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1.
SAGE Open Med ; 9: 20503121211043709, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540227

RESUMO

Introduction: Programmed death ligand-1 expression has been shown to be a good predictor of response to cancer therapy with checkpoint inhibitors. Its expression varies among different tumor types and among non-small cell lung cancer patients with different clinical and demographic characteristics. The prevalence and determinants of programmed death ligand-1 expression have been previously reported from various regions of the world, but data from Lebanon are lacking. This study examines the prevalence and the clinical, demographic and pathological predictors of programmed death ligand-1 expression in patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer in Lebanon. Methods: Medical records of 180 patients diagnosed with primary non-small cell lung cancer at our institution and tested for programmed death ligand-1 expression were reviewed. Clinical, demographic and pathological information were collected and correlated with programmed death ligand-1 expression using the chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: One hundred eleven of the 180 non-small cell lung cancer tumor samples tested positive for programmed death ligand-1 expression (61.7%). 27.2% of those tumor samples expressed programmed death ligand-1 in 1%-49% of tumor cells, while 34.4% of tumor samples expressed programmed death ligand-1 in 50% or more of their cells. Squamous histology and advanced stage were significant predictors of programmed death ligand-1 expression (odds ratio = 2.79, 95% confidence interval [1.13-6.90], p = 0.012 and odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval [1.23-4.99], p = 0.044, respectively). Conclusion: Similar to reports from other populations, our results suggest that programmed death ligand-1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer is highly prevalent in the Lebanese population, especially in patients with advanced stage at diagnosis or squamous cell carcinoma histology. Because of the small sample size, while more that 60% of the patients are Lebanese, the results of this article cannot be extrapolated to the Middle Eastern and the Levantine population.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5606, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556668

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) provides substantial clinical benefits to cancer patients, but a large proportion of cancers do not respond to ICT. To date, the genomic underpinnings of primary resistance to ICT remain elusive. Here, we performed immunogenomic analysis of data from TCGA and clinical trials of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, with a particular focus on homozygous deletion of 9p21.3 (9p21 loss), one of the most frequent genomic defects occurring in ~13% of all cancers. We demonstrate that 9p21 loss confers "cold" tumor-immune phenotypes, characterized by reduced abundance of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes (TILs), particularly, T/B/NK cells, altered spatial TILs patterns, diminished immune cell trafficking/activation, decreased rate of PD-L1 positivity, along with activation of immunosuppressive signaling. Notably, patients with 9p21 loss exhibited significantly lower response rates to ICT and worse outcomes, which were corroborated in eight ICT trials of >1,000 patients. Further, 9p21 loss synergizes with PD-L1/TMB for patient stratification. A "response score" was derived by incorporating 9p21 loss, PD-L1 expression and TMB levels in pre-treatment tumors, which outperforms PD-L1, TMB, and their combination in identifying patients with high likelihood of achieving sustained response from otherwise non-responders. Moreover, we describe potential druggable targets in 9p21-loss tumors, which could be exploited to design rational therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunoterapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
3.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101691, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Approximately 10%-40% of patients with lung cancer report no history of tobacco smoking (never-smokers). We analyzed whole-exome and RNA-sequencing data of 160 tumor and normal lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) samples from never-smokers to identify clinically actionable alterations and gain insight into the environmental and hereditary risk factors for LUAD among never-smokers. METHODS: We performed whole-exome and RNA-sequencing of 88 and 69 never-smoker LUADs. We analyzed these data in conjunction with data from 76 never-smoker and 299 smoker LUAD samples sequenced by The Cancer Genome Atlas and Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium. RESULTS: We observed a high prevalence of clinically actionable driver alterations in never-smoker LUADs compared with smoker LUADs (78%-92% v 49.5%; P < .0001). Although a subset of never-smoker samples demonstrated germline alterations in DNA repair genes, the frequency of samples showing germline variants in cancer predisposing genes was comparable between smokers and never-smokers (6.4% v 6.9%; P = .82). A subset of never-smoker samples (5.9%) showed mutation signatures that were suggestive of passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Finally, analysis of RNA-sequencing data showed distinct immune transcriptional subtypes of never-smoker LUADs that varied in their expression of clinically relevant immune checkpoint molecules and immune cell composition. CONCLUSION: In this comprehensive genomic and transcriptome analysis of never-smoker LUADs, we observed a potential role for germline variants in DNA repair genes and passive exposure to cigarette smoke in the pathogenesis of a subset of never-smoker LUADs. Our findings also show that clinically actionable driver alterations are highly prevalent in never-smoker LUADs, highlighting the need for obtaining biopsies with adequate cellularity for clinical genomic testing in these patients.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376534

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Characterization of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire may be a promising source for predictive biomarkers of pathologic response to immunotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, next-generation TCR sequencing was performed in peripheral blood and tissue samples of 40 patients with NSCLC, before and after neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy (NADIM clinical trial, NCT03081689), considering their complete pathologic response (CPR) or non-CPR. Beyond TCR metrics, tissue clones were ranked by their frequency and spatiotemporal evolution of top 1% clones was determined. RESULTS: We have found a positive association between an uneven TCR repertoire in tissue samples at diagnosis and CPR at surgery. Moreover, TCR most frequently ranked clones (top 1%) present in diagnostic biopsies occupied greater frequency in the total clonal space of CPR patients, achieving an AUC ROC to identify CPR patients of 0.967 (95% confidence interval, 0.897-1.000; P = 0.001), and improving the results of PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS; AUC = 0.767; P = 0.026) or tumor mutational burden (TMB; AUC = 0.550; P = 0.687). Furthermore, tumors with high pretreatment top 1% clonal space showed similar immune cell populations but a higher immune reactive gene expression profile. Finally, the selective expansion of pretreatment tissue top 1% clones in peripheral blood of CPR patients suggests also a peripheral immunosurveillance, which could explain the high survival rate of these patients. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified two parameters derived from TCR repertoire analysis that could outperform PD-L1 TPS and TMB as predictive biomarkers of CPR after neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy, and unraveled possible mechanisms of CPR involving enhanced tumor immunogenicity and peripheral immunosurveillance.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5045, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413300

RESUMO

Radiographic imaging is the standard approach for evaluating the disease involvement of lymph nodes in patients with operable NSCLC although the impact of neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) on lymph nodes has not yet been characterized. Herein, we present an ad hoc analysis of the NEOSTAR trial (NCT03158129) where we observed a phenomenon we refer to as "nodal immune flare" (NIF) in which patients treated with neoadjuvant ICIs demonstrate radiologically abnormal nodes post-therapy that upon pathological evaluation are devoid of cancer and demonstrate de novo non-caseating granulomas. Abnormal lymph nodes are analyzed by computed tomography and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography to evaluate the size and the maximum standard uptake value post- and pre-therapy in NEOSTAR and an independent neoadjuvant chemotherapy cohort. NIF occurs in 16% (7/44) of patients treated with ICIs but in 0% (0/28) of patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. NIF is associated with an inflamed nodal immune microenvironment and with fecal abundance of genera belonging to the family Coriobacteriaceae of phylum Actinobacteria, but not with tumor responses or treatment-related toxicity. Our findings suggest that this apparent radiological cancer progression in lymph nodes may occur due to an inflammatory response after neoadjuvant immunotherapy, and such cases should be evaluated by pathological examination to distinguish NIF from true nodal progression and to ensure appropriate clinical treatment planning.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281268

RESUMO

Macrophages (Mφs) are instrumental regulators of the immune response whereby they acquire diverse functional phenotypes following their exposure to microenvironmental cues that govern their differentiation from monocytes and their activation. The complexity and diversity of the mycobacterial cell wall have empowered mycobacteria with potent immunomodulatory capacities. A heat-killed (HK) whole-cell preparation of Mycobacterium obuense (M. obuense) has shown promise as an adjunctive immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, HK M. obuense has been shown to trigger the differentiation of human monocytes into a monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) type named Mob-MDM. However, the transcriptomic profile and functional properties of Mob-MDMs remain undefined during an activation state. Here, we characterized cytokine/chemokine release patterns and transcriptomic profiles of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon γ (IFNγ)-activated human MDMs that were differentiated with HK M. obuense (Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ)), macrophage colony-stimulating factor M-MDM(LPS/IFNγ)), or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-MDM(LPS/IFNγ)). Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) demonstrated a unique cytokine/chemokine release pattern (interleukin (IL)-10low, IL-12/23p40low, IL-23p19/p40low, chemokine (C-x-C) motif ligand (CXCL)9low) that was distinct from those of M-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) and GM-MDM(LPS/IFNγ). Furthermore, M-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) maintained IL-10 production at significantly higher levels compared to GM-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) and Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) despite being activated with M1-Mφ-activating stimuli. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis pointed to a distinct transcriptome profile for Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) relative to both M-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) and GM-MDM(LPS/IFNγ) that comprised 417 transcripts. Functional gene-set enrichment analysis revealed significant overrepresentation of signaling pathways and biological processes that were uniquely related to Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ). Our findings lay a foundation for the potential integration of HK M. obuense in specific cell-based immunotherapeutic modalities such as adoptive transfer of Mφs (Mob-MDM(LPS/IFNγ)) for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274504

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enters host cells through the cell surface proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2. METHODS: Using a variety of normal and malignant models and tissues from the aerodigestive and respiratory tracts, we investigated the expression and regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. RESULTS: We find that ACE2 expression is restricted to a select population of epithelial cells. Notably, infection with SARS-CoV-2 in cancer cell lines, bronchial organoids, and patient nasal epithelium induces metabolic and transcriptional changes consistent with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including up-regulation of ZEB1 and AXL, resulting in an increased EMT score. In addition, a transcriptional loss of genes associated with tight junction function occurs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2, is repressed by EMT through the transforming growth factor-ß, ZEB1 overexpression, and onset of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. This suggests a novel model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in which infected cells shift toward an increasingly mesenchymal state, associated with a loss of tight junction components with acute respiratory distress syndrome-protective effects. AXL inhibition and ZEB1 reduction, as with bemcentinib, offer a potential strategy to reverse this effect. CONCLUSIONS: These observations highlight the use of aerodigestive and, especially, lung cancer model systems in exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses and offer important insights into the potential mechanisms underlying the morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 in healthy patients and patients with cancer alike.

8.
Cancer Discov ; 11(10): 2506-2523, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972311

RESUMO

Little is known of the geospatial architecture of individual cell populations in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) evolution. Here, we perform single-cell RNA sequencing of 186,916 cells from five early-stage LUADs and 14 multiregion normal lung tissues of defined spatial proximities from the tumors. We show that cellular lineages, states, and transcriptomic features geospatially evolve across normal regions to LUADs. LUADs also exhibit pronounced intratumor cell heterogeneity within single sites and transcriptional lineage-plasticity programs. T regulatory cell phenotypes are increased in normal tissues with proximity to LUAD, in contrast to diminished signatures and fractions of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, antigen-presenting macrophages, and inflammatory dendritic cells. We further find that the LUAD ligand-receptor interactome harbors increased expression of epithelial CD24, which mediates protumor phenotypes. These data provide a spatial atlas of LUAD evolution, and a resource for identification of targets for its treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: The geospatial ecosystem of the peripheral lung and early-stage LUAD is not known. Our multiregion single-cell sequencing analyses unravel cell populations, states, and phenotypes in the spatial and ecologic evolution of LUAD from the lung that comprise high-potential targets for early interception.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2355.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2722, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976164

RESUMO

The mechanism by which anti-cancer immunity shapes early carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) is unknown. In this study, we characterize the immune contexture of invasive lung ADC and its precursors by transcriptomic immune profiling, T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing and multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF). Our results demonstrate that anti-tumor immunity evolved as a continuum from lung preneoplasia, to preinvasive ADC, minimally-invasive ADC and frankly invasive lung ADC with a gradually less effective and more intensively regulated immune response including down-regulation of immune-activation pathways, up-regulation of immunosuppressive pathways, lower infiltration of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and anti-tumor helper T cells (Th), higher infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs), decreased T cell clonality, and lower frequencies of top T cell clones in later-stages. Driver mutations, chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNAs) and aberrant DNA methylation may collectively impinge host immune responses and facilitate immune evasion, promoting the outgrowth of fit subclones in preneoplasia into dominant clones in invasive ADC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma in Situ/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Transcriptoma , Adenocarcinoma in Situ/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma in Situ/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Células Clonais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/imunologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001525

RESUMO

Cancer interception refers to actively blocking the cancer development process by preventing progression of premalignancy to invasive disease. The rate-limiting steps for effective lung cancer interception are the incomplete understanding of the earliest molecular events associated with lung carcinogenesis, the lack of preclinical models of pulmonary premalignancy, and the challenge of developing highly sensitive and specific methods for early detection. Recent advances in cancer interception are facilitated by developments in next-generation sequencing, computational methodologies, as well as the renewed emphasis in precision medicine and immuno-oncology. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge in the areas of molecular abnormalities in lung cancer continuum, preclinical human models of lung cancer pathogenesis, and the advances in early lung cancer diagnostics.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809063

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Severely symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with lung inflammation, pneumonia, and respiratory failure, thereby raising concerns of elevated risk of COVID-19-associated mortality among lung cancer patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into lung cells. The single-cell expression landscape of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2-related genes in pulmonary tissues of lung cancer patients remains unknown. We sought to delineate single-cell expression profiles of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2-related genes in pulmonary tissues of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. We examined the expression levels and cellular distribution of ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2-priming proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 in 5 LUADs and 14 matched normal tissues by single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis. scRNA-seq of 186,916 cells revealed epithelial-specific expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS4. Analysis of 70,030 LUAD- and normal-derived epithelial cells showed that ACE2 levels were highest in normal alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells and that TMPRSS2 was expressed in 65% of normal AT2 cells. Conversely, the expression of TMPRSS4 was highest and most frequently detected (75%) in lung cells with malignant features. ACE2-positive cells co-expressed genes implicated in lung pathobiology, including COPD-associated HHIP, and the scavengers CD36 and DMBT1. Notably, the viral scavenger DMBT1 was significantly positively correlated with ACE2 expression in AT2 cells. We describe normal and tumor lung epithelial populations that express SARS-CoV-2 receptor and proteases, as well as major host defense genes, thus comprising potential treatment targets for COVID-19 particularly among lung cancer patients.

13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2279: 187-198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683695

RESUMO

Interrogation and characterization of lung cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are implicated in lung oncogenesis is crucial for our understanding of inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity and the aggressive nature of the disease, including tumor resistance and relapse in response to conventional therapy. Here, we describe an in vitro surrogate model, namely the "sphere-forming assay," for the derivation, enrichment, and propagation of lung stem/progenitor cells with CSC properties, including self-renewal, tumor initiation capacity and propagation, and differentiation into cells of the tumor bulk, from a murine Kras-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Self-renewing cancer stem/progenitor cells, in the form of 3D in vitro spheres, can be phenotypically interrogated using downstream techniques such as gene expression analysis (e.g., whole transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real time PCR), which is the focus of this chapter.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia
15.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 504-514, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603241

RESUMO

Ipilimumab improves clinical outcomes when combined with nivolumab in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy and impact on the immune microenvironment in operable NSCLC remain unclear. We report the results of the phase 2 randomized NEOSTAR trial (NCT03158129) of neoadjuvant nivolumab or nivolumab + ipilimumab followed by surgery in 44 patients with operable NSCLC, using major pathologic response (MPR) as the primary endpoint. The MPR rate for each treatment arm was tested against historical controls of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The nivolumab + ipilimumab arm met the prespecified primary endpoint threshold of 6 MPRs in 21 patients, achieving a 38% MPR rate (8/21). We observed a 22% MPR rate (5/23) in the nivolumab arm. In 37 patients resected on trial, nivolumab and nivolumab + ipilimumab produced MPR rates of 24% (5/21) and 50% (8/16), respectively. Compared with nivolumab, nivolumab + ipilimumab resulted in higher pathologic complete response rates (10% versus 38%), less viable tumor (median 50% versus 9%), and greater frequencies of effector, tissue-resident memory and effector memory T cells. Increased abundance of gut Ruminococcus and Akkermansia spp. was associated with MPR to dual therapy. Our data indicate that neoadjuvant nivolumab + ipilimumab-based therapy enhances pathologic responses, tumor immune infiltrates and immunologic memory, and merits further investigation in operable NSCLC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 687, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514726

RESUMO

The evolution of DNA methylome and methylation intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) during early carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma has not been systematically studied. We perform reduced representation bisulfite sequencing of invasive lung adenocarcinoma and its precursors, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. We observe gradual increase of methylation aberrations and significantly higher level of methylation ITH in later-stage lesions. The phylogenetic patterns inferred from methylation aberrations resemble those based on somatic mutations suggesting parallel methylation and genetic evolution. De-convolution reveal higher ratio of T regulatory cells (Tregs) versus CD8 + T cells in later-stage diseases, implying progressive immunosuppression with neoplastic progression. Furthermore, increased global hypomethylation is associated with higher mutation burden, copy number variation burden and AI burden as well as higher Treg/CD8 ratio, highlighting the potential impact of methylation on chromosomal instability, mutagenesis and tumor immune microenvironment during early carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinomas.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigenoma/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinogênese/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Hiperplasia/genética , Hiperplasia/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênese , Taxa de Mutação , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
17.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(4): 583-600, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations do not respond to immune checkpoint blockade therapy and their EGFR wildtype counterpart. The mechanisms underlying this lack of clinical response have been investigated but remain incompletely understood. METHODS: We analyzed three cohorts of resected lung adenocarcinomas (Profiling of Resistance Patterns of Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancer of Thorax, Immune Genomic Profiling of NSCLC, and The Cancer Genome Atlas) and compared tumor immune microenvironment of EGFR-mutant tumors to EGFR wildtype tumors, to identify actionable regulators to target and potentially enhance the treatment response. RESULTS: EGFR-mutant NSCLC exhibited low programmed death-ligand 1, low tumor mutational burden, decreased number of cytotoxic T cells, and low T cell receptor clonality, consistent with an immune-inert phenotype, though T cell expansion ex vivo was preserved. In an analysis of 75 immune checkpoint genes, the top up-regulated genes in the EGFR-mutant tumors (NT5E and ADORA1) belonged to the CD73/adenosine pathway. Single-cell analysis revealed that the tumor cell population expressed CD73, both in the treatment-naive and resistant tumors. Using coculture systems with EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells, T regulatory cell proportion was decreased with CD73 knockdown. In an immune-competent mouse model of EGFR-mutant lung cancer, the CD73/adenosine pathway was markedly up-regulated and CD73 blockade significantly inhibited tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS: Our work revealed that EGFR-mutant NSCLC has an immune-inert phenotype. We identified the CD73/adenosine pathway as a potential therapeutic target for EGFR-mutant NSCLC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenosina , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 70(7): 1965-1976, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416944

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: CD73 is a membrane-bound enzyme crucial in adenosine generation. The adenosinergic pathway plays a critical role in immunosuppression and in anti-tumor effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Here, we interrogated CD73 expression in a richly annotated cohort of human lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and its association with clinicopathological, immune, and molecular features to better understand the role of this immune marker in LUAD pathobiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Protein expression of CD73 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 106 archived LUADs from patients that underwent surgical treatment without neoadjuvant therapy. Total CD73 (T +) was calculated as the average of luminal (L +) and basolateral (BL +) percentage membrane expression scores for each LUAD and was used to classify tumors into three groups based on the extent of T CD73 expression (high, low, and negative). RESULTS: CD73 expression was significantly and progressively increased across normal-appearing lung tissue, adenomatous atypical hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, and LUAD. In LUAD, BL CD73 expression was associated with an increase in PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and increase of tumor-associated immune cells. Stratification of LUADs based on T CD73 extent also revealed that tumors with high expression of this enzyme overall exhibited significantly elevated immune infiltration and PD-L1 protein expression. Immune profiling demonstrated that T-cell inflammation and adenosine signatures were significantly higher in CD73-expressing lung adenocarcinomas relative to those lacking CD73. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that higher CD73 expression is associated with an overall augmented host immune response, suggesting potential implications in the immune pathobiology of early stage lung adenocarcinoma. Our findings warrant further studies to explore the role of CD73 in immunotherapeutic response of LUAD.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(3): e415-e424, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763065

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune infiltration in lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) has been associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Clinical features underlying differential responses of patients with LUADs to immunotherapy are not well understood. Here, we analyzed the association between LUAD immune infiltration and clinicopathologic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intratumoral CD3, CD8, and CD68 cell densities (tumor-associated immune cells [TAICs]) were immunohistochemically assessed in 146 surgically resected LUADs. LUADs were classified into 2 groups, low and high TAICs, based on the median values of cell densities for CD3, CD8, and CD68. Somatic mutation burden and driver gene mutation status were analyzed in a subset of the cases (n = 92). We statistically analyzed the association between the TAIC groups and various clinicopathologic and molecular variables by using the χ2/Fisher and Wilcoxon sum tests and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Patient gender, tumor size, and STK11 mutations were significantly associated with TAIC levels in LUAD. Female patients exhibited significantly elevated TAIC levels (P = .005) compared with male patients. Tumor size was inversely associated with TAIC levels (P = .012). STK11 mutated tumors were associated with lower TAICs (P = .008). Higher TAICs were consistently observed in female patients with LUADs after adjusting for stage, tumor size, and age. Multivariable regression models confirmed female gender as an independent variable associated with TAIC levels in LUAD (P = .0141). CONCLUSION: Immune infiltration in LUADs was significantly higher in female patients, warranting further exploration into the association between this clinical variable and immunotherapeutic response in LUAD.

20.
Pharmacol Rep ; 73(1): 211-226, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequently diagnosed extracranial solid tumor among the pediatric population. It is an embryonic tumor with high relapse rates pertaining to the presence of dormant slowly dividing cancer stem cells (CSC) within the tumor bulk that are responsible for therapy resistance. Therefore, there is a dire need to develop new therapeutic approaches that specifically target NB CSCs. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3ß is a serine/threonine kinase that represents a common signaling node at the intersection of many pathways implicated in NB CSCs. GSK-3ß sustains the survival and maintenance of CSCs and renders them insensitive to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. METHODS: In our study, we aimed at evaluating the potential anti-tumor effect of Tideglusib (TDG), an irreversible GSK-3ß inhibitor drug, on three human NB cell lines, SK-N-SH, SH-SY5Y, and IMR-32. RESULTS: Our results showed that TDG significantly reduced cell proliferation, viability, and migration of the NB cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and also significantly hindered the neurospheres formation eradicating the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. Besides, TDG potently reduced CD133 cancer stem cell marker expression in both SH-SY5Y cells and G1 spheres. Lastly, TDG inhibited NB tumor growth and progression in vivo. CONCLUSION: Collectively, we concluded that TDG could serve as an effective treatment capable of targeting the NB CSCs and hence overcoming therapy resistance. Yet, future studies are warranted to further investigate its potential role in NB and decipher the subcellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this role.

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