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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(32): 13743-13755, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689791

RESUMO

In many marine organisms, biomineralization-the crystallization of calcium-based ionic lattices-demonstrates how regulated processes optimize for diverse functions, often via incorporation of agents from the precipitation medium. We study a model system consisting of l-aspartic acid (Asp) which when added to the precipitation solution of calcium carbonate crystallizes the thermodynamically disfavored polymorph vaterite. Though vaterite is at best only kinetically stable, that stability is tunable, as vaterite grown with Asp at high concentration is both thermally and temporally stable, while vaterite grown at 10-fold lower Asp concentration, yet 2-fold less in the crystal, spontaneously transforms to calcite. Solid-state NMR shows that Asp is sparsely occluded within vaterite and calcite. CP-REDOR NMR reveals that each Asp is embedded in a perturbed occlusion shell of ∼8 disordered carbonates which bridge to the bulk. In both the as-deposited vaterites and the evolved calcite, the perturbed shell contains two sets of carbonate species distinguished by their proximity to the amine and identifiable based on 13C chemical shifts. The embedding shell and the occluded Asp act as an integral until which minimally rearranges even as the bulk undergoes extensive reorganization. The resilience of these occlusion units suggests that large Asp-free domains drive the vaterite to calcite transformation-which are retarded by the occlusion units, resulting in concentration-dependent lattice stability. Understanding the structure and properties of the occlusion unit, uniquely amenable to ssNMR, thus appears to be a key to explaining other macroscopic properties, such as hardness.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(47): 29610-29615, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298874

RESUMO

Inverse melting α-cyclodextrin·4-methylpyridine·H2O ternary mixtures were studied via solution, high-resolution magic-angle-spinning and 2D-NOESY NMR spectroscopy with the aim of unveiling the supramolecular driving force for the unusual inverse-melting phase transition. The role of solvent-solvent interactions as well as solvent-solute interactions in the emergence of the inverse-melting phenomenon is revealed. A surprising re-entrant solvent-solvent interaction is found in the system and in the 4-methylpyridine·water solvent system, supporting the non-coincidental relationship between inverse melting and re-entrant phase transitions, at least in the present system.

3.
Langmuir ; 31(26): 7183-92, 2015 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26068530

RESUMO

ß-Casein is a 24 kDa natural protein that has an open conformation and almost no folded or secondary structure, and thus is classified as an intrinsically unstructured protein. At neutral pH, ß-casein has an amphiphilic character. Therefore, in contrast to most unstructured proteins that remain monomeric in solution, ß-casein self-assembles into well-defined core-shell micelles. We recently developed these micelles as potential carriers for oral administration of poorly water-soluble pharmaceuticals, using celecoxib as a model drug. Herein we present deep and precise insight into the physicochemical characteristics of the protein-drug formulation, both in bulk solution and in dry form, emphasizing drug conformation, packing properties and aggregation state. In addition, the formulation is extensively studied in terms of structure and morphology, protein/drug interactions and physical stability. Particularly, NMR measurements indicated strong drug-protein interactions and noncrystalline drug conformation, which is expected to improve drug solubility and bioavailability. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) were combined for nanostructural characterization, proving that drug-protein interactions lead to well-defined spheroidal micelles that become puffier and denser upon drug loading. Dynamice light scattering (DLS), turbidity measurements, and visual observations complemented the analysis for determining formulation structure, interactions, and stability. Additionally, it was shown that the loaded micelles retain their properties through freeze-drying and rehydration, providing long-term physical and chemical stability. Altogether, the formulation seems greatly promising for oral drug delivery.


Assuntos
Caseínas/química , Celecoxib/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Micelas , Animais , Cápsulas , Bovinos , Liofilização , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(2): 990-8, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25523637

RESUMO

Organisms tune the metastability of amorphous calcium carbonates (ACC), often by incorporation of additives such as phosphate ions and water molecules, to serve diverse functions, such as modulating the availability of calcium reserves or constructing complex skeletal scaffolds. Although the effect of additive distribution on ACC was noted for several biogenic and synthetic systems, the molecular mechanisms by which additives govern ACC stability are not well understood. By precipitating ACC in the presence of different PO4(3-) concentrations and regulating the initial water content, we identify conditions yielding either kinetically locked or spontaneously transforming coprecipitates. Solid state NMR, supported by FTIR, XRD, and electron microscopy, define the interactions of phosphate and water within the initial amorphous matrix, showing that initially the coprecipitates are homogeneous molecular dispersions of structural water and phosphate in ACC, and a small fraction of P-rich phases. Monitoring the transformations of the homogeneous phase shows that PO4(3-) and waters are extracted first, and they phase separate, leading to solid-solid transformation of ACC to calcite; small part of ACC forms vaterite that subsequently converts to calcite. The simultaneous water-PO4(3-) extraction is the key for the subsequent water-mediated accumulation and crystallization of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and carbonated hydroxyapatite. The thermodynamic driving force for the transformations is calcite crystallization, yet it is gated by specific combinations of water-phosphate levels in the initial amorphous coprecipitates. The molecular details of the spontaneously transforming ACC and of the stabilized ACC modulated by phosphate and water at ambient conditions, provide insight into biogenic and biomimetic pathways.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Fosfatos de Cálcio/isolamento & purificação , Água/química , Precipitação Química , Cristalização , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
5.
Nat Mater ; 10(12): 974-9, 2011 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21983889

RESUMO

Inorganic nanocrystals are attractive materials for solar-cell applications. However, the performance of such devices is often limited by an insufficient alignment of energy levels in the nanocrystals. Here, we report that by attaching two different molecules to a single quantum dot or nanocrystal one can induce electric fields large enough to significantly alter the electronic and optoelectronic properties of the quantum dot. This electric field is created within the nanocrystals owing to a mixture of amine- and thiol-anchor-group ligands. Examining the steady state as well as temporal evolution of the optical properties and the nuclear magnetic resonances of the nanocrystals we found that the first excitonic peak shifts as a function of the capping-layer composition. We also demonstrate that the use of a mixed-ligand-induced electric field markedly enhances the charge generation efficiency in layer-by-layer CdSe-nanocrystal-based solar cells, thus improving the overall cell efficiency.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(36): 14763-8, 2011 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21873244

RESUMO

Bioavailable calcium is maintained by some crustaceans, in particular freshwater crayfish, by stabilizing amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) within reservoir organs--gastroliths, readily providing the Ca(2+) needed to build a new exoskeleton. Despite the key scientific and biomedical importance of the in situ molecular-level picture of biogenic ACC and its stabilization in a bioavailable form, its description has eluded efforts to date. Herein, using multinuclear NMR, we accomplish in situ molecular-level characterization of ACC within intact gastroliths of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. In addition to the known CaCO(3), chitin scaffold and inorganic phosphate (Pi), we identify within the gastrolith two primary metabolites, citrate and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and quantify their abundance by applying solution NMR techniques to the gastrolith "soluble matrix." The long-standing question on the physico-chemical state of ACC stabilizing, P-bearing moieties within the gastrolith is answered directly by the application of solid state rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) and transferred-echo double-resonance (TEDOR) NMR to the intact gastroliths: Pi and PEP are found molecularly dispersed throughout the ACC as a solid solution. Citrate carboxylates are found < 5 Å from a phosphate (intermolecular CP distance), an interaction that must be mediated by Ca(2+). The high abundance and extensive interactions of these molecules with the ACC matrix identify them as the central constituents stabilizing the bioavailable form of calcium. This study further emphasizes that it is imperative to characterize the intact biogenic CaCO(3). Solid state NMR spectroscopy is shown to be a robust and accessible means of determining composition, internal structure, and molecular functionality in situ.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Quitina/química , Citratos/química , Fosfoenolpiruvato/química , Animais , Astacoidea/metabolismo , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Citratos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Fosfoenolpiruvato/metabolismo
7.
J Phys Chem B ; 114(18): 5989-96, 2010 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20397675

RESUMO

The molecular interface between bioorganics and inorganics plays a key role in diverse scientific and technological research areas including nanoelectronics, biomimetics, biomineralization, and medical applications such as drug delivery systems and implant coatings. However, the physical/chemical basis of recognition of inorganic surfaces by biomolecules remains unclear. The molecular level elucidation of specific interfacial interactions and the structural and dynamical state of the surface bound molecules is of prime scientific importance. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of solid state NMR methods to accomplish these goals. L-[1-(13)C,(15)N]Alanine loaded onto SBA-15 mesoporous silica with a high surface area served as a model system. The interacting alanine moiety was identified as the -NH(3)(+) functional group by (15)N{(1)H}SLF NMR. (29)Si{(15)N} and (15)N{(29)Si}REDOR NMR revealed intermolecular interactions between the alanine -NH(3)(+) and three to four surface Si species, predominantly Q(3), with similar internuclear N...Si distances of 4.0-4.2 A. Distinct dynamic states of the adsorbed biomolecules were identified by (15)N{(13)C}REDOR NMR, indicating both bound and free alanine populations, depending on hydration level and temperature. In the bound populations, the -NH(3)(+) group is surface anchored while the free carboxylate end undergoes librations, implying the carboxylate has small or no contributions to surface binding. When surface water clusters grow bigger with increased hydration, the libration amplitude of the carboxyl end amplifies, until onset of dissolution occurs. Our measurements provide the first direct, comprehensive, molecular-level identification of the bioorganic-inorganic interface, showing binding functional groups, geometric constraints, stoichiometry, and dynamics, both for the adsorbed amino acid and the silica surface.


Assuntos
Alanina/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Química Bioinorgânica , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Orgânicos , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
J Phys Chem B ; 113(18): 6267-82, 2009 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19358554

RESUMO

Dynamic deuterium magic angle spinning NMR has been applied to study the slow motion of small molecules close to a silica surface. In particular, alanine-d(3) molecules dissolved in an aqueous solution were loaded into the pores of the mesoporous materials SBA-15 and MCM-41. Deuterium spectra were measured as a function of the water content of these materials and the temperature. From the analysis of these spectra and the corresponding proton spectra, using a simple molecular exchange model, relatively slow desorption rates of the binding of alanine to the inner pore surface were obtained and were correlated with the low proton concentrations at the pore surfaces.


Assuntos
Alanina/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 130(40): 13425-32, 2008 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18781749

RESUMO

Biomineralization, particularly the formation of calcium carbonate structures by organisms under ambient conditions, is of vast fundamental and applied interest. Organisms finely control all aspects of the formation of the biomaterials: composition, polymorph, morphology, and macroscopic properties. While in situ molecular-level characterization of the resulting biominerals is a formidable task, solid-state magic angle spinning NMR is one of the most powerful analytical techniques for this purpose. It is employed in this study to elucidate the structure and composition of biogenic calcite formed by Emiliania huxleyi, a unicellular alga distinguished by its exquisitely sculptured calcite cell coverings known as coccoliths. Strain 371 (CCMP) was grown and harvested from (15)N- and (13)C-enriched growth medium, with biosynthetic labeling to enhance the sensitivity of the NMR measurements. Crystalline and interfacial calcite environments were selectively probed using direct and indirect (cross-polarized) (13)C excitation, respectively. Different crystalline environments, in particular structural defect sites at concentrations of up to 1.4% with P and N moieties incorporated, were identified using (13)C rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) NMR. REDOR-derived geometrical constraints show that the P and N atoms at the defect sites are 3.2 and 2.3 (+/-0.2) A apart from a crystalline carbon carbonate. The phosphorus and nitrogen moieties within the biogenic calcite are identified as small, non-protonated moieties, attributed to inorganic ions such as PO4(3-) and NO3(-). The carbonates adjacent to these defects are chemically indistinguishable from bulk crystalline carbonates, yet their immediate environments experience reduced rigidity, as reflected by substantial T1((13)CO3(2-)) shortening. Interfacial carbonates, on the other hand, reside in structurally/chemically perturbed environments, as reflected by heterogeneous line broadening. This study is the first to directly unravel evidence on the incorporation of P/N moieties as structural defects within E. huxleyi biogenic calcite, and on the state of the adjacent crystalline carbonates.


Assuntos
Células Eucarióticas/química , Células Eucarióticas/metabolismo , Minerais/química , Minerais/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Cristalização , Células Eucarióticas/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nitrogênio/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfatos/química , Fosfatos/metabolismo
10.
J Phys Chem B ; 109(16): 7807-16, 2005 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16851908

RESUMO

The properties of the silica layer during the formation of the mesoporous material MCM-41 were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments carried out on a specifically designed, organo(trialkoxy)silane spin probe, SL1SiEt. Minute amounts of the spin probe were co-condensed with the silica source, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), in the synthesis of MCM-41 with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) under basic conditions. The mobility and location of the spin probe were followed in the CTAB micellar solution before the reaction, in the reaction mixture and in the final ordered material. It was found that the EPR spectra of hydrolyzed SL1SiEt throughout the room temperature part of the reaction are characteristic of a fast tumbling species, indicating that the silica is highly fluid prior to drying. After filtering, a slow motion type spectrum was observed, showing that the spin-label experiences considerable motional hindrance. The liquidlike behavior could be restored upon stirring the material in water. When the reaction is performed with a hydrothermal stage, the spectrum of SL1SiEt in the final product is the same as that of the room temperature synthesized material, but the addition of water did not restore the high mobility, due to a higher degree of silica cross-linking. The location of SL1SiEt throughout the formation process was obtained from electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) measurements on MCM-41 prepared with CTAB deuterated either at the N-methyl or the alpha position and in a reaction carried out in D2O. Comparing the deuterium modulation depth, k(2H), induced by CTAB-alpha-d2, CTAB-d9, or D2O in CTAB micellar solutions of a number of reference spin probes with those of SL1SiEt revealed that the hydrolyzed SL1SiEt is located near the polar heads of the surfactant in the absence of base and TEOS. This supports the postulation of charge matching at the interface as a driving force for the formation of the mesostructure. Similar experiments carried out on reaction mixtures containing SL1SiEt showed a decrease of k(2H) from CTAB-alpha-d2 and CTAB-d9 compared to the micellar solution, exhibiting practically no time dependence. This indicates that the spin probe is pulled away from the micelle-water interface into the loosely linked, forming silica network. After drying, the modulation depth induced by CTAB-alpha-d2 and CTAB-d9 increases, showing that, once the water is removed, the silica walls contract around the micelles, pushing the silica-linked spin probe into the organic phase within the mesopores.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Silício/química , Marcadores de Spin , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Modelos Químicos , Dióxido de Silício/síntese química , Marcadores de Spin/síntese química , Tensoativos/síntese química
11.
J Phys Chem B ; 109(16): 8029-39, 2005 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16851938

RESUMO

In this study we show how deuterium magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy can be used to investigate the adsorption-desorption kinetics of molecules in solution at surface-liquid interfaces. An aqueous solution of deuterium-labeled tetraalanine is inserted in the pores of MCM-41 mesoporous material, and its 2H MAS NMR spectrum is measured as a function of temperature and fraction of filling of the pores. Prior to this study, the different types of water in MCM-41 are characterized as a function of water loading of the pores. Analysis of 2H MAS sideband line shapes enabled the determination of the adsorption and desorption rates and the activation energies of desorption.


Assuntos
Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacocinética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Dióxido de Silício/química , Adsorção , Cinética , Porosidade , Soluções , Água/química
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 125(15): 4662-9, 2003 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12683839

RESUMO

In this report the mode of inhibition of mechanism-based inhibitor (2, K(i) = 0.4 microM) of 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthase (KDO8PS), which was designed to mimic the combined key features of its natural substrates arabinose-5-phosphate (A5P) and phoshoenolpyruvate (PEP) into a single molecule, was investigated. Our earlier solid-state NMR observations identified the inhibitor to bind in a way that partly mimics A5P, while the phosphonate moiety of its PEP-mimicking part exhibits no interactions with enzyme residues. This result was apparently in disagreement with the competitive inhibition of 2 against PEP and with the later solved crystal structure of KDO8PS-2 binary complex identifying the interactions of its PEP-mimicking part with the enzyme residues that were not detected by solid-state NMR. To solve this discrepancy, further solid-state REDOR NMR and (31)P solution NMR experiments were applied to a variety of enzyme complexes with the substrates and inhibitor. In particular, a novel frequency-selective REDOR experiment was developed and applied. Integration of the solution and solid-state NMR data clearly demonstrates that under conditions of stoichiometric enzyme-ligand ratio at thermodynamic equilibrium (a) PEP binding is unperturbed by the presence of 2 and (b) both PEP and 2 can bind simultaneously to the synthase, i.e., form a ternary complex with PEP occupying its own subsite and 2 occupying A5P's subsite. The latter observation suggests that under the conditions used in our NMR measurements, the inhibition pattern of 2 against PEP should have a mixed type character. Furthermore, the NMR data directly demonstrate the distinction between the relative binding strength of the two moieties of 2: enzyme interactions with PEP-mimicking moiety are much weaker than those with the A5P moiety. This observation is in agreement with KDO8PS-2 crystal structure showing only remote contacts of the phosphonate due to large structural changes of binding site residues. It is concluded that these phosphonate-enzyme interactions evidenced by both (31)P solution NMR and X-ray are too weak to be preserved under the lyophilization of KDO8PS-2 binary complex and therefore are not evidenced by the solid-state REDOR spectra.


Assuntos
Aldeído Liases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos , Pentosefosfatos/química , Fosfoenolpiruvato/análogos & derivados , Aldeído Liases/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação Competitiva , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Pentosefosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato/química , Fosfoenolpiruvato/metabolismo , Fósforo/química
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