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2.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(6): 989-998, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons-Trauma Quality Improvement Program (ACS-TQIP) database is one of the most widely used databases for trauma research. We aimed to critically appraise the quality of the methodological reporting of ACS-TQIP studies. STUDY DESIGN: The ACS-TQIP bibliography was queried for all studies published between January 2018 and January 2021. The quality of data reporting was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology-Reporting of Studies Conducted Using Observational Routinely Collected Health Data (STROBE-RECORD) statement and the JAMA Surgery checklist. Three items from each tool were not applicable and thus excluded. The quality of reporting was compared between high- and low-impact factor (IF) journals (cutoff for high IF is >90th percentile of all surgical journals). RESULTS: A total of 118 eligible studies were included; 12 (10%) were published in high-IF journals. The median (interquartile range) number of criteria fulfilled was 5 (4-6) for the STROBE-RECORD statement (of 10 items) and 5 (5-6) for the JAMA Surgery checklist (of 7 items). Specifically, 73% of studies did not describe the patient population selection process, 61% did not address data cleaning or the implications of missing values, and 76% did not properly state inclusion/exclusion criteria and/or outcome variables. Studies published in high-IF journals had remarkably higher quality of reporting than those in low-IF journals. CONCLUSION: The methodological reporting quality of ACS-TQIP studies remains suboptimal. Future efforts should focus on improving adherence to standard reporting guidelines to mitigate potential bias and improve the reproducibility of published studies.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Ann Surg ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) as a predictor of long-term outcomes after injury. BACKGROUND: The SVI is a measure used in emergency preparedness to identify need for resources in the event of a disaster or hazardous event, ranking each census tract on 15 demographic/social factors. METHODS: Moderate-severely injured adult patients treated at one of three level-1 trauma centers were prospectively followed six to 14 months post-injury. These data were matched at the census tract level with overall SVI percentile rankings. Patients were stratified based on SVI quartiles, with the lowest quartile designated as low SVI, the middle two quartiles as average SVI, and the highest quartile as high SVI. Multivariable adjusted regression models were used to assess whether SVI was associated with long-term outcomes after injury. RESULTS: A total of 3,153 patients were included [54% male, mean age 61.6 (SD = 21.6)]. The median overall SVI percentile rank was 35th (IQR: 16th-65th). Compared to low SVI patients, high SVI patients were more likely to have new functional limitations (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.92), to not have returned to work (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.40-2.89), and to screen positive for PTSD (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.12-2.17). Similar results were obtained when comparing average with low SVI patients, with average SVI patients having significantly worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The SVI has potential utility in predicting individuals at higher risk for adverse long-term outcomes after injury. This measure may be a useful needs assessment tool for clinicians and researchers in identifying communities that may benefit most from targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

5.
Am Surg ; : 31348221101577, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal wall hernias represent a common problem that can present as surgical emergencies with increased morbidity and mortality. The data examining outcomes in elderly patients with hernia emergencies is scant. METHODS: The 2007-2017 ACS-NSQIP database was queried. Patients ≥65 years old with a diagnosis of acute complicated abdominal wall hernia were included. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality and surgical site infection (SSI). RESULTS: Main predictors of 30-day mortality were admission from nursing home or chronic care facility (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10-2.38, P = .014), transfer from outside ED (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.31-2.51, P < .001), days from admission to operation (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08, P = .002), recent significant weight loss (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.12-3.37, P = .018), pre-operative septic shock (OR = 4.13, 95% CI: 2.44-6.99, P < .001), ventilator dependence (OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.29-4.81, P = .006), and ASA status. When compared to open repair, laparoscopic repair emerged as protective against SSI (OR = .34, 95% CI: .17-.66, P = .001). Bowel resection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.63-2.84, P < .001) and increasing wound class were risk factors for SSI. CONCLUSION: In the elderly patient presenting with an acute complicated abdominal wall hernia, time to surgery is crucial for survival, and comorbidities influence outcome. Laparoscopy is an option in management due to its decreased risk of surgical site infection without increased mortality, whenever patient factors are favorable for this approach.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The education of civilians and first responders in prehospital tourniquet (PT) utilization has spread rapidly. We aimed to describe trends in emergency medical services (EMS) and non-EMS PT utilization, and their ability to identify proper clinical indications and to appropriately apply tourniquets in the field. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate all adult patients with PTs who presented at two Level I trauma centers between January 2015 and December 2019. Data were collected via an electronic patient query tool and cross-referenced with institutional Trauma Registries. Medically trained abstractors determined if PTs were clinically indicated (limb amputation, vascular hard signs, injury requiring hemostasis procedure, or significant documented blood loss). PTs were further designated as appropriately or inappropriately applied (based on tourniquet location, venous tourniquet, greater than 2-h ischemic time). Descriptive statistics and univariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: 146 patients met inclusion criteria. The incidence of yearly PT placements increased between 2015 and 2019, with an increase in placement by non-EMS personnel (police, firefighter, bystander, and patient). Improvised PTs were frequently utilized by bystanders and patients, whereas first responders had high rates of commercial tourniquet use. A high proportion of tourniquets were placed without indication (72/146, 49%); however, the proportion of PTs placed without a proper indication across applier groups was not statistically different (p = 0.99). Rates of inappropriately applied PTs ranged from 21 to 46% across all groups applying PTs. CONCLUSIONS: PT placement was increasingly performed by non-EMS personnel. Present data indicate that non-EMS persons applied PTs at a similar performance level of those applied by EMS. Study LevelLevel III.

7.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666221094506, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437045

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether the outcomes of postoperative patients admitted directly to an intensive care unit (ICU) differ based on the academic status of the institution and the total operative volume of the unit. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis using the eICU Collaborative Research Database v2.0, a national database from participating ICUs in the United States. All patients admitted directly to the ICU from the operating room were included. Transfer patients and patients readmitted to the ICU were excluded. Patients were stratified based on admission to an ICU in an academic medical center (AMC) versus non-AMC, and to ICUs with different operative volume experience, after stratification in quartiles (high, medium-high, medium-low, and low volume). Primary outcomes were ICU and hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included the need for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) during ICU stay, ICU length of stay (LOS), and 30-day ventilator free days. Results: Our analysis included 22,180 unique patients; the majority of which (15,085[68%]) were admitted to ICUs in non-AMCs. Cardiac and vascular procedures were the most common types of procedures performed. Patients admitted to AMCs were more likely to be younger and less likely to be Hispanic or Asian. Multivariable logistic regression indicated no meaningful association between academic status and ICU mortality, hospital mortality, initiation of CRRT, duration of ICU LOS, or 30-day ventilator-free-days. Contrarily, medium-high operative volume units had higher ICU mortality (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.10-1.91, p-value = 0.040), higher hospital mortality (OR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.07-1.66, p-value = 0.033), longer ICU LOS (Coefficient = 0.23, 95%CI = 0.07-0.39, p-value = 0.038), and fewer 30-day ventilator-free-days (Coefficient = -0.30, 95%CI = -0.48 - -0.13, p-value = 0.015) compared to their high operative volume counterparts. Conclusions: This study found that a volume-outcome association in the management of postoperative patients requiring ICU level of care immediately after a surgical procedure may exist. The academic status of the institution did not affect the outcomes of these patients.

8.
Am Surg ; 88(6): 1054-1058, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465697

RESUMO

As hospital systems plan for health care utilization surges and stress, understanding the necessary resources of a trauma system is essential for planning capacity. We aimed to describe trends in high-intensity resource utilization (operating room [OR] usage and intensive care unit [ICU] admissions) for trauma care during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trauma registry data (2019 pre-COVID-19 and 2020 COVID-19) were collected retrospectively from 4 level I trauma centers. Direct emergency department (ED) disposition to the OR or ICU was used as a proxy for high-intensity resource utilization. No change in the incidence of direct ED to ICU or ED to OR utilization was observed (2019: 24%, 2020 23%; P = .62 and 2019: 11%, 2020 10%; P = .71, respectively). These results suggest the need for continued access to ICU space and OR theaters for traumatic injury during national health emergencies, even when levels of trauma appear to be decreasing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
9.
Surgery ; 172(1): 470-475, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delays in admitting high-risk emergency surgery patients to the intensive care unit result in worse outcomes and increased health care costs. We aimed to use interpretable artificial intelligence technology to create a preoperative predictor for postoperative intensive care unit need in emergency surgery patients. METHODS: A novel, interpretable artificial intelligence technology called optimal classification trees was leveraged in an 80:20 train:test split of adult emergency surgery patients in the 2007-2017 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory values were used to develop, train, and then validate optimal classification tree algorithms to predict the need for postoperative intensive care unit admission. The latter was defined as postoperative death or the development of 1 or more postoperative complications warranting critical care (eg, unplanned intubation, ventilator requirement ≥48 hours, cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and septic shock). An interactive and user-friendly application was created. C statistics were used to measure performance. RESULTS: A total of 464,861 patients were included. The mean age was 55 years, 48% were male, and 11% developed severe postoperative complications warranting critical care. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application was created as the user-friendly interface of the complex optimal classification tree algorithms. The number of questions (ie, tree depths) needed to predict intensive care unit admission ranged from 2 to 11. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application had excellent discrimination for predicting the need for intensive care unit admission (C statistics: 0.89 train, 0.88 test). CONCLUSION: We recommend the Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application as an accurate, artificial intelligence-based tool for predicting severe complications warranting intensive care unit admission after emergency surgery. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application can prove useful to triage patients to the intensive care unit and to potentially decrease failure to rescue in emergency surgery patients.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Smartphone , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267051

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emergency physicians and trauma surgeons are increasingly confronted with pre-injury direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). The objective of this study was to assess if pre-injury DOACs, compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), or no oral anticoagulants is independently associated with differences in treatment, mortality and inpatient rehabilitation requirement. METHODS: We performed a review of the prospectively maintained institutional trauma registry at an urban academic level 1 trauma center. We included all geriatric patients (aged ≥ 65 years) with tICH after a fall, admitted between January 2011 and December 2018. Multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for demographics, comorbidities, vital signs, and tICH types were performed to identify the association between pre-injury anticoagulants and reversal agent use, neurosurgical interventions, inhospital mortality, 3-day mortality, and discharge to inpatient rehabilitation. RESULTS: A total of 1453 tICH patients were included (52 DOAC, 376 VKA, 1025 control). DOAC use was independently associated with lower odds of receiving specific reversal agents [odds ratio (OR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.54] than VKA patients. DOAC use was independently associated with requiring neurosurgical intervention (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.36-7.28). VKA use, but not DOAC use, was independently associated with inhospital mortality, or discharge to hospice care (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.27) compared to controls. VKA use was independently associated with higher odds of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06-1.87) compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Despite the higher neurosurgical intervention rates, patients with pre-injury DOAC use were associated with comparable rates of mortality and discharge to inpatient rehabilitation as patients without anticoagulation exposure. Future research should focus on risk assessment and stratification of DOAC-exposed trauma patients.

11.
Am J Surg ; 224(1 Pt B): 584-589, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35300857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to decreased access to care and social isolation, which have the potential for negative psychophysical effects. We examine the impact of the pandemic on physical and mental health outcomes after trauma. METHODS: Patients in a prospective study were included. The cohort injured during the pandemic was compared to a cohort injured before the pandemic. We performed regression analyses to evaluate the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and physical and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: 1,398 patients were included. In adjusted analysis, patients injured during the pandemic scored significantly worse on the SF-12 physical composite score (OR 2.21; [95% CI 0.69-3.72]; P = 0.004) and were more likely to screen positive for depression (OR 1.46; [1.02-2.09]; P = 0.03) and anxiety (OR 1.56; [1.08-2.26]; P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients injured during the COVID-19 pandemic had worse mental health outcomes but not physical health outcomes.

12.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
13.
J Surg Res ; 275: 172-180, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) is defined as a total measure of an individual's economic or social position in relation to others. Income and educational level are often used as quantifiable objective measures of SES but are inherently limited. Perceived SES (p-SES), refers to an individual's perception of their own SES. Herein, we assess the correlation between objective SES (o-SES) as defined by income and educational level and p-SES after injury and compare their associations with long-term outcomes after injury. METHODS: Moderate-to-severely injured patients admitted to a Level 1 trauma center were asked to complete a phone-based survey assessing functional and mental health outcomes, social dysfunction, chronic pain, and return to work/school 6-12 mo postinjury. o-SES was determined by income and educational level (low educational level: high school or lower; low income: live in zip code with median income/household lower than the national median). p-SES was determined by asking patients to categorize their SES. The correlation coefficient between o-SES and p-SES was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were built to determine the associations between o-SES and p-SES and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 729 patients were included in this study. Patients who reported a low p-SES were younger, more likely to suffer penetrating injuries, and to have a weak social support network. Twenty-one percent of patients with high income and high educational level classified their p-SES as low or mid-low, and conversely, 46% of patients with low education and low income classified their p-SES as high or mid-high. The correlation coefficient between p-SES and o-SES was 0.2513. After adjusting for confounders, p-SES was a stronger predictor of long-term outcomes, including functional limitations, social dysfunction, mental health outcomes, return to work/school, and chronic pain than was o-SES. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-reported p-SES correlates poorly with o-SES indicating that the commonly used calculation of income and education may not accurately capture an individuals' SES. Furthermore, we found p-SES to be more strongly correlated with long-term outcome measures than o-SES. As we strive to improve long-term outcomes after injury, p-SES may be an important variable in the early identification of individuals who are likely to suffer from worse long-term outcomes after injury.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Escolaridade , Humanos , Renda , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Traumatologia
14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(1): 21-29, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced blood component administration during massive transfusion is standard of care. Most literature focuses on the impact of red blood cell (RBC)/fresh frozen plasma (FFP) ratio, while the value of balanced RBC:platelet (PLT) administration is less established. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the independent impact of RBC:PLT on 24-hour mortality in trauma patients receiving massive transfusion. METHODS: Using the 2013 to 2018 American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database, adult patients who received massive transfusion (≥10 U of RBC/24 hours) and ≥1 U of RBC, FFP, and PLT within 4 hours of arrival were retrospectively included. To mitigate survival bias, only patients with consistent RBC:PLT and RBC:FFP ratios between 4 and 24 hours were analyzed. Balanced FFP or PLT transfusions were defined as having RBC:PLT and RBC:FFP of ≤2, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the independent relationship between RBC:FFP, RBC:PLT, balanced transfusion, and 24-hour mortality. RESULTS: A total of 9,215 massive transfusion patients were included. The number of patients who received transfusion with RBC:PLT >2 (1,942 [21.1%]) was significantly higher than those with RBC:FFP >2 (1,160 [12.6%]) (p < 0.001). Compared with an RBC:PLT ratio of 1:1, a gradual and consistent risk increase was observed for 24-hour mortality as the RBC:PLT ratio increased (p < 0.001). Patients with both FFP and PLT balanced transfusion had the lowest adjusted risk for 24-hour mortality. Mortality increased as resuscitation became more unbalanced, with higher odds of death for unbalanced PLT (odds ratio, 2.48 [2.18-2.83]) than unbalanced FFP (odds ratio, 1.66 [1.37-1.98]), while patients who received both FFP and PLT unbalanced transfusion had the highest risk of 24-hour mortality (odds ratio, 3.41 [2.74-4.24]). CONCLUSION: Trauma patients receiving massive transfusion significantly more often have unbalanced PLT rather than unbalanced FFP transfusion. The impact of unbalanced PLT transfusion on 24-hour mortality is independent and potentially more pronounced than unbalanced FFP transfusion, warranting serious system-level efforts for improvement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management; Level IV.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Adulto , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Surg Res ; 274: 185-195, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative deaths (IODs) are rare but catastrophic. We systematically analyzed IODs to identify clinical and patient safety patterns. METHODS: IODs in a large academic center between 2015 and 2019 were included. Perioperative details were systematically reviewed, focusing on (1) identifying phenotypes of IOD, (2) describing emerging themes immediately preceding cardiac arrest, and (3) suggesting interventions to mitigate IOD in each phenotype. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were included. Three IOD phenotypes were identified: trauma (T), nontrauma emergency (NT), and elective (EL) surgery patients, each with 2 sub-phenotypes (e.g., ELm and ELv for elective surgery with medical arrests or vascular injury and bleeding, respectively). In phenotype T, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated before incision in 42%, resuscitative thoracotomy was performed in 33%, and transient return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 30% of patients. In phenotype NT, ruptured aortic aneurysms accounted for half the cases, and median blood product utilization was 2,694 mL. In phenotype ELm, preoperative evaluation did not include electrocardiogram in 12%, cardiac consultation in 62%, stress test in 87%, and chest x-ray in 37% of patients. In phenotype ELv, 83% had a single peripheral intravenous line, and vascular injury was almost always followed by escalation in monitoring (e.g., central/arterial line), alert to the blood bank, and call for surgical backup. CONCLUSIONS: We have created a framework for IOD that can help with intraoperative safety and quality analysis. Focusing on interventions that address appropriateness versus futility in care in phenotypes T and NT, and on prevention and mitigation of intraoperative vessel injury (e.g., intraoperative rescue team) or preoperative optimization in phenotype EL may help prevent IODs.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Lesões do Sistema Vascular , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia , Humanos , Toracotomia
16.
J Card Surg ; 37(4): 808-817, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic gastrointestinal complications (IGIC) following cardiac surgery are associated with high morbidity and mortality and remain difficult to predict. We evaluated perioperative risk factors for IGIC in patients undergoing open cardiac surgery. METHODS: All patients that underwent an open cardiac surgical procedure at a tertiary academic center between 2011 and 2017 were included. The primary outcome was IGIC, defined as acute mesenteric ischemia necessitating a surgical intervention or postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding that was proven to be of ischemic etiology and necessitated blood product transfusion. A backward stepwise regression model was constructed to identify perioperative predictors of IGIC. RESULTS: Of 6862 patients who underwent cardiac surgery during the study period, 52(0.8%) developed IGIC. The highest incidence of IGIC (1.9%) was noted in patients undergoing concomitant coronary artery, valvular, and aortic procedures. The multivariable regression identified hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 5.74), preoperative renal failure requiring dialysis (OR = 3.62), immunocompromised status (OR = 2.64), chronic lung disease (OR = 2.61), and history of heart failure (OR = 2.03) as independent predictors for postoperative IGIC. Pre- or intraoperative utilization of intra-aortic balloon pump or catheter-based assist devices (OR = 4.54), intraoperative transfusion requirement of >4 RBC units(OR = 2.47), and cardiopulmonary bypass > 180 min (OR = 2.28) were also identified as independent predictors for the development of IGIC. CONCLUSIONS: We identified preoperative and intraoperative risk factors that independently increase the risk of developing postoperative IGIC after cardiac surgery. A high index of suspicion must be maintained and any deviation from the expected recovery course in patients with the above-identified risk factors should trigger an immediate evaluation with the involvement of the acute care surgical team.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Gastroenteropatias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(3): 232-247, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196154

RESUMO

Background: The principles of antimicrobial stewardship promote the appropriate prescribing of agents with respect to efficacy, safety, duration, and cost. Antibiotic resistance often results from inappropriate use (e.g., indication, selection, duration). We evaluated practice variability in duration of antimicrobials in surgical infection treatment (Rx) or prophylaxis (Px). Hypothesis: There is lack of consensus regarding the duration of antibiotic Px and Rx for many common indications. Methods: A survey was distributed to the Surgical Infection Society (SIS) regarding the use of antimicrobial agents for a variety of scenarios. Standard descriptive statistics were used to compare survey responses. Heterogeneity among question responses were compared using the Shannon Index, expressed as natural units (nats). Results: Sixty-three SIS members responded, most of whom (67%) have held a leadership position within the SIS or contributed as an annual meeting moderator or discussant; 76% have been in practice for more than five years. Regarding peri-operative Px, more than 80% agreed that a single dose is adequate for most indications, with the exceptions of gangrenous cholecystitis (40% single dose, 38% pre-operative +24 hours) and inguinal hernia repair requiring a bowel resection (70% single dose). There was more variability regarding the use of antibiotic Px for various bedside procedures with respondents split between none needed (range, 27%-66%) versus a single dose (range, 31%-67%). Opinions regarding the duration of antimicrobial Rx for hospitalized patients who have undergone a source control operation or procedure varied widely based on indication. Only two of 20 indications achieved more than 60% consensus despite available class 1 evidence: seven days for ventilator-associated pneumonia (77%), and four plus one days for perforated appendicitis (62%). Conclusions: Except for peri-operative antibiotic Px, there is little consensus regarding antibiotic duration among surgical infection experts, despite class 1 evidence and several available guidelines. This highlights the need for further high-level research and better dissemination of guidelines.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cirurgiões , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Consenso , Humanos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
18.
J Crit Care ; 69: 154012, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217369

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Enteral nutrition is associated with improved outcomes in acute pancreatitis (AP), but previous studies have not focused on critically-ill patients. Our purpose was to determine the association between nutritional support and infectious complications in ICU-admitted patients with AP. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with AP admitted in ICUs of 127 US hospitals from the eICU Collaborative were included. Patients were classified by type (initial and any use) of nutritional support they received: none (NN); oral (ON); enteral (EN); and parenteral nutrition (PN). RESULTS: 925 patients were identified. Length of stay was longer in the initial PN group (PN 21.3 ± 15.4 d, EN 19.1 ± 20.1 d, ON 8 ± 7.1 d, NN 6.6 ± 6.3 d, p < 0.001) and mortality was more common in the initial EN group (EN 16.7%, PN 8.9%, ON 2.7%, NN 10.9%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis found any EN use to be associated with infections (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.13-3.98, p = 0.019) and pneumonias (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.04-4.03, p = 0.039). CONCLUSION: EN was associated with an increased risk for pneumonias and overall infections in critically-ill patients with AP. More studies are needed to assess optimal nutritional approaches in critically-ill AP patients and patients who do not tolerate EN.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Pneumonia , Doença Aguda , Estado Terminal , Nutrição Enteral , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Pancreatite/terapia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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