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J Environ Manage ; 254: 109752, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733478


Awareness about the rising detection and reported (eco)toxicological effects of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs, e.g. pharmaceuticals and personal care products - PPCPs - and modern pesticides) in the aquatic environment is growing. CECs are increasingly reported in the African aquatic environment, although the amount of data available is still limited. In this work, a comprehensive review is presented on the occurrence of CECs in wastewater, sludge, surface water, sediment, groundwater and drinking water of Africa. Further attention is given to the performance of wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) and trickling filters (TF) with respect to CECs removal. For the first time, we also look at the state of knowledge on the performance of point-of-use technologies (POUs) regarding the removal of CECs in drinking water. Generally, CECs in Africa occur at the same order of magnitude as in the Western world. However, for particular groups of compounds and at specific locations such as informal settlements, clearly higher concentrations are reported in Africa. Whereas antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs are rarely detected in the Western world, occurrence patterns in Africa reveal concentrations up to >100 µg L-1. Removal efficiencies of WSPs and TFs focus mainly on PPCPs and vary significantly, ranging from no removal (e.g. carbamazepine) to better than 99.9% (e.g. paracetamol). Despite the rising adoption of POUs, limited but promising information is available on their performance regarding CECs treatment in drinking water, particularly for the low-cost devices (e.g. ceramic filters and solar disinfection - SODIS) being adopted in Africa and other developing countries.

Praguicidas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , África , Monitoramento Ambiental , Águas Residuárias
Sci Total Environ ; 637-638: 336-348, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751313


Although there is increased global environmental concern about emerging organic micropollutants (EOMPs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and polar pesticides, limited information is available on their occurrence in Africa. This study presents unique data on concentrations and loads of 31 PPCPs and 10 pesticides in four wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) and receiving rivers (flowing through urban centres) in Kenya. The WSPs indicate a high potential to remove pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) with removals by up to >4 orders of magnitude (>99.99% removal), mainly occurring at the facultative stage. However, there are large differences in removal among the different classes, and a shift in the relative PhACs occurrence is observed during wastewater treatment. Whereas the influent is dominated by high-consumption PhACs like anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. paracetamol and ibuprofen, up to 1000 µg L-1), the most recalcitrant PhACs including mainly antibiotics (e.g. sulfadoxin and sulfamethoxazole) and antiretrovirals (e.g. lamivudine and nevirapine) are largely abundant (up to 100 µg L-1) in treated effluent. Overall, concentrations of EOMPs in the Nzoia Basin rivers are the highest in dry season (except pesticides) and in small tributaries. They are of the same order of magnitude as those measured in the western world, but clearly lower than what we recently measured in the Ngong River, Nairobi region. Based on the specific consumption patterns and recalcitrant behavior, high concentrations (>1000 ng L-1) are observed in the rivers for PPCPs like lamivudine, zidovudine, sulfamethoxazole and methylparaben. Concentration levels of pesticides are in general one order of magnitude lower (<250 ng L-1). Our data suggest a continuous input of EOMPs to the rivers from both point (WSPs) and diffuse (urban centres) sources. To better understand and manage the impact of both sources, EOMP removal mechanisms in WSPs and their attenuation in rivers merit further research.

Cosméticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Quênia , Tanques , Rios , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/estatística & dados numéricos
Sci Total Environ ; 437: 153-64, 2012 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22935682


This paper presents the development and application of a new multi-residue analytical method providing the first data on the environmental occurrence of human pharmaceuticals in Africa, particularly the Nairobi River basin (Kenya). Based on pharmaceutical consumption data available for the Nairobi region, 43 'priority' pharmaceutically active ingredients (PAIs) were selected for this study. On the basis of magnetic sector high-resolution mass spectrometry, a new methodology involving both full-scan screening and selective target analysis has been developed to investigate the presence of the defined priority PAIs. Subsequent analysis of the corresponding standard compounds provided the full confirmation and indicative concentrations (low ng/L-high µg/L) of 10 human PAIs in the Nairobi River. The detected compounds belong to different classes, i.e. antibiotics, analgesic/anti-inflammatory and anti-epileptic drugs, antimalarials and antiretrovirals. Ibuprofen, paracetamol, sulfamethoxazole and zidovudine showed to be the most concentrated PAIs (about 10-30 µg/L). The concentration of the antiretrovirals (lamivudine, zidovudine and nevirapine) is clearly higher than those reported in the literature, although environmental data on this class of PAIs are still very limited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that provides evidence of detection of lamivudine in surface water. The presented unique data on the occurrence of selected PAIs in the aquatic environment of Africa clearly show that the high prevalence of specific diseases like HIV/AIDS infection in developing countries might result in a different pattern of PAIs in environmental waters compared to the more developed regions.

Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Quênia