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1.
Bioanalysis ; 10(9): 633-644, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749254

RESUMO

AIM: Coproporphyrins (CP-I and CP-III) have been identified as possible biomarkers to predict human hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptides-mediated-drug-interactions for a new drug entering clinical development. RESULTS: The method is applicable to quantify plasma CP-I and CP-III within 0.078-15.0 nM. The results identify and address a number of challenges encountered with porphyrin assays such as photodegradation and interferences. To overcome interferences from ubiquitous porphyrins, a surrogate matrix was used to prepare calibration standards. Quality controls were prepared in plasma and surrogate matrix to ensure parallelism between surrogate matrix and plasma. CONCLUSION: A robust UHPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for CP-I and CP-III in plasma, and is currently applied to clinical studies to confirm suitability of Coproporphyrins as a potential substitute for drug-drug interaction study.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Coproporfirinas/sangue , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/química , Coproporfirinas/química , Desenho de Drogas , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/química , Rifampina/sangue , Rifampina/química , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/sangue , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/química
2.
Pharm Res ; 34(3): 619-628, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28028768

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions exist between gastric acid-reducing agents and certain weakly basic drugs that rely on acidic environments for optimal oral absorption. In this study, we examine whether the administration of betaine hydrochloride under fed conditions can enhance the absorption of atazanavir, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor, during pharmacologically-induced hypochlorhydria. METHODS: In this randomized, single-dose, 3 period, crossover study healthy volunteers received ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg) alone, following pretreatment with the proton pump inhibitor rabeprazole (20 mg twice daily), and with 1500 mg of betaine HCl after rabeprazole pretreatment. Atazanavir was administered with a light meal and gastric pH was monitored using the Heidelberg Capsule. RESULTS: Pretreatment with rabeprazole resulted in significant reductions in atazanavir Cmax (p < 0.01) and AUC0-last (p < 0.001) (71 and 70%, respectively), and modest decreases in ritonavir Cmax and AUClast (p < 0.01) (40% and 41%, respectively). The addition of betaine HCl restored 13% of ATV Cmax and 12% of AUClast lost due to rabeprazole. CONCLUSIONS: The co-administration of rabeprazole with atazanavir resulted in significant decreases in atazanavir exposure. The addition of betaine HCl did not sufficiently mitigate the loss of ATV exposure observed during RAB-induced hypochlorhydria. Meal effects lead to a marked difference in the outcome of betaine HCl on atazanavir exposure than we previously reported for dasatanib under fasting conditions.


Assuntos
Acloridria/metabolismo , Sulfato de Atazanavir/farmacocinética , Interações Alimento-Droga , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacocinética , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacocinética , Rabeprazol/farmacocinética , Ritonavir/farmacocinética , Absorção Fisiológica , Acloridria/induzido quimicamente , Acloridria/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Adulto , Sulfato de Atazanavir/administração & dosagem , Betaína/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Rabeprazol/efeitos adversos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(6): 590-4, 2016 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27326332

RESUMO

BMS-711939 (3) is a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist, with an EC50 of 4 nM for human PPARα and >1000-fold selectivity vs human PPARγ (EC50 = 4.5 µM) and PPARδ (EC50 > 100 µM) in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Compound 3 also demonstrated excellent in vivo efficacy and safety profiles in preclinical studies and thus was chosen for further preclinical evaluation. The synthesis, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, and in vivo pharmacology of 3 in preclinical animal models as well as its ADME profile are described.

4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 119: 145-51, 2016 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26683987

RESUMO

Asunaprevir (BMS-650032) is a selective hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitor with potent activity against HCV genotypes 1, 4, 5 and 6. It has been developed in conjunction with direct-acting antiviral agents, in interferon- and ribavirin-free regimen, to improve existing therapies for HCV infection. To support the pharmacokinetic analyses in asunaprevir clinical studies, we have developed and validated a highly sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS method to quantify asunaprevir in human EDTA plasma with an LLOQ of 0.05ng/mL, which was a 20-fold sensitivity improvement over a previously reported assay for asunaprevir. A deuterated labeled [D9]-asunaprevir was used as the internal standard (IS). The analyte and the IS were extracted using a semi-automated liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) at pH 7 with methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) in a 96-well plate containing 10µL of 10% CHAPS as the surfactant to prevent non-specific binding issue. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Genesis C8 column (2.1×50mm, 4µm) with a gradient elution using 0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phase A and a mixture of methanol: acetone: formic acid (95:5:0.1; v/v/v) as the mobile phase B. Positive electrospray ionization was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with transitions of m/z 748→648 for asunaprevir and m/z 757→649 for [D9]-asunaprevir,and a collision energy of 30 electron Volts (eV). The assay was validated over a standard curve range from 0.05 to 50ng/mL for asunaprevir in human plasma. The intra- and inter assay precisions were within 7.1% CV, and the % deviation was within 5.5% of their nominal concentrations. This assay has been successfully applied to multiple clinical studies with excellent assay ruggedness and reproducibility.


Assuntos
Antivirais/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Hepacivirus/enzimologia , Isoquinolinas/sangue , Sulfonamidas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Calibragem , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacocinética , Limite de Detecção , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Estrutura Molecular , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética
5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 107: 409-18, 2015 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25676854

RESUMO

Dual or triple combination regimens of novel hepatitis C direct-acting antivirals (DAA, daclatasvir, asunaprevir, or beclabuvir) provide high sustained virological response rates and reduced frequency of resistance compared to clinical monotherapy. To support pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments in clinical studies, a multiplexed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitation of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, beclabuvir (BMS-791325) and its active metabolite (BMS-794712) in human plasma was developed and validated. Human plasma samples were extracted with methyl-t-butyl ether followed by an LC-MS/MS analysis, which was conducted in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were 1 ng/mL for daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and BMS-794712, and 2 ng/mL for beclabuvir. Intra-run precision (≤4.5% CV), inter-run precision (≤2.9% CV), and accuracy (±5.3% deviation) based on different concentration levels (low, geometric mean, mid and high) of the quality control samples (QCs) provided evidence of the methods accuracy and precision. Selectivity and matrix effect on LC-MS/MS detection, stability in plasma, and potential interference of coadministered drugs (ribavirin and interferon) were all evaluated and the results were acceptable. Method reproducibility was demonstrated by the reanalysis of a portion of study samples. The cross-validation results for QCs demonstrated the equivalency between this method and two single-analyte methods which were previously validated for quantitation of daclatasvir in human plasma. This approach of using a multiplexed LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of three DAAs is time- and cost-effective, and can maintain good data quality in sample analysis.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Benzazepinas/química , Imidazóis/sangue , Indóis/química , Isoquinolinas/química , Plasma/química , Sulfonamidas/química , Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzazepinas/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Indóis/sangue , Interferons/sangue , Interferons/química , Isoquinolinas/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ribavirina/sangue , Ribavirina/química , Sulfonamidas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 25(6): 1196-205, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25686852

RESUMO

The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of 3,4-disubstituted pyrrolidine acid analogs as PPAR ligands is outlined. In both the 1,3- and 1,4-oxybenzyl pyrrolidine acid series, the preferred stereochemistry was shown to be the cis-3R,4S isomer, as exemplified by the potent dual PPARα/γ agonists 3k and 4i. The N-4-trifluoromethyl-pyrimidinyl pyrrolidine acid analog 4i was efficacious in lowering fasting glucose and triglyceride levels in diabetic db/db mice.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pirrolidinas/química , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Drogas , Feminino , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Ligantes , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pirrolidinas/síntese química , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 107: 17-23, 2015 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25562845

RESUMO

BMS-791325 is a novel hepatitis C NS5B inhibitor which is currently in clinical development. To support pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments, sensitive, accurate, precise, and reproducible liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods have been developed and validated for the quantitation of BMS-791325 and its active N-demethyl metabolite (BMS-794712) in human plasma and urine. Plasma and urine samples were extracted with methyl-t-butyl ether followed by an LC-MS/MS analysis which was conducted in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for the simultaneous detection of the two analytes in human plasma (0.1-50 ng/mL) and in human urine (5-2500 ng/mL). Intra-run precision (3.0% R.S.D.), inter-run precision (5.3% R.S.D.), and accuracy (±4.7% deviation) from plasma and urine quality control samples provide evidence of the methods accuracy and precision. Selectivity, stability in matrices, extraction recovery, matrix effect on LC-MS detection, and interference of coadministered drugs (famotidine and ritonavir) were all acceptable. Reproducibility of the plasma method was demonstrated by reanalysis of a portion of study samples. The results of cross-validations demonstrated the equivalency of two methods validated in two labs. The plasma method was applied to the analysis of several thousand clinical study samples for PK evaluations of the drug in normal healthy subjects and in patients. The urine method was used in the first in human study to evaluate renal clearance and urinary recovery.


Assuntos
Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/urina , Benzazepinas/sangue , Benzazepinas/urina , Indóis/sangue , Indóis/urina , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzazepinas/metabolismo , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indóis/metabolismo , Indóis/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23542721

RESUMO

Clopidogrel is prescribed for the treatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome and recent myocardial infarction, recent stroke, or established peripheral arterial disease. A sensitive and reliable high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated to enable reliable quantification of four diastereomeric and chemically reactive thiol metabolites, two of which are pharmacologically active, in human plasma. The metabolites were stabilized by alkylation of their reactive thiol moieties with 2-bromo-3'-methoxyacetophenone (MPB). Following organic solvent mediated-protein precipitation in a 96-well plate format, chromatographic separation was achieved by gradient elution on an Ascentis Express RP-amide column. Chromatographic conditions were optimized to ensure separation of the four derivatized active metabolites. Derivatized metabolites and stable isotope-labeled internal standards were detected by positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The HPLC-MS/MS assay was validated over concentration ranges of 0.125-125 ng/mL for metabolites H1-H3 and 0.101-101 ng/mL for H4. Intra- and inter-assay precision values for replicate quality control samples were within 14.3% for all analytes during the assay validation. Mean quality control accuracy values were within ±6.3% of nominal values for all analytes. Assay recoveries were high (>79%). The four derivatized analytes were stable in human blood for at least 2 h at room temperature and on ice. The analytes were also stable in human plasma for at least 25 h at room temperature, 372 days at -20 °C and -70 °C, and following at least five freeze-thaw cycles. The validated assay was successfully applied to the quantification of all four thiol metabolites in human plasma in support of a human pharmacokinetic study.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Clopidogrel , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/sangue , Ticlopidina/sangue , Ticlopidina/farmacocinética
9.
J Med Chem ; 53(9): 3814-30, 2010 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20405922

RESUMO

Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), also known as CD11a/CD18 or alpha(L)beta(2), belongs to the beta(2) integrin subfamily and is constitutively expressed on all leukocytes. The major ligands of LFA-1 include three intercellular adhesion molecules 1, 2, and 3 (ICAM 1, 2, and 3). The interactions between LFA-1 and the ICAMs are critical for cell adhesion, and preclinical animal studies and clinical data from the humanized anti-LFA-1 antibody efalizumab have provided proof-of-concept for LFA-1 as an immunological target. This article will detail the structure-activity relationships (SAR) leading to a novel second generation series of highly potent spirocyclic hydantoin antagonists of LFA-1. With significantly enhanced in vitro and ex vivo potency relative to our first clinical compound (1), as well as demonstrated in vivo activity and an acceptable pharmacokinetic and safety profile, 6-((5S,9R)-9-(4-cyanophenyl)-3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,3,7-triazaspiro-[4.4]nonan-7-yl)nicotinic acid (2e) was selected to advance into clinical trials.


Assuntos
Hidantoínas/farmacocinética , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nicotínicos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Hidantoínas/farmacologia , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/química , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/imunologia , Ácidos Nicotínicos/toxicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
J Med Chem ; 53(7): 2854-64, 2010 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20218621

RESUMO

An 1,3-oxybenzylglycine based compound 2 (BMS-687453) was discovered to be a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist, with an EC(50) of 10 nM for human PPARalpha and approximately 410-fold selectivity vs human PPARgamma in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Similar potencies and selectivity were also observed in the full length receptor co-transfection assays. Compound 2 has negligible cross-reactivity against a panel of human nuclear hormone receptors including PPARdelta. Compound 2 demonstrated an excellent pharmacological and safety profile in preclinical studies and thus was chosen as a development candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The X-ray cocrystal structures of the early lead compound 12 and compound 2 in complex with PPARalpha ligand binding domain (LBD) were determined. The role of the crystal structure of compound 12 with PPARalpha in the development of the SAR that ultimately resulted in the discovery of compound 2 is discussed.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Oxazóis/química , Oxazóis/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/agonistas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Cristalografia por Raios X , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Glicina/síntese química , Glicina/química , Glicina/farmacologia , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Oxazóis/síntese química , Oxazóis/toxicidade , PPAR alfa/química , PPAR alfa/genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 19(5): 1451-6, 2009 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19201606

RESUMO

The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of N-phenyl-substituted pyrrole, 1,2-pyrazole and 1,2,3-triazole acid analogs as PPAR ligands are outlined. The triazole acid analogs 3f and 4f were identified as potent dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists both in binding and functional assays in vitro. The 3-oxybenzyl triazole acetic acid analog 3f showed excellent glucose and triglyceride lowering in diabetic db/db mice.


Assuntos
Azóis/síntese química , Desenho de Drogas , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Animais , Azóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular/enzimologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(6): 1939-44, 2008 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18291645

RESUMO

A novel class of azetidinone acid-derived dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists has been synthesized for the treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia. The preferred stereochemistry in this series for binding and functional agonist activity against both PPARalpha and PPARgamma receptors was shown to be 3S,4S. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo activities of compounds in this series are described. A high-yielding method for N-arylation of azetidinone esters is also described.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/química , Azetidinas/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/síntese química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cobre/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450 , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Canal de Potássio ERG1 , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Estrutura Molecular , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
J Med Chem ; 49(24): 6946-9, 2006 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17125246

RESUMO

LFA-1 (leukocyte function-associated antigen-1), is a member of the beta2-integrin family and is expressed on all leukocytes. This letter describes the discovery and preliminary SAR of spirocyclic hydantoin based LFA-1 antagonists that culminated in the identification of analog 8 as a clinical candidate. We also report the first example of the efficacy of a small molecule LFA-1 antagonist in combination with CTLA-4Ig in an animal model of transplant rejection.


Assuntos
Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/metabolismo , Compostos de Espiro/síntese química , Tiofenos/síntese química , Animais , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/química , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/imunologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacocinética , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Transplante Homólogo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16307910

RESUMO

Caco-2 cells are frequently used for screening compounds for their permeability characteristics and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) interaction potential. Bi-directional permeability studies performed on Caco-2 cells followed by analysis by HPLC-UV or LC-MS method constitutes the "method of choice" for the functional assessment of efflux characteristics of a test compound. A high throughput LC-MS/MS method has been developed using on-line extraction turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometric detection to analyze multiple compounds present in Hanks balanced salt solution in a single analytical run. All standard curves (P-gp substrates: quinidine, etoposide, rhodamine 123, dexamethasone, and verapamil and non-substrates: metoprolol, sulfasalazine, propranolol, nadolol, and furosemide) were prepared in a cassette mode (ten-in-one) while Caco-2 cell incubations were performed both in discreet mode and in cassette mode. The standard curve range for most compounds was 10-2500 nM with regression coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.99 for all compounds. The applicability and reliability of the analysis method was evaluated by successful demonstration of efflux ratio greater than 1 for the P-gp substrates studied in the Caco-2 cell model. The use of cassette mode analysis through selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry presents an attractive option to increase the throughput, sensitivity, selectivity, and efficiency of the model over discreet mode UV detection.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Dexametasona/farmacocinética , Etoposídeo/farmacocinética , Furosemida/farmacocinética , Humanos , Metoprolol/farmacocinética , Nadolol/farmacocinética , Propranolol/farmacocinética , Quinidina/farmacocinética , Rodamina 123/farmacocinética , Sulfassalazina/farmacocinética , Verapamil/farmacocinética
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