Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 721
Filtrar
1.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CA125 is the best available yet insufficiently sensitive biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers, which individually or in combination with CA125 can achieve adequate sensitivity and specificity for the detection of earlier-stage ovarian cancer. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we measured serum levels of 92 preselected proteins for 91 women who had blood sampled ≤18 months prior to ovarian cancer diagnosis, and 182 matched controls. We evaluated the discriminatory performance of the proteins as potential early diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Nine of the 92 markers; CA125, HE4, FOLR1, KLK11, WISP1, MDK, CXCL13, MSLN and ADAM8 showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of ≥0.70 for discriminating between women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and women who remained cancer-free. All, except ADAM8, had shown at least equal discrimination in previous case-control comparisons. The discrimination of the biomarkers, however, was low for the lag-time of >9-18 months and paired combinations of CA125 with any of the 8 markers did not improve discrimination compared to CA125 alone. CONCLUSION: Using pre-diagnostic serum samples, this study identified markers with good discrimination for the lag-time of 0-9 months. However, the discrimination was low in blood samples collected more than 9 months prior to diagnosis, and none of the markers showed major improvement in discrimination when added to CA125.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(6): 1914-1926, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of obesity and weight change in breast-cancer development is complex and incompletely understood. We investigated long-term weight change and breast-cancer risk by body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hormone-receptor status. METHODS: Using data on weight collected at three different time points from women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we investigated the association between weight change from age 20 years until middle adulthood and risk of breast cancer. RESULTS: In total, 150 257 women with a median age of 51 years at cohort entry were followed for an average of 14 years (standard deviation = 3.9) during which 6532 breast-cancer cases occurred. Compared with women with stable weight (±2.5 kg), long-term weight gain >10 kg was positively associated with postmenopausal breast-cancer risk in women who were lean at age 20 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.65] in ever HRT users (HR = 1.23; 1.04-1.44), in never HRT users (HR = 1.40; 1.16-1.68) and in oestrogen-and-progesterone-receptor-positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer (HR = 1.46; 1.15-1.85). CONCLUSION: Long-term weight gain was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in women who were lean at age 20, both in HRT ever users and non-users, and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959986

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) may promote oxidative stress and inflammation and have been linked to multiple chronic diseases, including cancer. However, the association of AGEs with mortality after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis has not been previously investigated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for associations between dietary intake of AGEs with CRC-specific and all-cause mortality among 5801 participant cases diagnosed with CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study between 1993 and 2013. Dietary intakes of AGEs were estimated using country-specific dietary questionnaires, linked to an AGE database, that accounted for food preparation and processing. During a median of 58 months of follow-up, 2421 cases died (1841 from CRC). Individually or combined, dietary intakes of AGEs were not associated with all-cause and CRC-specific mortality among cases. However, there was a suggestion for a positive association between AGEs and all-cause or CRC-specific mortality among CRC cases without type II diabetes (all-cause, Pinteraction = 0.05) and CRC cases with the longest follow-up between recruitment and cancer diagnosis (CRC-specific, Pinteraction = 0.003; all-cause, Pinteraction = 0.01). Our study suggests that pre-diagnostic dietary intakes of AGEs were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC patients. Further investigations using biomarkers of AGEs and stratifying by sex, diabetes status, and timing of exposure to AGEs are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Ingestão de Alimentos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935094

RESUMO

Biological age is an important risk factor for chronic diseases. We examined the associations between five markers of unhealthy ageing; Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and cystatin-C; with risks of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We used a case-cohort design embedded in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort, including a subcohort of 3792 participants along with 4867 incident cases of cancer and CVD. Hazard ratios (HRs) were computed and the strongest associations were used to build weighted multi-marker combinations, and their associations with cancer and CVD risks were tested. After adjusting for common confounders, we observed direct associations of GDF-15 with lung cancer risk, NT-proBNP with breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, HbA1C with lung, colorectal, and breast cancer risks, and CRP with lung and colorectal cancer risks. An inverse association was observed for GDF-15 and prostate cancer risk. We also found direct associations of all 5 markers with myocardial infarction (MI) risk, and of GDF-15, NT-proBNP, CRP and cystatin-C with stroke risk. A combination of the independently-associated markers showed a moderately strong association with the risks of cancer and CVD (HRQ4-Q1 ranged from 1.78[1.36, 2.34] for breast cancer, when combining NT-proBNP and HbA1C, to 2.87[2.15, 3.83] for MI when combining NT-proBNP, HbA1C, CRP and cystatin-C). This analysis suggests that combinations of biomarkers related to unhealthy ageing show strong associations with cancer risk, and corroborates published evidence on CVD risk. If confirmed in other studies, using these biomarkers could be useful for the identification of individuals at higher risk of age-related diseases.

5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been associated with higher breast cancer risk; however, evidence on the associations between different OC formulations and breast cancer risk, especially by disease subtype, is limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between OC use by formulation and breast cancer risk by disease subtype. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective cohort study included 107,069 women from the Nurses' Health Study II with recalled OC use from age 13 to baseline (1989) and updated data on OC use until 2009 collected via biennial questionnaires. A total of 5,799 breast cancer cases were identified through 2017. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] for associations between OC use and breast cancer risk, overall and by estrogen and progesterone receptor and HER2 status. OC use was evaluated by status of use (current, former, and never), duration of and time since last use independently and cross-classified, and formulation (i.e., estrogen and progestin type). RESULTS: Current OC use was associated with higher risk of invasive breast cancer (HR 1.31 (95% CI 1.09-1.58), vs. never use), with stronger associations with longer duration of current use (>5 years, 1.56 (1.23-1.99); ≤5 years, 1.19 (0.95-1.49)). From >5 years since cessation, risk among former and never users was similar (e.g., >5-10 years since cessation, 0.99 (0.88-1.11)). Associations did not differ significantly by tumor subtype. In analyses by formulation, current use of formulations containing levonorgestrel in triphasic (2.83 (1.98-4.03)) and extended cycle regimens (3.49 (1.28-9.53)), and norgestrel in monophasic regimen (1.91 (1.19-3.06); vs. never OC users), all combined with ethinyl estradiol, was associated with higher breast cancer risk. No association was observed with current use of the other progestin types evaluated (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate, desogestrel, norgestimate, and drospirenone), though sample sizes were relatively small for some of the subgroups, limiting these analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Current OC use was associated with higher risk of invasive breast cancer regardless of disease subtype, though risk was comparable to never users 5 years after cessation. In analyses by progestin type, associations were observed for select formulations including levonorgestrel and norgestrel. Assessment of the associations for newer progestin types (desogestrel, norgestimate, drospirenone) was limited by sample size, and further research on more recently introduced progestins is warranted.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843121

RESUMO

Bile acids (BA) play different roles in cancer development. Some are carcinogenic and BA signaling is also involved in various metabolic, inflammatory, and immune-related processes. The liver is the primary site of BA synthesis. Liver dysfunction and microbiome compositional changes, such as during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, may modulate BA metabolism increasing concentration of carcinogenic BAs. Observations from prospective cohorts are sparse. We conducted a study (233 HCC case-control pairs) nested within a large observational prospective cohort with blood samples taken at recruitment when healthy with follow-up over time for later cancer development. A targeted metabolomics method was used to quantify 17 BAs (primary/secondary/tertiary; conjugated/un-conjugated) in pre-diagnostic plasma. Odd ratios (OR) for HCC risk associations were calculated by multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Positive HCC risk associations were observed for the molar sum of all BAs (ORdoubling  = 2.30, 95%CI = 1.76-3.00) and choline- and taurine-conjugated BAs. Relative concentrations of BAs showed positive HCC risk associations for glycoholic acid and most taurine-conjugated BAs. We observe an association between increased HCC risk and higher levels of major circulating BAs, from several years prior to tumor diagnosis and after multivariable adjustment for confounders and liver functionality. Increased in BA concentration is accompanied by a shift in BA profile towards higher proportions of taurine-conjugated BAs, indicating early alterations of BA metabolism with HCC development. Future studies are needed to assess BA profiles for improved stratification of patients at high HCC risk and to determine whether supplementation with certain BAs may ameliorate liver dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(6): pkab084, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805742

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies have consistently reported that postmenopausal hormone therapy use is associated with lower colon cancer risk, but epidemiologic studies examining the associations between circulating concentrations of endogenous estrogens and colorectal cancer have reported inconsistent results. Methods: We investigated the associations between circulating concentrations of estrone, estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with colon cancer risk in a nested case-control study of 1028 postmenopausal European women (512 colon cancer cases, 516 matched controls) who were noncurrent users of exogenous hormones at blood collection. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the association between circulating sex hormones and colon cancer risk. We also conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies of circulating estrone and estradiol with colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: In the multivariable model, a nonstatistically significantly positive relationship was found between circulating estrone and colon cancer risk (odds ratio per log2 1-unit increment = 1.17 [95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 1.38]; odds ratioquartile4-quartile1 = 1.33 [95% confidence interval = 0.89 to 1.97], P trend = .20). Circulating concentrations of estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA, progesterone, and SHBG were not associated with colon cancer risk. In the dose-response meta-analysis, no clear evidence of associations were found between circulating estradiol and estrone concentrations with colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer risk. Conclusion: Our observational and meta-analysis results do not support an association between circulating concentrations of endogenous sex hormones and colon or rectal cancer in postmenopausal women.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(23): e019814, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796724

RESUMO

Background There is controversy about associations between total dietary fatty acids, their classes (saturated fatty acids [SFAs], monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids), and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Specifically, the relevance of food sources of SFAs to CHD associations is uncertain. Methods and Results We conducted a case-cohort study involving 10 529 incident CHD cases and a random subcohort of 16 730 adults selected from a cohort of 385 747 participants in 9 countries of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. We estimated multivariable adjusted country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs per 5% of energy intake from dietary fatty acids, with and without isocaloric macronutrient substitutions, using Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and pooled results using random-effects meta-analysis. We found no evidence for associations of the consumption of total or fatty acid classes with CHD, regardless of macronutrient substitutions. In analyses considering food sources, CHD incidence was lower per 1% higher energy intake of SFAs from yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.99]), cheese (HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.96-1.00]), and fish (HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.75-1.00]), but higher for SFAs from red meat (HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.02-1.12]) and butter (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.00-1.04]). Conclusions This observational study found no strong associations of total fatty acids, SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, with incident CHD. By contrast, we found associations of SFAs with CHD in opposite directions dependent on the food source. These findings should be further confirmed, but support public health recommendations to consider food sources alongside the macronutrients they contain, and suggest the importance of the overall food matrix.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19609, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608230

RESUMO

Inclusion of clinical parameters limits the application of most cardiovascular disease (CVD) prediction models to clinical settings. We developed and externally validated a non-clinical CVD risk score with a clinical extension and compared the performance to established CVD risk scores. We derived the scores predicting CVD (non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction and stroke) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort (n = 25,992, cases = 683) using competing risk models and externally validated in EPIC-Heidelberg (n = 23,529, cases = 692). Performance was assessed by C-indices, calibration plots, and expected-to-observed ratios and compared to a non-clinical model, the Pooled Cohort Equation, Framingham CVD Risk Scores (FRS), PROCAM scores, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). Our non-clinical score included age, gender, waist circumference, smoking, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, CVD family history, and dietary parameters. C-indices consistently indicated good discrimination (EPIC-Potsdam 0.786, EPIC-Heidelberg 0.762) comparable to established clinical scores (thereof highest, FRS: EPIC-Potsdam 0.781, EPIC-Heidelberg 0.764). Additional clinical parameters slightly improved discrimination (EPIC-Potsdam 0.796, EPIC-Heidelberg 0.769). Calibration plots indicated very good calibration with minor overestimation in the highest decile of predicted risk. The developed non-clinical 10-year CVD risk score shows comparable discrimination to established clinical scores, allowing assessment of individual CVD risk in physician-independent settings.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2179-2187, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that immune cells play a prominent role in pancreatic cancer etiology but prospective investigations are missing. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study with 502 pairs of incident pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls. Relative counts of circulating immune cells (neutrophils and lymphocyte sublineages: total CD3+, CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) relative to nucleated cells, (white blood cells) were measured by qRT-PCR. ORs with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regressions, modeling relative counts of immune cells on a continuous scale. RESULTS: Neither relative counts of immune cell types taken individually, nor mutually adjusted for each other were associated with pancreatic cancer risks. However, in subgroup analyses by strata of lag-time, higher relative counts of Tregs and lower relative counts of CD8+ were significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risks in participants diagnosed within the first 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These results might reflect reverse causation, due to higher relative counts of Tregs and lower counts of CD8+ cells among individuals with more advanced stages of latent pancreatic cancer, who are closer to the point of developing clinical manifest disease. IMPACT: We have shown, for the first time, that increased relative counts of regulatory T cells and lower relative counts of CD8+, cytotoxic T cells may be associated with pancreatic cancer risk or relatively late-stage tumor development.See related commentary by Michaud and Kelsey, p. 2176.

12.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579010

RESUMO

Dietary advanced glycation end-products (dAGEs) have been hypothesized to be associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) by promoting inflammation, metabolic dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the colonic epithelium. However, evidence from prospective cohort studies is scarce and inconclusive. We evaluated CRC risk associated with the intake of dAGEs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Dietary intakes of three major dAGEs: Nε-carboxy-methyllysine (CML), Nε-carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) were estimated in 450,111 participants (median follow-up = 13 years, with 6162 CRC cases) by matching to a detailed published European food composition database. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of dAGEs with CRC were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. Inverse CRC risk associations were observed for CML (HR comparing extreme quintiles: HRQ5vs.Q1 = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-1.00) and MG-H1 (HRQ5vs.Q1 = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-1.00), but not for CEL (HRQ5vs.Q1 = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.89-1.05). The associations did not differ by sex or anatomical location of the tumor. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, our findings suggest an inverse association between dAGEs and CRC risk. More research is required to verify these findings and better differentiate the role of dAGEs from that of endogenously produced AGEs and their precursor compounds in CRC development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
13.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564446

RESUMO

Pooling metabolomics data across studies is often desirable to increase the statistical power of the analysis. However, this can raise methodological challenges as several preanalytical and analytical factors could introduce differences in measured concentrations and variability between datasets. Specifically, different studies may use variable sample types (e.g., serum versus plasma) collected, treated, and stored according to different protocols, and assayed in different laboratories using different instruments. To address these issues, a new pipeline was developed to normalize and pool metabolomics data through a set of sequential steps: (i) exclusions of the least informative observations and metabolites and removal of outliers; imputation of missing data; (ii) identification of the main sources of variability through principal component partial R-square (PC-PR2) analysis; (iii) application of linear mixed models to remove unwanted variability, including samples' originating study and batch, and preserve biological variations while accounting for potential differences in the residual variances across studies. This pipeline was applied to targeted metabolomics data acquired using Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ kits in eight case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Comprehensive examination of metabolomics measurements indicated that the pipeline improved the comparability of data across the studies. Our pipeline can be adapted to normalize other molecular data, including biomarkers as well as proteomics data, and could be used for pooling molecular datasets, for example in international consortia, to limit biases introduced by inter-study variability. This versatility of the pipeline makes our work of potential interest to molecular epidemiologists.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 149(9): 1659-1669, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196970

RESUMO

Dysregulation of tryptophan metabolism has been linked to colorectal tumorigenesis; however, epidemiological studies investigating tryptophan metabolites in relation to colorectal cancer risk are limited. We studied associations of plasma tryptophan, serotonin and kynurenine with colon cancer risk in two studies with cancer patients and controls, and in one prospective cohort: ColoCare Study (110 patients/153 controls), the Colorectal Cancer Study of Austria (CORSA; 46 patients/390 controls) and the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; 456 matched case-control pairs). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colon cancer risk. Tryptophan was inversely associated with colon cancer risk in ColoCare (OR per 1-SD = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.31-0.64) and EPIC (OR per 1-SD = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-0.99). Comparing detectable vs nondetectable levels, serotonin was positively associated with colon cancer in CORSA (OR = 6.39; 95% CI, 3.61-11.3) and EPIC (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.20-3.40). Kynurenine was inversely associated with colon cancer in ColoCare (OR per 1-SD = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98), positively associated in CORSA (OR per 1-SD = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.27-2.52), while no association was observed in EPIC. The kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio was positively associated with colon cancer in ColoCare (OR per 1-SD = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.03-1.84) and CORSA (OR per 1-SD = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.06-1.96), but not in EPIC. These results suggest that higher plasma tryptophan may be associated with lower colon cancer risk, while increased serotonin may be associated with a higher risk of colon cancer. The kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio may also reflect altered tryptophan catabolism during colon cancer development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/sangue , Cinurenina/sangue , Serotonina/sangue , Triptofano/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triptofano/metabolismo
15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings and limitations of previous studies on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk support conducting further research in prospective cohorts. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Participants were 513 pancreatic cancer cases and 1020 matched controls. Concentrations of 22 POPs were measured in plasma collected at baseline. RESULTS: Some associations were observed at higher concentrations of p, p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, ß-hexachlorocyclohexane and the sum of six organochlorine pesticides and of 16 POPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the upper quartile of trans-nonachlor was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.26; P for trend = 0.025). Associations were stronger in the groups predefined as most valid (participants having fasted >6 h, with microscopic diagnostic confirmation, normal weight, and never smokers), and as most relevant (follow-up ≥10 years). Among participants having fasted >6 h, the ORs were relevant for 10 of 11 exposures. Higher ORs were also observed among cases with microscopic confirmation than in cases with a clinical diagnosis, and among normal-weight participants than in the rest of participants. Among participants with a follow-up ≥10 years, estimates were higher than in participants with a shorter follow-up (for trans-nonachlor: OR = 2.14, 1.01 to 4.53, P for trend = 0.035). Overall, trans-nonachlor, three PCBs and the two sums of POPs were the exposures most clearly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Individually or in combination, most of the 22 POPs analysed did not or only moderately increased the risk of pancreatic cancer.

16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(2): 475-481, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is strongly associated with obesity and dysregulation of metabolic factors such as estrogen and insulin signaling are causal risk factors for this malignancy. To identify additional novel metabolic pathways associated with endometrial cancer we performed metabolomic analyses on pre-diagnostic plasma samples from 853 case-control pairs from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: A total of 129 metabolites (acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexoses, and sphingolipids) were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the associations of metabolites with endometrial cancer risk. An analysis focusing on clusters of metabolites using the bootstrap lasso method was also employed. RESULTS: After adjustment for body mass index, sphingomyelin [SM] C18:0 was positively (OR1SD: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.33), and glycine, serine, and free carnitine (C0) were inversely (OR1SD: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99; OR1SD: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-1.00 and OR1SD: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81-1.00, respectively) associated with endometrial cancer risk. Serine, C0 and two sphingomyelins were selected by the lasso method in >90% of the bootstrap samples. The ratio of esterified to free carnitine (OR1SD: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.28) and that of short chain to free acylcarnitines (OR1SD: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00-1.25) were positively associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further adjustment for C-peptide or other endometrial cancer risk factors only minimally altered the results. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that variation in levels of glycine, serine, SM C18:0 and free carnitine may represent specific pathways linked to endometrial cancer development. If causal, these pathways may offer novel targets for endometrial cancer prevention.

17.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(6): 627-634, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162683

RESUMO

In Germany, it is currently recommended that women start mammographic breast cancer screening at age 50. However, recently updated guidelines state that for women younger than 50 and older than 70 years of age, screening decisions should be based on individual risk. International clinical guidelines recommend starting screening when a woman's 5-year risk of breast cancer exceeds 1.7%. We thus compared the performance of the current age-based screening practice with an alternative risk-adapted approach using data from a German population representative survey. We found that 10,498,000 German women ages 50-69 years are eligible for mammographic screening based on age alone. Applying the 5-year risk threshold of 1.7% to individual breast cancer risk estimated from a model that considers a woman's reproductive and personal characteristics, 39,000 German women ages 40-49 years would additionally be eligible. Among those women, the number needed to screen to detect one breast cancer case, NNS, was 282, which was close to the NNS = 292 among all 50- to 69-year-old women. In contrast, NNS = 703 for the 113,000 German women ages 50-69 years old with 5-year breast cancer risk <0.8%, the median 5-year breast cancer risk for German women ages 45-49 years, which we used as a low-risk threshold. For these low-risk women, longer screening intervals might be considered to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, we show that risk-adapted mammographic screening could benefit German women ages 40-49 years who are at elevated breast cancer risk and reduce cost and burden among low-risk women ages 50-69 years. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: We show that a risk-based approach to mammography screening for German women can help detect breast cancer in women ages 40-49 years with increased risk and reduce screening costs and burdens for low-risk women ages 50-69 years. However, before recommending a particular implementation of a risk-based mammographic screening approach, further investigations of models and thresholds used are needed.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(11): 1542-1550, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is an established risk factor for several cancers, but modest alcohol-cancer associations may be missed because of measurement error in self-reported assessments. Biomarkers of habitual alcohol intake may provide novel insight into the relationship between alcohol and cancer risk. METHODS: Untargeted metabolomics was used to identify metabolites correlated with self-reported habitual alcohol intake in a discovery dataset from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; n = 454). Statistically significant correlations were tested in independent datasets of controls from case-control studies nested within EPIC (n = 280) and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC; n = 438) study. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of alcohol-associated metabolites and self-reported alcohol intake with risk of pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver cancer, and liver disease mortality in the contributing studies. RESULTS: Two metabolites displayed a dose-response association with self-reported alcohol intake: 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid and an unidentified compound. A 1-SD (log2) increase in levels of 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid was associated with risk of HCC (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.51 to 4.27) and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.99) in EPIC and liver cancer (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.44 to 2.77) and liver disease mortality (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.63 to 2.86) in ATBC. Conversely, a 1-SD (log2) increase in questionnaire-derived alcohol intake was not associated with HCC or pancreatic cancer in EPIC or liver cancer in ATBC but was associated with liver disease mortality (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.60 to 2.98) in ATBC. CONCLUSIONS: 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid is a candidate biomarker of habitual alcohol intake that may advance the study of alcohol and cancer risk in population-based studies.

19.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(3): 1305-1317, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889511

RESUMO

Background: Current guidelines for lung cancer screening via low-dose computed tomography recommend annual screening for all candidates meeting basic eligibility criteria. However, lung cancer risk of eligible screening participants can vary widely, and further risk stratification could be used to individually optimize screening intervals in view of expected benefits, possible harms and financial costs. To this effect, models have been developed in the US National Lung Screening Trial based on self-reported lung cancer risk factors and imaging data. We evaluated these models using data from an independent screening trial in Germany. Methods: We examined the Polynomial model by Schreuder et al., the Lung Cancer Risk Assessment Tool extended by CT characteristics (LCRAT + CT) by Robbins et al., and a criterion of presence vs. absence of pulmonary nodules ≥4 mm (Patz et al.), applied to sub-sets of screening participants according to eligibility criteria. Discrimination was evaluated via the receiver operating characteristic curve. Delayed diagnoses and false positive results were calculated at various thresholds of predicted risk. Model calibration was assessed by comparing mean predicted risk versus observed incidence. Results: One thousand five hundred and six participants were eligible for the validation of the LCRAT + CT model, and 1,889 for the validation of the Polynomial model and Patz criterion, yielding areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82), 0.75 (0.67, 0.83), and 0.56 (0.53, 0.72) respectively. Skipping 50% annual screenings (participants within the 5 lowest risk deciles by LCRAT + CT in any round or by the Polynomial model; baseline screening round), would have avoided 75% (21.9%, 98.7%) and 40% (21.8%, 61.1%) false positive screen tests and delayed 10% (1.8%, 33.1%) or no (0%, 32.1%) diagnoses, respectively. Using the Patz criterion, referring 63.2% (61.0% to 65.4%) of participants to biennial screening would have avoided 4% (0.2% to 22.3%) of false positive screen tests but delayed 55% (24.6% to 81.9%) diagnoses. Conclusions: In this German trial, the LCRAT + CT and Polynomial models showed useful discrimination of screening participants for one-year lung cancer risk following CT examination. Our results illustrate the remaining heterogeneity in risk within screening-eligible subjects and the trade-off between a low-frequency screening approach and delayed detection.

20.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874856

RESUMO

Experimental evidence has implicated genotoxic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from epidemiological studies is sparse. We therefore assessed the association of serological markers of E. coli and ETBF exposure with odds of developing CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) study.Serum samples of incident CRC cases and matched controls (n = 442 pairs) were analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig) A and G antibody responses to seven E. coli proteins and two isoforms of the ETBF toxin via multiplex serology. Multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of sero-positivity to E. coli and ETBF with CRC.The IgA-positivity of any of the tested E. coli antigens was associated with higher odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.05-1.91). Dual-positivity for both IgA and IgG to E. coli and ETBF was associated with >1.7-fold higher odds of developing CRC, with a significant association only for IgG (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.94). This association was more pronounced when restricted to the proximal colon cancers (OR: 2.62; 95% CI: 1.09, 6.29) compared to those of the distal colon (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.51, 3.00) (pheterogeneity = 0.095). Sero-positivity to E. coli and ETBF was associated with CRC development, suggesting that co-infection of these bacterial species may contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings warrant further exploration in larger prospective studies and within different population groups.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...