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1.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 393, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188205

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic and lifestyle behavioural factors on the risk of T2D, a total of 12,403 individuals were identified as incident T2D cases, and a representative sub-cohort of 16,154 individuals was selected from a larger cohort of 340,234 participants with a follow-up time of 3.99 million person-years. We describe the results from a genome-wide association analysis between more than 8.9 million SNPs and T2D risk among 22,326 individuals (9,978 cases and 12,348 non-cases) from the EPIC-InterAct study. The summary statistics to be shared provide a valuable resource to facilitate further investigations into the genetics of T2D.

2.
Rofo ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: For screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) to be effective, the benefits must outweigh the potential risks. In large lung cancer screening studies, a mortality reduction of approx. 20 % has been reported, which requires several organizational elements to be achieved in practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The elements to be set up are an effective invitation strategy, uniform and quality-assured assessment criteria, and computer-assisted evaluation tools resulting in a nodule management algorithm to assign each nodule the needed workup intensity. For patients with confirmed lung cancer, immediate counseling and guideline-compliant treatment in tightly integrated regional expert centers with expert skills are required. First, pulmonology contacts as well as CT facilities should be available in the participant's neighborhood. IT infrastructure, linkage to clinical cancer registries, quality management as well as epidemiologic surveillance are also required. RESULTS: An effective organization of screening will result in an articulated structure of both widely distributed pulmonology offices as the participants' primary contacts and CT facilities as well as central expert facilities for supervision of screening activities, individual clarification of suspicious findings, and treatment of proven cancer. CONCLUSION: In order to ensure that the benefits of screening more than outweigh the potential harms and that it will be accepted by the public, a tightly organized structure is needed to ensure wide availability of pulmonologists as first contacts and CT facilities with expert skills and high-level equipment concentrated in central facilities. KEY POINTS: · For lung cancer screening, elements must function optimally and be tightly organized.. · Lung cancer screening requires a network of expert centers and collaborating facilities.. · IT infrastructure, QM, epidemiological surveillance, and linkage to cancer registries are essential.. CITATION FORMAT: · Delorme S, Kaaks R: Lung Cancer Screening by Low-Dose Computed Tomography: Part 2 - Key Elements for Programmatic Implementation of Lung Cancer Screening. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2020; DOI: 10.1055/a-1290-7817.

3.
Rofo ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials in the USA and Europe have convincingly demonstrated the efficacy of screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) as a means to lower lung cancer mortality, but also document potential harms related to radiation, psychosocial stress, and invasive examinations triggered by false-positive screening tests and overdiagnosis. To ensure that benefits (lung cancer deaths averted; life years gained) outweigh the risk of harm, lung cancer screening should be targeted exclusively to individuals who have an elevated risk of lung cancer, plus sufficient residual life expectancy. METHODS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall, randomized screening trials show an approximate 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality by LDCT screening. In view of declining residual life expectancy, especially among continuing long-term smokers, risk of being over-diagnosed is likely to increase rapidly above the age of 75. In contrast, before age 50, the incidence of LC may be generally too low for screening to provide a positive balance of benefits to harms and financial costs. Concise criteria as used in the NLST or NELSON trials may provide a basic guideline for screening eligibility. An alternative would be the use of risk prediction models based on smoking history, sex, and age as a continuous risk factor. Compared to concise criteria, such models have been found to identify a 10 % to 20 % larger number of LC patients for an equivalent number of individuals to be screened, and additionally may help provide security that screening participants will all have a high-enough LC risk to balance out harm potentially caused by radiation or false-positive screening tests. KEY POINTS: · LDCT screening can significantly reduce lung cancer mortality. · Screening until the age of 80 was shown to be efficient in terms of cancer deaths averted; in terms of LYG relative to overdiagnosis, stopping at a younger age (e. g. 75) may have greater efficiency. · Risk models may improve the overall net benefit of lung cancer screening. CITATION FORMAT: · Kaaks R, Delorme S. Lung Cancer Screening by Low-Dose Computed Tomography - Part 1: Expected Benefits, Possible Harms, and Criteria for Eligibility and Population Targeting. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2020; DOI: 10.1055/a-1290-7926.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

5.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003394, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research suggested a differential association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 inversely associated with T2D, but the epimeric form (C3-epi-25(OH)D3) positively associated with T2D. Whether or not these observational associations are causal remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the potential causality of these associations using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for total 25(OH)D (N = 120,618), 25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562), and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562) in participants of European descent (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk study, EPIC-CVD study, Ely study, and the SUNLIGHT consortium). We identified genetic variants for MR analysis to investigate the causal association of the 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D (including 80,983 T2D cases and 842,909 non-cases). We also estimated the observational association of 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D by performing random effects meta-analysis of results from previous studies and results from the EPIC-InterAct study. We identified 10 genetic loci associated with total 25(OH)D, 7 loci associated with 25(OH)D3 and 3 loci associated with C3-epi-25(OH)D3. Based on the meta-analysis of observational studies, each 1-standard deviation (SD) higher level of 25(OH)D was associated with a 20% lower risk of T2D (relative risk [RR]: 0.80; 95% CI 0.77, 0.84; p < 0.001), but a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with T2D (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI 0.89, 1.03; p = 0.23); this result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. In EPIC-InterAct, 25(OH)D3 (per 1-SD) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77, 0.86; p < 0.001), while C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (above versus below lower limit of quantification) was positively associated with T2D (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22; p = 0.006), but neither 25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.93, 1.01; p = 0.14) nor C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93, 1.04; p = 0.53) was causally associated with T2D risk in the MR analysis. Main limitations include the lack of a non-linear MR analysis and of the generalisability of the current findings from European populations to other populations of different ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found discordant associations of biochemically measured and genetically predicted differences in blood 25(OH)D with T2D risk. The findings based on MR analysis in a large sample of European ancestry do not support a causal association of total 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D and argue against the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of T2D.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity increases endometrial cancer risk, possibly through inflammation, hyperinsulinemia, and increasing estrogens. We aimed to quantify the mediating effects of adiponectin (anti-inflammatory adipocytokine); IL6, IL1-receptor antagonist, TNF receptor 1 and 2, and C-reactive protein (inflammatory status biomarkers); C-peptide (hyperinsulinemia biomarker); and free estradiol and estrone (estrogen biomarkers) in the adiposity-endometrial cancer link in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We used data from a case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Eligible women did not have cancer, hysterectomy, and diabetes; did not use oral contraceptives or hormone therapy; and were postmenopausal at recruitment. Mediating pathways from adiposity to endometrial cancer were investigated by estimating natural indirect (NIE) and direct (NDE) effects using sequential mediation analysis. RESULTS: The study included 163 cases and 306 controls. The adjusted OR for endometrial cancer for body mass index (BMI) ≥30 versus ≥18.5-<25 kg/m2 was 2.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-5.02). The ORsNIE were 1.95 (1.01-3.74) through all biomarkers [72% proportion mediated (PM)] decomposed as: 1.35 (1.06-1.73) through pathways originating with adiponectin (33% PM); 1.13 (0.71-1.80) through inflammation beyond (the potential influence of) adiponectin (13% PM); 1.05 (0.88-1.24) through C-peptide beyond adiponectin and inflammation (5% PM); and 1.22 (0.89-1.67) through estrogens beyond preceding biomarkers (21% PM). The ORNDE not through biomarkers was 1.29 (0.54-3.09). Waist circumference gave similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced adiponectin and increased inflammatory biomarkers, C-peptide, and estrogens mediated approximately 70% of increased odds of endometrial cancer in women with obesity versus normal weight. IMPACT: If replicated, these results could have implications for identifying targets for intervention to reduce endometrial cancer risk in women with obesity.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038275

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for several major cancers. Associations of weight change in middle adulthood with cancer risk, however, are less clear. We examined the association of change in weight and body mass index (BMI) category during middle adulthood with 42 cancers, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Of 241 323 participants (31% men), 20% lost and 32% gained weight (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) during 6.9 years (average). During 8.0 years of follow-up after the second weight assessment, 20 960 incident cancers were ascertained. Independent of baseline BMI, weight gain (per one kg/year increment) was positively associated with cancer of the corpus uteri (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.23). Compared to stable weight (±0.4 kg/year), weight gain (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) was positively associated with cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts (HR = 1.41; 1.01-1.96), postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.08; 1.00-1.16) and thyroid (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.90). Compared to maintaining normal weight, maintaining overweight or obese BMI (World Health Organisation categories) was positively associated with most obesity-related cancers. Compared to maintaining the baseline BMI category, weight gain to a higher BMI category was positively associated with cancers of the postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.19; 1.06-1.33), ovary (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.91), corpus uteri (HR = 1.42; 1.06-1.91), kidney (HR = 1.80; 1.20-2.68) and pancreas in men (HR = 1.81; 1.11-2.95). Losing weight to a lower BMI category, however, was inversely associated with cancers of the corpus uteri (HR = 0.40; 0.23-0.69) and colon (HR = 0.69; 0.52-0.92). Our findings support avoiding weight gain and encouraging weight loss in middle adulthood.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128820

RESUMO

To better understand the role of individual and lifestyle factors in human disease, an exposome-wide association study was performed to investigate within a single-study anthropometry measures and lifestyle factors previously associated with B-cell lymphoma (BCL). Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study, 2402 incident BCL cases were diagnosed from 475 426 participants that were followed-up on average 14 years. Standard and penalized Cox regression models as well as principal component analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate 84 exposures in relation to BCL risk. Standard and penalized Cox regression models showed a positive association between anthropometric measures and BCL and multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm (MM). The penalized Cox models additionally showed the association between several exposures from categories of physical activity, smoking status, medical history, socioeconomic position, diet and BCL and/or the subtypes. PCAs confirmed the individual associations but also showed additional observations. The PC5 including anthropometry, was positively associated with BCL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and MM. There was a significant positive association between consumption of sugar and confectionary (PC11) and follicular lymphoma risk, and an inverse association between fish and shellfish and Vitamin D (PC15) and DLBCL risk. The PC1 including features of the Mediterranean diet and diet with lower inflammatory score showed an inverse association with BCL risk, while the PC7, including dairy, was positively associated with BCL and DLBCL risk. Physical activity (PC10) was positively associated with DLBCL risk among women. This study provided informative insights on the etiology of BCL.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930386

RESUMO

Overdiagnosis is a major potential harm of lung cancer screening; knowing its potential magnitude helps to optimize screening eligibility criteria. The German Lung Screening Intervention Trial ("LUSI") is a randomized trial among 4052 long-term smokers (2622 men), 50.3 to 71.9 years of age from the general population around Heidelberg, Germany, comparing five annual rounds of low-dose computed tomography (n = 2029) with a control arm without intervention (n = 2023). After a median follow-up of 9.77 years postrandomization and 5.73 years since last screening, 74 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer in the control arm and 90 in the screening arm: 69 during the active screening period; of which 63 screen-detected and 6 interval cancers. The excess cumulative incidence in the screening arm (N = 16) represented 25.4% (95% confidence interval: -11.3, 64.3] of screen-detected cancer cases (N = 63). Analyzed by histologic subtype, excess incidence in the screening arm appeared largely driven by adenocarcinomas. Statistical modeling yielded an estimated mean preclinical sojourn time (MPST) of 5.38 (4.76, 5.88) years and a screen-test sensitivity of 81.6 (74.4%, 88.8%) for lung cancer overall, all histologic subtypes combined. Based on modeling, we further estimated that about 48% (47.5% [43.2%, 50.7%]) of screen-detected tumors have a lead time ≥4 years, whereas about 33% (32.8% [28.4%, 36.1%]) have a lead time ≥6 years, 23% (22.6% [18.6%, 25.7%]) ≥8 years, 16% (15.6% [12.2%, 18.3%]) ≥10 years and 11% (10.7% [8.0%, 13.0%]) ≥12 years. The high proportions of tumors with relatively long lead times suggest a major risk of overdiagnosis for individuals with comparatively short remaining life expectancies.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14541, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883969

RESUMO

Abdominal and general adiposity are independently associated with mortality, but there is no consensus on how best to assess abdominal adiposity. We compared the ability of alternative waist indices to complement body mass index (BMI) when assessing all-cause mortality. We used data from 352,985 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for other risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, 38,178 participants died. Combining in one model BMI and a strongly correlated waist index altered the association patterns with mortality, to a predominantly negative association for BMI and a stronger positive association for the waist index, while combining BMI with the uncorrelated A Body Shape Index (ABSI) preserved the association patterns. Sex-specific cohort-wide quartiles of waist indices correlated with BMI could not separate high-risk from low-risk individuals within underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) categories, while the highest quartile of ABSI separated 18-39% of the individuals within each BMI category, which had 22-55% higher risk of death. In conclusion, only a waist index independent of BMI by design, such as ABSI, complements BMI and enables efficient risk stratification, which could facilitate personalisation of screening, treatment and monitoring.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734650

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case-control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associated with HCC development, using biological samples from within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (>520 000 participants), where we identified 129 HCC cases matched 1:1 to controls. We conducted high-resolution untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics on serum samples collected at recruitment prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was applied controlling for dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, body size, hepatitis infection and liver dysfunction. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. Of 9206 molecular features detected, 220 discriminated HCC cases from controls. Detailed feature annotation revealed 92 metabolites associated with HCC risk, of which 14 were unambiguously identified using pure reference standards. Positive HCC-risk associations were observed for N1-acetylspermidine, isatin, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, tyrosine, sphingosine, l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and 7-methylguanine. Inverse risk associations were observed for retinol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, glycerophosphocholine, γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and creatine. Discernible differences for these metabolites were observed between cases and controls up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Our observations highlight the diversity of metabolic perturbations involved in HCC development and replicate previous observations (metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and phospholipids) made in Asian and Scandinavian populations. These findings emphasize the role of metabolic pathways associated with steroid metabolism and immunity and specific dietary and environmental exposures in HCC development.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13814, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796953

RESUMO

Sustained B-cell activation is an important mechanism contributing to B-cell lymphoma (BCL). We aimed to validate four previously reported B-cell activation markers predictive of BCL risk (sCD23, sCD27, sCD30, and CXCL13) and to examine their possible mediating effects on the association between anthropometric and lifestyle factors and major BCL subtypes. Pre-diagnostic serum levels were measured for 517 BCL cases and 525 controls in a nested case-control study. The odds ratios of BCL were 6.2 in the highest versus lowest quartile for sCD23, 2.6 for sCD30, 4.2 for sCD27, and 2.6 for CXCL13. Higher levels of all markers were associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Following mutual adjustment for the other immune markers, sCD23 remained associated with all subtypes and CXCL13 with FL and DLBCL. The associations of sCD23 with CLL and DLBCL and CXCL13 with DLBCL persisted among cases sampled > 9 years before diagnosis. sCD23 showed a good predictive ability (area under the curve = 0.80) for CLL, in particular among older, male participants. sCD23 and CXCL13 showed a mediating effect between body mass index (positive) and DLBCL risk, while CXCL13 contributed to the association between physical activity (inverse) and DLBCL. Our data suggest a role of B-cell activation in BCL development and a mediating role of the immune system for lifestyle factors.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1739-1749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty acids impact obesity, estrogens, and inflammation, which are risk factors for ovarian cancer. Few epidemiologic studies have investigated the association of fatty acids with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 1,486 incident ovarian cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for ovarian cancer risk factors were used to estimate HRs of ovarian cancer across quintiles of intake of fatty acids. False discovery rate was computed to control for multiple testing. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs of ovarian cancer across tertiles of plasma fatty acids among 633 cases and two matched controls in a nested case-control analysis. RESULTS: A positive association was found between ovarian cancer and intake of industrial trans elaidic acid [HR comparing fifth with first quintileQ5-Q1 = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.62; P trend = 0.02, q-value = 0.06]. Dietary intakes of n-6 linoleic acid (HRQ5-Q1 = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.21; P trend = 0.03) and n-3 α-linolenic acid (HRQ5-Q1 = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.05-1.34; P trend = 0.007) from deep-frying fats were also positively associated with ovarian cancer. Suggestive associations were reported for circulating elaidic (OR comparing third with first tertileT3-T1 = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.99-1.94; P trend = 0.06) and α-linolenic acids (ORT3-T1 = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.98-1.72; P trend = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher intakes and circulating levels of industrial trans elaidic acid, and higher intakes of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid from deep-frying fat, may be associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer. IMPACT: If causal, eliminating industrial trans-fatty acids could offer a straightforward public health action for reducing ovarian cancer risk.

15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(10): 899-912, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594286

RESUMO

As randomized trials in the USA and Europe have convincingly demonstrated efficacy of lung cancer screening by computed tomography (CT), European countries are discussing the introduction of screening programs. To maintain acceptable cost-benefit and clinical benefit-to-harm ratios, screening should be offered to individuals at sufficiently elevated risk of having lung cancer. Using federal-wide survey and lung cancer incidence data (2008-2013), we examined the performance of four well-established risk models from the USA (PLCOM2012, LCRAT, Bach) and the UK (LLP2008) in the German population, comparing with standard eligibility criteria based on age limits, minimal pack years of smoking (or combination of total duration with average intensity) and maximum years since smoking cessation. The eligibility criterion recommended by the United States Preventive Services Taskforce (USPSTF) would select about 3.2 million individuals, a group equal in size to the upper fifth of ever smokers age 50-79 at highest risk, and to 11% of all adults aged 50-79. According to PLCOM2012, the model showing best concordance between numbers of lung cancer cases predicted and reported in registries, persons with 5-year risk ≥ 1.7% included about half of all lung cancer incidence in the full German population. Compared to eligibility criteria (e.g. USPSTF), risk models elected individuals in higher age groups, including ex-smokers with longer average quitting times. Further studies should address how in Germany these shifts may affect expected benefits of CT screening in terms of life-years gained versus the potential harm of age-specific increasing risk of over-diagnosis.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Definição da Elegibilidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are asymptomatic in early stages, and the disease is typically diagnosed in advanced phases, resulting in very high mortality. Tools to identify individuals at high risk of developing PDAC would be useful to improve chances of early detection. OBJECTIVE: We generated a polygenic risk score (PRS) for PDAC risk prediction, combining the effect of known risk SNPs, and carried out an exploratory analysis of a multifactorial score. METHODS: We tested the associations of the individual known risk SNPs on up to 2851 PDAC cases and 4810 controls of European origin from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium. Thirty risk SNPs were included in a PRS, which was computed on the subset of subjects that had 100% call rate, consisting of 839 cases and 2040 controls in PANDoRA and 6420 cases and 4889 controls from the previously published Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium genome-wide association studies. Additional exploratory multifactorial scores were constructed by complementing the genetic score with smoking and diabetes. RESULTS: The scores were associated with increased PDAC risk and reached high statistical significance (OR=2.70, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.68, p=2.54×10-10 highest vs lowest quintile of the weighted PRS, and OR=14.37, 95% CI 5.57 to 37.09, p=3.64×10-8, highest vs lowest quintile of the weighted multifactorial score). CONCLUSION: We found a highly significant association between a PRS and PDAC risk, which explains more than individual SNPs and is a step forward in the direction of the construction of a tool for risk stratification in the population.

17.
Neurology ; 94(22): e2337-e2345, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Because little is known about associations between biomarkers of vascular injury and stroke risk, we evaluated associations between plasma concentrations of 6 novel biomarkers of vascular injury and stroke risk in a population-based study. METHODS: A case-cohort subset of EPIC-Heidelberg (European Prospective Investigation for Cancer and Nutrition-Heidelberg) including incident stroke cases (n = 335) and a random subcohort (n = 2,418) was selected. Concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM3), soluble E-selectin and P-selectin, soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), thrombopoietin, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa were measured in baseline plasma samples. Weighted Cox regression analyses were used to assess associations between biomarker levels and stroke risk. RESULTS: Median follow-up in the subcohort and among cases was 9.8 (range, 0.1-12.5) years and 6.2 (range, 0.01-12.1) years, respectively. ICAM3 levels were associated with increased risk of incident stroke after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, highest vs lowest quartile: 1.64 [95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.32]; p linear trend < 0.001). This association was more apparent for ischemic (1.65 [1.12-2.45]; p linear trend < 0.01) than for hemorrhagic stroke (1.29 [0.60-2.78]; p linear trend = 0.3). We further observed a borderline significant trend for a positive association between sTM and overall stroke risk (1.47 [0.99-2.19]; p linear trend = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based study, circulating levels of ICAM3, an adhesion molecule shed by leukocytes, were associated with increased risk of incident stroke. Further mechanistic studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology underlying this association. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that plasma levels of ICAM3 are associated with increased stroke risk.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/sangue , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/sangue , Vigilância da População , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/sangue , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico
18.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow fat is implicated in metabolism, bone health and haematological diseases. Thus, this study aims to analyse the impact of moderate weight loss on bone marrow fat content (BMFC) in obese, healthy individuals. METHODS: Data of the HELENA-Trial (Healthy nutrition and energy restriction as cancer prevention strategies: a randomized controlled intervention trial), a randomized controlled trial (RCT) among 137 non-smoking, overweight or obese participants, were analysed to quantify the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-derived BMFC at baseline, after a 12-week dietary intervention phase, and after a 50-week follow-up. The study cohort was classified into quartiles based on changes in body weight between baseline and week 12. Changes in BMFC in respect of weight loss were analysed by linear mixed models. Spearman's coefficients were used to assess correlations between anthropometric parameters, blood biochemical markers, blood cells and BMFC. RESULTS: Relative changes in BMFC from baseline to week 12 were 0.0 ± 0.2%, -3.2 ± 0.1%, -6.1 ± 0.2% and -11.5 ± 0.6% for Q1 to Q4. Across all four quartiles and for the two-group comparison, Q1 versus Q4, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) for changes in BMFC. BMFC was not associated with blood cell counts and showed only weaker correlations (<0.3) with metabolic biomarkers. CONCLUSION: Weight loss is associated with a decrease of BMFC. However, BMFC showed no stronger associations with inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 147(8): 2042-2052, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243586

RESUMO

A substantial proportion of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises in the fallopian tube and other epithelia of the upper genital tract; these epithelia may incur damage and neoplastic transformation after sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pelvic inflammatory disease. We investigated the hypothesis that past STI infection, particularly Chlamydia trachomatis, is associated with higher EOC risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort including 791 cases and 1669 matched controls. Serum antibodies against C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16, 18 and 45 were assessed using multiplex fluorescent bead-based serology. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing women with positive vs. negative serology. A total of 40% of the study population was seropositive to at least one STI. Positive serology to C. trachomatis Pgp3 antibodies was not associated with EOC risk overall, but with higher risk of the mucinous histotype (RR = 2.30 [95% CI = 1.22-4.32]). Positive serology for chlamydia heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60-1) was associated with higher risk of EOC overall (1.36 [1.13-1.64]) and with the serous subtype (1.44 [1.12-1.85]). None of the other evaluated STIs were associated with EOC risk overall; however, HSV-2 was associated with higher risk of endometrioid EOC (2.35 [1.24-4.43]). The findings of our study suggest a potential role of C. trachomatis in the carcinogenesis of serous and mucinous EOC, while HSV-2 might promote the development of endometrioid disease.

20.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(6): 525-536, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253639

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are no models for German women that predict absolute risk of invasive breast cancer (BC), i.e., the probability of developing BC over a prespecified time period, given a woman's age and characteristics, while accounting for competing risks. We thus validated two absolute BC risk models (BCRAT, BCRmod) developed for US women in German women. BCRAT uses a woman's medical, reproductive, and BC family history; BCRmod adds modifiable risk factors (body mass index, hormone replacement therapy and alcohol use). METHODS: We assessed model calibration by comparing observed BC numbers (O) to expected numbers (E) computed from BCRmod/BCRAT for German women enrolled in the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), and after updating the models with German BC incidence/competing mortality rates. We also compared 1-year BC risk predicted for all German women using the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) with overall German BC incidence. Discriminatory performance was quantified by the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC). RESULTS: Among 22,098 EPIC-Germany women aged 40+ years, 745 BCs occurred (median follow-up: 11.9 years). Both models had good calibration for total follow-up, EBCRmod/O = 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.21), and EBCRAT/O = 0.99(0.87-1.11), and over 5 years. Compared to German BC incidence rates, both models somewhat overestimated 1-year risk for women aged 55+ and 70+ years. For total follow-up, AUCBCRmod = 0.61(0.58-0.63) and AUCBCRAT = 0.58(0.56-0.61), with similar values for 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: US BC risk models showed adequate calibration in German women. Discriminatory performance was comparable to that in US women. These models thus could be applied for risk prediction in German women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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