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1.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126513, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203784

RESUMO

Plants are known to remediate dyes, metals and emerging contaminants from wastewaters. Vetiveria zizanioides, a perennial bunchgrass showed removal of Remazol Red (RR, 100 mg/L) up to 93% within 40 h. Root and shoot tissues of V. zizanioides revealed induction in dye degrading enzymes viz. lignin peroxidase by 2.28 and 1.43, veratryl alcohol oxidase 2.72 and 1.60, laccase 6.15 and 3.55, and azo reductase 2.17 and 2.65-fold, respectively, during RR decolorization. Substantial increase was observed in the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids in the plant leaves during treatment. Anatomical studies of roots, HPLC and GC-MS analysis of metabolites, and phytotoxicity assessment confirmed phytotransformation of RR into nontoxic metabolites. Floating phytobed with V. zizanioides treated textile wastewater (400 L) effectively and reduced ADMI, COD, BOD, TDS, and TSS by 74, 74, 81, 66 and 47%, respectively within 72 h. In-situ treatment of textile wastewater for 5 days in constructed furrows planted with semiaquatic plants, V. zizanioides, Ipomoea aquatica and its consortium-VI decreased ADMI by 68, 61 and 76%, COD by 75, 74 and 79%, BOD by 73, 71 and 84%, TDS by 77, 75 and 83%, and TSS by 34, 31 and 51%, respectively. This treatment was also useful to remove arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead from wastewater. Overall observation suggests wise strategy to use this plantation in the furrows of high rate transpiration system and phytobeds in deep water for textile wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorofila A , Corantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lacase , Peroxidases , Indústria Têxtil , Têxteis , Águas Residuárias
2.
Chemosphere ; 210: 968-976, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208557

RESUMO

In situ phytoremediation of dyes from textile wastewater was carried out in a high rate transpiration system ridges (91.4 m × 1.0 m) cultivated independently with Tagetes patula, Aster amellus, Portulaca grandiflora and Gaillardia grandiflora which reduced American Dye Manufacturers Institute color value by 59, 50, 46 and 73%, respectively within 30 d compared to dye accumulated in unplanted ridges. Significant increase in microbial count and electric conductivity of soil was observed during phytoremediation. Reduction in the contents of macro (N, P, K and C), micro (B, Cu, Fe and Mn) elements and heavy metals (Cd, As, Pb and Cr) was observed in the soil from planted ridges due to phyto-treatment. Root tissues of these plants showed significant increase in the specific activities of oxido-reductive enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, laccase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, tyrosinase and azo reductase during decolorization of textile dyes from soil. Anatomical studies of plants roots revealed the occurrence of textile dyes in tissues and subsequent degradation. A minor decrease in plant growth was also observed. Overall surveillance suggests that the use of garden ornamental plants on the ridges of constructed wetland for the treatment of dyes from wastewater along with the consortia of soil microbial flora is a wise and aesthetically pleasant strategy.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Corantes/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Têxteis/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Asteraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Asteraceae/fisiologia , Corantes/farmacologia , Jardins , Metais Pesados/análise
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 161: 70-77, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859410

RESUMO

This study explores the potential of Asparagus densiflorus to treat disperse Rubin GFL (RGFL) dye and a real textile effluent in constructed vertical subsurface flow (VSbF) phytoreactor; its field cultivation for soil remediation offers a real green and economic way of environmental management. A. densiflorus decolorized RGFL (40 gm L-1) up to 91% within 48 h. VSbF phytoreactor successfully reduced American dye manufacture institute (ADMI), BOD, COD, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) of real textile effluent by 65%, 61%, 66%, 48% and 66%, respectively within 6 d. Oxidoreductive enzymes such as laccase (138%), lignin peroxidase (129%), riboflavin reductase (111%) were significantly expressed during RGFL degradation in A. densiflorus roots, while effluent transformation caused noteworthy induction of enzymes like, tyrosinase (205%), laccase (178%), veratryl oxidase (52%). Based on enzyme activities, UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR and GC-MS results; RGFL was proposed to be transformed to 4-amino-3- methylphenyl (hydroxy) oxoammonium and N, N-diethyl aniline. Anatomical study of the advanced root tissue of A. densiflorus exhibited the progressive dye accumulation and removal during phytoremediation. HepG2 cell line and phytotoxicity study demonstrated reduced toxicity of biotransformed RGFL and treated effluent by A. densiflorus, respectively. On field remediation study revealed a noteworthy removal (67%) from polluted soil within 30 d.


Assuntos
Asparagus (Planta)/enzimologia , Compostos Azo/metabolismo , Corantes/metabolismo , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Têxteis , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Corantes/toxicidade , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais , Lacase , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peroxidases , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Indústria Têxtil , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
4.
Environ Res ; 160: 1-11, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938190

RESUMO

Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera and their co-plantation consortium FA independently degraded Methyl Orange, simulated dye mixture and real textile effluent. Wild plants of F. dichotoma and A. baccifera with equal biomass showed 91% and 89% decolorization of Methyl Orange within 60h at a concentration of 50ppm, while 95% dye removal was achieved by consortium FA within 48h. Floating phyto-beds with co-plantation (F. dichotoma and A. baccifera) for the treatment of real textile effluent in a constructed wetland was observed to be more efficient and achieved 79%, 72%, 77%, 66% and 56% reductions in ADMI color value, COD, BOD, TDS and TSS of textile effluent, respectively. HPTLC, GC-MS, FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy and activated oxido-reductive enzyme activities confirmed the phytotrasformation of parent dye in to new metabolites. T-RFLP analysis of rhizospheric bacteria of F. dichotoma, A. baccifera and consortium FA revealed the presence of 88, 98 and 223 genera which could have been involved in dye removal. Toxicity evaluation of products formed after phytotransformation of Methyl Orange by consortium FA on bivalves Lamellidens marginalis revealed less damage of the gills architecture when analyzed histologically. Toxicity measurement by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique revealed bivalve DNA banding pattern in treated Methyl Orange sample suggesting less toxic nature of phytotransformed dye products.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cyperaceae/metabolismo , Lythraceae/metabolismo , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Compostos Azo/toxicidade , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyperaceae/anatomia & histologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Lythraceae/anatomia & histologia , Microbiota , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Têxteis , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluição Química da Água/efeitos adversos , Áreas Alagadas
5.
Indian J Community Med ; 42(3): 174-176, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy or Hansen's disease, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae is a serious public health concern because of associated case load, morbidity and stigma attached to it. India achieved elimination of leprosy as a public health problem (prevalence rate [PR]<1 case/10,000 population) at the national level on January 1, 2006, still 19% districts in the country report PR more than one. In Maharashtra, it is found that very few districts within the state or very few pockets within the district are actually having leprosy burden. OBJECTIVES: (1) Identification of region-wise actual "hot-spot" districts/pockets within state of Maharashtra.(2) Further drop-down below the district and block to tribal belt for understanding the actual high risk area/belt within the tribal districts. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of leprosy patients registered in the State during the period 2008-2015. RESULTS: PR per 10,000 was found more in Vidharbha region followed by rest of Maharashtra and then Marathwada. Analysis showed that, there are tribal districts and tribal area within tribal districts which are having higher leprosy burden as compared to the all other districts indicating need of allocation of programme funds and facilities to these tribal belts for the effective control and elimination of leprosy. CONCLUSION: National Leprosy Eradication Programme should focus on tribal belt for effective control. Without giving extra attention to these tribal areas within high risk district/pockets efforts of eradication of leprosy by 2018 would be unrealistic and impractical.

6.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 862, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611797

RESUMO

Waterlogging is a significant environmental constraint to crop production, and a better understanding of plant responses is critical for the improvement of crop tolerance to waterlogged soils. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of channel-forming proteins that play an important role in water transport in plants. This study aimed to examine the regulation of AQP genes under waterlogging stress and to characterize the genetic variability of AQP genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Transcriptional profiling of AQP genes in response to waterlogging stress in nodal root tips and nodal root basal regions of two tolerant and two sensitive sorghum genotypes at 18 and 96 h after waterlogging stress imposition revealed significant gene-specific pattern with regard to genotype, root tissue sample, and time point. For some tissue sample and time point combinations, PIP2-6, PIP2-7, TIP2-2, TIP4-4, and TIP5-1 expression was differentially regulated in tolerant compared to sensitive genotypes. The differential response of these AQP genes suggests that they may play a tissue specific role in mitigating waterlogging stress. Genetic analysis of sorghum revealed that AQP genes were clustered into the same four subfamilies as in maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) and that residues determining the AQP channel specificity were largely conserved across species. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 50 sorghum accessions were used to build an AQP gene-based phylogeny of the haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of sorghum AQP genes placed the tolerant and sensitive genotypes used for the expression study in distinct groups. Expression analyses suggested that selected AQPs may play a pivotal role in sorghum tolerance to water logging stress. Further experimentation is needed to verify their role and to leverage phylogenetic analyses and AQP expression data to improve waterlogging tolerance in sorghum.

7.
Int J Plant Genomics ; 2017: 6572969, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630621

RESUMO

Seed composition is one of the most important determinants of the economic values in soybean. The quality and quantity of different seed components, such as oil, protein, and carbohydrates, are crucial ingredients in food, feed, and numerous industrial products. Soybean researchers have successfully developed and utilized a diverse set of molecular markers for seed trait improvement in soybean breeding programs. It is imperative to design and develop molecular assays that are accurate, robust, high-throughput, cost-effective, and available on a common genotyping platform. In the present study, we developed and validated KASP (Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction) genotyping assays based on previously known functional mutant alleles for the seed composition traits, including fatty acids, oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitor, and lipoxygenase. These assays were validated on mutant sources as well as mapping populations and precisely distinguish the homozygotes and heterozygotes of the mutant genes. With the obvious advantages, newly developed KASP assays in this study can substitute the genotyping assays that were previously developed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). The functional gene-based assay resource developed using common genotyping platform will be helpful to accelerate efforts to improve soybean seed composition traits.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(1)2017 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28124976

RESUMO

In this paper, a new robotic architecture for plant phenotyping is being introduced. The architecture consists of two robotic platforms: an autonomous ground vehicle (Vinobot) and a mobile observation tower (Vinoculer). The ground vehicle collects data from individual plants, while the observation tower oversees an entire field, identifying specific plants for further inspection by the Vinobot. The advantage of this architecture is threefold: first, it allows the system to inspect large areas of a field at any time, during the day and night, while identifying specific regions affected by biotic and/or abiotic stresses; second, it provides high-throughput plant phenotyping in the field by either comprehensive or selective acquisition of accurate and detailed data from groups or individual plants; and third, it eliminates the need for expensive and cumbersome aerial vehicles or similarly expensive and confined field platforms. As the preliminary results from our algorithms for data collection and 3D image processing, as well as the data analysis and comparison with phenotype data collected by hand demonstrate, the proposed architecture is cost effective, reliable, versatile, and extendable.

10.
C R Biol ; 339(3-4): 123-32, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032370

RESUMO

Cleome is the largest genus in the family Cleomaceae and it is known for its various medicinal properties. Recently, some species from the Cleome genus (Cleome viscosa, Cleome chelidonii, Cleome felina and Cleome speciosa) are split into genera Corynandra (Corynandra viscosa, Corynandra chelidonii, Corynandra felina), and Cleoserrata (Cleoserrata speciosa). The objective of this study was to obtain DNA barcodes for these species for their accurate identification and determining phylogenetic relationships. Out of 10 screened barcoding regions, rbcL, matK and ITS1 regions showed higher PCR efficiency and sequencing success. This study added matK, rbcL and ITS1 barcodes for the identification of Corynandra chelidonii, Corynandra felina, Cleome simplicifolia and Cleome aspera species in existing barcode data. Corynandra chelidonii and Corynandra felina species belong to the Corynandra genus, but they are not grouped with the Corynandra viscosa species, however clustered with the Cleome species. Molecular marker analysis showed 100% polymorphism among the studied plant samples. Diversity indices for molecular markers were ranged from He=0.1115-0.1714 and I=0.2268-0.2700, which indicates a significant amount of genetic diversity among studied species. Discrimination of the Cleome and Corynandra species from Cleoserrata speciosa was obtained by two RAPD primers (OPA-4 and RAPD-17) and two ISSR primers (ISSR-1 and ISSR-2). RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for the genetic characterization of these studied species. The present investigation will be helpful to understand the relationships of Cleome lineages with Corynandra and Cleoserrata species.


Assuntos
Cleome/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Plantas , Variação Genética , Cleome/classificação , Marcadores Genéticos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Genético , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Water Res ; 96: 1-11, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016633

RESUMO

Ipomoea aquatica, a macrophyte was found to degrade a highly sulfonated and diazo textile dye Brown 5R up to 94% within 72 h at a concentration of 200 mg L(-1). Induction in the activities of enzymes such as azoreductase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, DCIP reductase, tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed in leaf and root tissue in response to Brown 5R exposure. There was significant reduction in contents of chlorophyll a (25%), chlorophyll b (17%) and carotenoids (30%) in the leaves of plants. HPLC, FTIR, UV-vis spectrophotometric and HPTLC analyses confirmed the biotransformation and removal of parent dye from solution. Enzymes activities and GC-MS analysis of degradation products lead to the proposal of a possible pathway of phytotransformation of dye. The proposed pathway of dye metabolism revealed the formation of Napthalene-1,2-diamine and methylbenzene. Toxicity study on HepG2 cell lines showed a 3 fold decrease in toxicity of Brown 5R after phytoremediation by I. aquatica. Hydrophytic nature of I. aquatica leads to its exploration in a combinatorial phytoreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia soil bed system. Rhizofiltration with I. aquatica and soil bed treatment by I. hederifolia treated 510 L of effluent effectively within 72 h. I. aquatica along with I. hederifolia could decolorize textile industry effluent within 72 h of treatment as evident from the significant reductions in the values of COD, BOD, solids and ADMI. Further on field trials of treatment of textile wastewater was successfully carried out in a constructed lagoon.


Assuntos
Ipomoea , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Corantes/metabolismo , Solo , Indústria Têxtil , Têxteis
12.
Plant Sci ; 242: 342-350, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26566850

RESUMO

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious soybean pest. The use of resistant cultivars is an effective approach for preventing yield loss. In this study, 19,652 publicly available soybean accessions that were previously genotyped with the SoySNP50K iSelect BeadChip were used to evaluate the phylogenetic diversity of SCN resistance genes Rhg1 and Rhg4 in an attempt to identify novel sources of resistance. The sequence information of soybean lines was utilized to develop KASPar (KBioscience Competitive Allele-Specific PCR) assays from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Rhg1, Rhg4, and other novel quantitative trait loci (QTL). These markers were used to genotype a diverse set of 95 soybean germplasm lines and three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. SNP markers from the Rhg1 gene were able to differentiate copy number variation (CNV), such as resistant-high copy (PI 88788-type), low copy (Peking-type), and susceptible-single copy (Williams 82) numbers. Similarly, markers for the Rhg4 gene were able to detect Peking-type (resistance) genotypes. The phylogenetic information of SCN resistance loci from a large set of soybean accessions and the gene/QTL specific markers that were developed in this study will accelerate SCN resistance breeding programs.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genômica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Soja/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Soja/classificação , Soja/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
13.
Indian J Med Res ; 141(5): 663-72, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26139787

RESUMO

Tribals are the most marginalised social category in the country and there is little and scattered information on the actual burden and pattern of illnesses they suffer from. This study provides information on burden and pattern of diseases among tribals, and whether these can be linked to their nutritional status, especially in particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTG) seen at a community health programme being run in the tribal areas of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh States of India. This community based programme, known as Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) has been serving people in over 2500 villages in rural central India. It was found that the tribals had significantly higher proportion of all tuberculosis, sputum positive tuberculosis, severe hypertension, illnesses that require major surgery as a primary therapeutic intervention and cancers than non tribals. The proportions of people with rheumatic heart disease, sickle cell disease and epilepsy were not significantly different between different social groups. Nutritional levels of tribals were poor. Tribals in central India suffer a disproportionate burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases amidst worrisome levels of undernutrition. There is a need for universal health coverage with preferential care for the tribals, especially those belonging to the PVTG. Further, the high level of undernutrition demands a more augmented and universal Public Distribution System.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Pública , Características de Residência , População Rural , Escarro/microbiologia
14.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 12(3): 447-64, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22476619

RESUMO

Drought is a major constraint to maintaining yield stability of wheat in rain fed and limited irrigation agro-ecosystems. Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in wheat has been difficult due to quantitative nature of the trait involving multiple genes with variable effects and lack of effective selection strategies employing molecular markers. Here, a framework molecular linkage map was constructed using 173 DNA markers randomly distributed over the 21 wheat chromosomes. Grain yield and other drought-responsive shoot and root traits were phenotyped for 2 years under drought stress and well-watered conditions on a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between drought-sensitive semidwarf variety "WL711" and drought-tolerant traditional variety "C306". Thirty-seven genomics region were identified for 10 drought-related traits at 18 different chromosomal locations but most of these showed small inconsistent effects. A consistent genomic region associated with drought susceptibility index (qDSI.4B.1) was mapped on the short arm of chromosome 4B, which also controlled grain yield per plant, harvest index, and root biomass under drought. Transcriptome profiling of the parents and two RIL bulks with extreme phenotypes revealed five genes underlying this genomic region that were differentially expressed between the parents as well as the two RIL bulks, suggesting that they are likely candidates for drought tolerance. Syntenic genomic regions of barley, rice, sorghum, and maize genomes were identified that also harbor genes for drought tolerance. Markers tightly linked to this genomic region in combination with other important regions on group 7 chromosomes may be used in marker-assisted breeding for drought tolerance in wheat.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Secas , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genoma de Planta , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Epistasia Genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sintenia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
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