). The best predictors for NO2 were traffic related variables (major roads, bus routes). Local sources such as grills and waste burning sites appeared to be good predictors for PM2.5, together with population density. This study demonstrates that land-use-regression modelling for NO2 can be successfully applied to informal peri-urban settlements in South Africa using similar predictor variables to those performed in Europe and North America. Explanatory power for PM2.5 models is lower due to lower spatial variability and the possible impact of local transient sources. The study was able to provide NO2 and PM2.5 seasonal exposure estimates and maps for further health studies.

20.
J Med Educ Curric Dev ; 5: 2382120518771364, 2018 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780889

RESUMO

Objectives: Over the past decade, several excellent guidelines have been published on how to enhance the quality of PhD education in Europe. Aimed primarily at preparing students for innovative roles in their fields, they include variously structured approaches to curricular offerings, as well as other program components applicable across specialties (eg: supervisor support, scientific conduct, transferable skills). Since 2012, the interdisciplinary PhD Program in Health Sciences (PPHS) at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Basel in Switzerland has focused on translating these guidelines into a 21st-century health sciences PhD program. Results: The PPHS started in 2012 based on the European Union (EU) guidelines for PhD education. This article describes the resulting interdisciplinary PhD program's conceptual underpinnings, rationale, structures, and 10 building blocks, like student portfolios, thematic training, interdisciplinary research seminars, student-initiated interdisciplinary activities, financial support of course participation, top-up and extension stipends, PhD supervision, research integrity, alumni follow-up network, and promotional tools including a dedicated website. Students enter from Clinical Research, Medicine Development, Nursing Science, Epidemiology and Public Health including Insurance Medicine, Sport Science (all from the Faculty of Medicine), and Epidemiology (Faculty of Science). Discussion and Conclusion: The Basel PPHS exemplifies state-of-the-art PhD education in Health Sciences based on European guidelines and offers guidance to other groups from conceptualization to rollout of an interdisciplinary health sciences PhD program.

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