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1.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 183-194, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727749

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is emerging as a significant global public health burden. The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer has increased in Japan, as westernized lifestyles become more popular. Recent advances in genetic epidemiology, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs), have identified considerable numbers of human genetic factors associated with diseases. Several GWASs have reported significant loci associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. One GWAS, which was based on classic GWAS microarray measurements, has been reported for Japanese so far. In the present study, we conducted a GWAS of serum PSA using 1000Genomes imputed GWAS data (n =1,216) from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study, to detect candidate novel genetic loci that influence serum PSA levels in Japanese. The association of SNPs/genetic variants with serum PSA as a continuous variable was tested using the linear Wald test. SNP rs10000006 in SGMS2 (sphingomyelin synthase 2) on chromosome 4 had genome-wide significance (P <5×10-8), and eight variants on three chromosomes (chromosomes 12, 14, 15) had genome-wide suggestive levels of significance (P <1×10-6). With an independent data set from the J-MICC Shizuoka Study (n = 2,447), the association of the SGMS2 SNP with blood PSA levels was not replicated. Although our GWAS failed to detect novel loci associated with serum PSA levels in the Japanese cohort, it confirmed the significant effects of previously reported genetic loci on PSA levels in Japanese. Importantly, our results confirmed the significance of KLK3 SNPs also in Japanese, implying that consideration of individual genetic information in prostate cancer diagnosis may be possible in the future.

2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632354

RESUMO

Differences in individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to cultural, social or environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that genetic variants within sweet taste receptor genes family were associated with sweet taste perception and the intake of sweet foods. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect confection consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data on confection consumption using 14 073 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a semi-quantitative FFQ to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with confection consumption was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake and principal component analysis components 1-3. Furthermore, the analysis was repeated adjusting for alcohol intake (g/d) in addition to the above-described variables. We found 418 SNP located in 12q24 that were associated with confection consumption. SNP with the ten lowest P-values were located on nine genes including at the BRAP, ACAD10 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 regions on 12q24.12-13. After adjustment for alcohol intake, no variant was associated with confections intake with genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we found a significant number of SNP located on 12q24 genes that were associated with confections intake before adjustment for alcohol intake. However, all of them lost statistical significance after adjustment for alcohol intake.

3.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551394

RESUMO

AIMS: The utility of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker for coronary heart disease is under heavy debate. This is predominantly due to the lack of a standard definition of cIMT, leading to inconsistent results. We investigated and compared the relationships of five different measures of cIMT with coronary calcium. METHODS: Japanese men aged 40-79y (n=869) from Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis were examined. Mean cIMT was measured in three segments of the carotid arteries: common carotid artery (CCAmean), internal carotid artery (ICAmean) and bifurcation (Bifmean). Mean cIMT of average values (Mean cIMT) and mean cIMT of maximum values (Mean-Max cIMT) of all segments combined were assessed. Coronary calcium was assessed as coronary artery calcification (CAC). Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of higher CAC per 1 standard deviation higher cIMT measure. Analyses were adjusted for cardiovascular covariates and stratified by age quartiles. RESULTS: All cIMT measures had positive associations with CAC (p<0.001): [OR, 95% Confidence Interval]: ICAmean [1.23, 1.07-1.42], CCAmean [1.27, 1.08-1.49], Bifmean [1.33, 1.15-1.53], Mean cIMT [1.42, 1.22-1.66], and Mean-Max [1.50, 1.28-1.75]. In age-stratified analyses, only Mean-Max cIMT maintained a significant relationship with CAC in every age quartile (p<0.05), while CCAmean had some of the weakest associations among age quartiles. CONCLUSIONS: Mean-Max cIMT had consistently stronger associations with coronary calcium, independent of important confounders, such as age. The most oft-used measure, CCAmean, was no longer associated with coronary calcium after age-adjustment and stratification.

4.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456020

RESUMO

BackgroundNon-fasting triglycerides (TG) are considered a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than fasting TG. However, the effect of non-fasting TG on fatal CVD events remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the relationship between non-fasting TG and CVD mortality in a Japanese general population.MethodsA total of 6,831 participants without a history of CVD, in which those who had a blood sampling over 8 hours or more after a meal were excluded, were followed for 18.0 years. We divided participants into seven groups according to non-fasting TG levels: ≤59 mg/dL, 60-89 mg/dL, 90-119 mg/dL, 120-149 mg/dL, 150-179 mg/dL, 180-209 mg/dL, and ≥210 mg/dL, and estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of each TG group for CVD mortality after adjusting for potential confounders, including high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Additionally, we performed analysis stratified by age <65 and ≥65 years.ResultsDuring the follow-up period, 433 deaths due to CVD were detected. Compared with a non-fasting TG of 150-179 mg/dL, non-fasting TG ≥210 mg/dL was significantly associated with increased risk for CVD mortality (HR=1.56, 95% CI, 1.01-2.41). Additionally, lower levels of non-fasting TG were also significantly associated with increased risk for fatal CVD. In participants aged ≥65 years, lower levels of non-fasting TG had a stronger impact on increased risk for CVD mortality, while higher levels of non-fasting TG had a stronger impact in those aged <65 years.ConclusionIn a general Japanese population, we observed a U-shaped association between non-fasting TG and fatal CVD events.

5.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487617

RESUMO

AIM: The relationship of blood pressure (BP) indexes (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], pulse pressure [PP], mean arterial pressure [MAP]) to subclinical cerebrovascular diseases (SCVDs) remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship of four BP indexes measured at two visits on SCVDs assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in general Japanese men. METHODS: In general Japanese men aged 40-79 years (N=616), office BP indexes were measured at two visits (Visits 1 [2006-2008] and 2 [2010-2014]). MRI images obtained on the third visit (2012-2015) were examined for prevalent SCVDs: lacunar infarction, periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), deep subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH), microbleeds, and intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS). Using a multivariable logistic regression analysis, we computed and estimated the odds ratio of each prevalent SCVD for one standard deviation higher BP indexes. The same analyses were performed using home BP. RESULTS: All four office BP indexes at both visits associated with lacunar infarction. Visit 1 and 2 DBP and Visit 1 MAP associated with PVH and DSWMH, and Visit 1 SBP associated with DSWMH. All Visit 2 BP indexes appear to show stronger association with microbleeds than Visit 1 indexes, and Visit 1 and 2 SBP, PP, and MAP showed similar associations with ICAS. Additional analyses using home BP indexes revealed similar relationships; however, the significance of some relationships decreased. CONCLUSION: In general Japanese men, BP indexes were associated with most of SCVDs, and BP indexes measured at different periods associated with different SCVDs assessed by MRI.

6.
J Phys Act Health ; 18(2): 157-164, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between step counts and brain volumes (BVs)-global and 6 a priori selected cognition-related regions of interest-in Japanese men aged 40-79 years. METHODS: The authors analyzed data from 680 cognitively intact participants of the Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis-a population-based observational study. Using multivariable linear regression, the authors assessed cross-sectional associations between 7-day step counts at baseline (2006-2008) and BVs at follow-up (2012-2015) for age-stratified groups (<60 y and ≥60 y). RESULTS: In the older adults ≥60 years, step counts at baseline (per 1000 steps) were associated with total BV at follow-up (ß = 1.42, P = .022) while adjusted for potential covariates. Regions of interest-based analyses yielded an association of step counts with both prefrontal cortexes (P < .05) in older adults, while the left entorhinal cortex showed marginally significant association (P = .05). No association was observed with hippocampus, parahippocampal, cingulum, and cerebellum. No association was observed in younger adults (<60 y). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found a positive association between 7-day step counts and BVs, including prefrontal cortexes, and left entorhinal cortex in apparently healthy Japanese men.

7.
Circ J ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed sex-specific time-associated changes in the impact of risk factors on coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality in a general population over long-term follow-up.Methods and Results:A prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted on representative Japanese populations followed up for 29 years. Data from 8,396 participants (3,745 men, 4,651 women) were analyzed. The sex-specific multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 4 risk factors (smoking, diabetes, serum total cholesterol [TC], and systolic blood pressure [SBP]) for CAD mortality were calculated at baseline and at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 29 years of follow-up. In men, smoking (HR 3.23; 95% CI 1.16-9.02) and a 1-SD increase in TC (HR 1.82; 95% CI 1.29-2.57) were strongly associated with a higher risk of CAD in the first 10 years, but this association decreased over time. Diabetes (HR 2.30; 95% CI 1.37-3.85) and a 1-SD increase in SBP (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.00-1.50) were strongly correlated with a higher risk of CAD after 29 years). In women, diabetes was correlated with CAD after 20 years (HR 2.53; 95% CI 1.19-5.36) and this correlation persisted until after 29 years (HR 2.47; 95% CI 1.40-4.35). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of follow-up needed for the accurate assessment of risk factors for CAD mortality varies according to risk factor and sex.

8.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298666

RESUMO

AIM: This study investigated the relationship between birth physique and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese urban residents aged 40 years and more. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire on birth physique was performed among 624 individuals (165 men and 459 women) who participated in the KOBE study. We examined whether self-reported birth physique and available recorded birth weights matched for 72 participants. Then the association between birth physique and risk factors for all participants was examined by gender. Body size at birth in the questionnaire (large, medium, small) was set as an exposure and laboratory values from the baseline survey (2010-2011) were used as outcomes. RESULTS: Mean (standard deviation) recorded birth weight of 72 participants was 3665 (318), 3051 (300), and 2653 (199) g, in the large, medium, and small group, respectively. In the analysis for all participants, odds ratio for having both hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance were significantly higher in the small versus large birth weight group, which was 7.42 (95% CI 1.75-31.50) for men and 4.44 (95% CI 1.14-17.30) for women after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking/alcohol/exercise habits, and menstrual status in women. Similar results were observed in participants with recorded birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that individuals with small physique at birth might be at higher risk for hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance in middle age compared to those with large birth weight.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266316

RESUMO

The consumption of red meat has been recommended for individuals with reduced kidney function. However, red meat intake was recently suspected to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the association of red meat intake with CVD mortality risk in Japanese with/without reduced kidney function. Overall, 9112 participants of a Japanese national survey in 1980, aged ≥30 years, were followed for 29 years. Red meat intake was assessed using weighed dietary record. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of CVD mortality according to sex-specific tertiles of red meat intake. We also performed stratified analyses with/without reduced kidney function defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Red meat intake was not associated with CVD mortality risk in men and women. In stratified analyses, the HR of the highest compared with the lowest tertile of red meat intake was lower only in women with reduced kidney function (0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.98). In conclusion, there were no clear associations between red meat intake and CVD mortality risk in Japanese population; however, a higher intake of red meat was associated with lower risk of future CVD mortality in women with reduced kidney function.

10.
Alcohol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278513

RESUMO

The clinical implications of alcohol consumption have been extensively examined; however, its effects on brain structures in apparently healthy community-dwellers remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and brain grey matter volume (GMV) in community-dwelling Japanese men using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We recruited cognitively intact Japanese men, aged 40-79 years, from a population-based cohort in Shiga, Japan. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed, on average, 2 years after demographic and medical information was obtained in 2010-2014. A multivariable linear regression analysis of 639 men was conducted to elucidate the relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and GMV. VBM statistics were analyzed by threshold-free cluster enhancement with a family-wise error rate of <0.05. The results obtained demonstrated that the amount of alcohol consumed was associated with lower GMV. The VBM analysis showed lower GMV within the parahippocampal, entorhinal, cingulate, insular, temporal, and frontal cortices and cerebellum in very heavy drinkers (≥42 ethanol g/day) than in non-drinkers. Furthermore, alcohol consumption was associated with a higher white matter lesion volume. These results suggest subclinical structural changes similar to alcohol-related neurological diseases.

11.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(10): 722-733, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361667

RESUMO

Objective Several studies have suggested that high dietary Na/K ratio and body mass index (BMI) increase the prevalence of hypertension. However, there have been a few reports on the combination of these two factors and their relationship with hypertension. This study aimed to examine the association of the combined estimated 24-h urinary Na/K ratio (24h-u-Na/K) (high or low) and BMI (high or low) with the risk of high blood pressure.Method We performed a cross-sectional study involving 1,112 participants (340 men and 772 women) of the Kobe Orthopedic and Biomedical Epidemiological study (KOBE study) who had no cardiovascular diseases or current anti-hypertensive medications. Sex-specific analyses were performed. The 24h-u-Na/K ratio was calculated from an estimation formula using collected spot urine. Participants were divided into four groups based on their 24h-u-Na/K ratio (low or high) and BMI (low or high), with the cutoff points being the median and 25 kg/m2, respectively. Participants with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg were diagnosed with high blood pressure. Odds ratios (ORs) for high blood pressure according to the combined risks of high 24h-u-Na/K and BMI were examined with a logistic regression analysis.Results The average SBP/DBP for men and women was 122.7/77.9 and 113.3/69.1 mmHg, respectively, and prevalence of high blood pressure among men and women was 47.4% and 21.3%, respectively. The mean BMI was 22.8 kg/m2 for men and 20.9 kg/m2 for women. The median 24h-u-Na/K was 3.2 for men and 3.1 for women. The prevalence of high blood pressure (men, women) was the highest in the group in which both 24h-u-Na/K and BMI were high (60.0%, 62.9%; men: P=0.273; women: P<0.001). In the same group, the multivariate-adjusted ORs for high blood pressure were significantly higher for both men (2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-5.86) and women (10.78; 95% CI: 4.87-23.88) compared to the reference group with both factors classified as low. Women with low BMI but high 24h-u-Na/K also demonstrated a higher risk for high blood pressure (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.10-2.40).Conclusion The risk of high blood pressure was the highest when both BMI and 24h-u-Na/K were high. The current specific healthcare guidance in Japan is focused on obese individuals. However, in order to prevent hypertension more effectively, additional focus should be placed on the Na/K diet. Increased intake of vegetables and fruits and reduced intake of salt should be strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Potássio/urina , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sódio/urina , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Hipossódica , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Japão , Masculino , Verduras
12.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(3): 253-262, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162455

RESUMO

Exercise habits are known as a protective factor for a variety of diseases and thus recommended worldwide; however, few studies have examined long-term effects of exercise habits on mortality. We continuously monitored death status in a nationwide population sample of 7,709 eligible persons from the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Noncommunicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged in 1990 (NIPPON DATA90), for which baseline data were obtained in 1990. To investigate the long-term impact of baseline exercise habits, we calculated the relative risk of non-exercisers (participants without regular voluntary exercise habits) in reference to exercisers (those with these habits) for all-cause or cause-specific mortality using a Cox proportional hazard model, in which the following confounding factors were appropriately adjusted: sex, age, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking, drinking, and history of cardiovascular disease. During a median 20 years of follow-up, 1,747 participants died, 99 of heart failure. The risk for all-cause mortality was 12% higher in non-exercisers than in exercisers (95% confidence interval, 1%-24%), which was also observed for mortality from heart failure, as 68% higher in non-exercisers than in exercises (95% confidence interval, 3%-173%). These associations were similarly observed when the participants were divided to subgroups by sex, age, and the light, moderate, or vigorous intensity of physical activity, without any significant heterogeneities (P > 0.1). The present study has revealed significant impact of exercise habits on long-term mortality risks, supporting worldwide recommendations for improvement of exercise habits.

13.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3584-3591, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common subclinical feature of the aging brain. Steps per day may contribute to its prevention. We herein investigated the association between step counts and CSVD in a healthy Japanese male population. METHODS: We analyzed data from 680 men who were free of stroke and participated in this observational study. Seven-day step counts were assessed at baseline (2006-2008) using a pedometer. CSVD was assessed at follow-ups (2012-2015) based on deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), periventricular hyperintensities, lacunar infarcts, and cerebral microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging. Using a logistic regression analysis, we computed the adjusted odds ratios, with 95% CIs, of prevalent CSVD according to quartiles of step counts (reference: Q1). We also investigated the association between step counts and WMH volumes using a quantile regression. RESULTS: Steps per day were significantly associated with lower odds ratios, with the lowest at Q3 (8175-10 614 steps/day), of higher (versus low or no burden) deep and subcortical WMHs (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.30-0.89]), periventricular hyperintensities (0.50 [95% CI, 0.29-0.86]), and lacunar infarcts (0.52 [95% CI, 0.30-0.91]) compared with Q1 (≤6060 steps/day) but not cerebral microbleeds. An inverse linear association was observed between step counts and WMH volumes. These associations were independent of age and smoking and drinking status and remained consistent when adjusted for vascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We found a J-shaped relationship between step counts and prevalent CSVD in healthy Japanese men, with the lowest risk being observed among participants with ≈8000 to 10 000 steps/day. Higher steps were also associated with lower WMH volumes.

14.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 20-25, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) beyond HDL concentrations. Recently, a novel method has been introduced to measure LOX-1 ligand containing apolipoprotein AI (LAA), which is an indicator of various types of modified HDL with binding capacity to LOX-1 and related to impaired anti-atherogenic functions of HDL. This study aimed to examine the relationship between LAA as a novel marker of dysfunctional HDL and coronary artery calcification (CAC). METHODS: We selected 910 community-dwelling Japanese men aged 40-79 years without a history of CVD. The odds ratios per 1SD of LAA for the presence of CAC (Agatston score >10) were estimated using logistic regression model adjusted for confounders, including HDL-C or HDL particle (HDL-P) concentration. In addition, we performed further analysis stratified by age (<65 and ≥ 65 years). RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 63.6 years, and the median LAA was 187.0 ng/mL. The prevalent CAC was 46.2%. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) per 1SD of LAA for CAC was 1.14 (0.96-1.36) for all participants. After stratification by age, multivariable adjusted odds ratios per 1SD of LAA were 1.34 (1.02-1.76) and 0.97 (0.77-1.23) in men aged <65 and ≥ 65 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that LAA was associated with CAC independent of HDL-C or HDL-P in middle-aged Japanese men. This finding suggests that LAA might be an early marker for CVD events. Future longitudinal studies are warranted.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18499, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116160

RESUMO

There are few studies examining the association between homocysteine (Hcy) level and the risk of hypertension with consideration for folate and vitamin B12 as related to Hcy level. We simultaneously examined the associations of plasma levels of Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12, and dietary folate intake with the prevalence of hypertension. Participants included 1046 men and 1033 women (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.0 ± 8.9 years) in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Dietary folate intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hypertension was defined based on measured blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medication. A total of 734 participants (35.3%) had hypertension. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for the highest quartile group of Hcy were 2.36 (95% CI 1.41-3.96) in men and 1.86 (95% CI 1.11-3.11) in women, as compared with the lowest group (P for trend = 0.014 and 0.005, respectively). Dietary folate intake was not correlated with hypertension in both men and women (P for trend = 0.099 and 0.703, respectively). Plasma vitamin B12 was positively associated with hypertension only in women (P for trend = 0.027). Plasma Hcy level was positively linked with hypertension after controlling for covariates, including folate and vitamin B12.

16.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(8): 509-517, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879237

RESUMO

Objective To explore health-related and socioeconomic factors that can predict future deterioration in Psychological Distress Scale (K6) scores.Method We conducted a baseline (2010, 2011) self-administered questionnaire survey of the Kobe Orthopedic and Biomedical Epidemiological study (KOBE study) involving 1,117 participants who had no previous history of cancer or cardiovascular diseases and were not under treatment for hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. We used the Japanese K6 as an indicator of stress and defined K6≧5 points as a high-stress group and K6<5 points as a low-stress group. A four-year follow-up survey (2014, 2015) was conducted on 1,004 people (follow-up rate of 90%). We excluded 39 participants with missing values, and 185 people whose K6 score was higher than 5 points at baseline. A final total of 780 participants' scores were examined for: gender, age, living situation, physical activity level, average sleep time, as well as the K6 score, the Japanese Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (HHIE-S), and the Japanese Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). We conducted a logistic regression analysis using K6≧5 points at the four-year follow-up survey as the dependent variable and each factor at the baseline survey as the independent variable.Results Of the 780 subjects analyzed, 132 (16.9%) were highly stressed (K6≧5 points) at the four-year follow-up point. A logistic regression analysis found age (40s/70s) (odds ratio 3.38, 95% confidence interval 1.45-7.86), living situation (single/living together) (odds ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.68), and ODI scores (every 1%) (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.09), to all be significantly associated with high stress.Conclusion This study suggests that age, living situation, and ODI scores are related to future stress.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , População Urbana , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Seguimentos , Previsões , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 30: 100618, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904231

RESUMO

Introduction: Inverse associations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis with osteoporosis and bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in post-menopausal women and elderly men. We aimed to investigate an association between vetebral bone density (VBD) and coronary artery cacification (CAC) in an international multi-ethnic cohort of middle-aged men in the EBCT and Risk Factor Assessment among Japanese and US Men in the Post-World-War-II birth cohort (ERA JUMP). Methods: ERA JUMP examined 1134 men aged 40-49 (267 white, 84 black, and 242 Japanese Americans, 308 Japanese in Japan, and 233 Koreans in South Korea) free from CVD for CAC, and VBD, biomarkers of coronary atherosclerosis and BMD, respectively, with electron-beam computed tomography, and other risk factors. CAC was quantified with the Agatston method and VBD by computing the mean Hounsfield Unit (HU) value of the T12 to L3 vertebrae. To examine multivariable-adjusted associations of CAC with VBD, we used robust linear and logistic regressions. Results: The mean VBD and median CAC were 175.4 HU (standard deviation: 36.3) and 0 (interquartile range: (0, 4.5)), respectively. The frequency of CAC was 19.0%. There was no significant interaction by race. VBD had a significant inverse association with CAC score (ß = -0.207, p-value = 0.005), while a 10-unit increase in VBD was significantly associated with the frequency of CAC (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 0.929 (0.890-0.969)). Both associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions: VBD had a significant inverse association with CAC in this international multi-ethnic cohort of men aged 40-49.

18.
Hypertens Res ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863384

RESUMO

Conventional office blood pressure (OBP) and home blood pressure (HBP) measurements are often inconsistent. The purpose of this research was (1) to test whether strictly measured OBP values with sufficient rest time before measurement (st-OBP) is comparable to HBP at the population level and (2) to ascertain whether there are particular determinants for the difference between HBP and st-OBP at the individual level. Data from a population-based group of 1056 men aged 40-79 years were analyzed. After a five-min rest, st-OBP was measured twice. HBP was measured after a 2-min rest every morning for seven consecutive days. To determine factors related to ΔSBP (HBP minus st-OBP measurements), multiple linear regression analyses and analyses of covariance were performed. While st-OBP and HBP were comparable (136.5 vs. 137.2 mmHg) at the population level, ΔSBP varied with a standard deviation of 13.5 mmHg. Smoking was associated with a larger ΔSBP regardless of antihypertensive usage, and BMI was associated with a larger ΔSBP in participants using antihypertensive drugs. The adjusted mean ΔSBP in the highest BMI tertile category was 4.6 mmHg in participants taking antihypertensive drugs. st-OBP and HBP measurements were comparable at the population level, although the distribution of ΔSBP was considerably broad. Smokers and obese men taking antihypertensive drugs had higher HBP than st-OBP, indicating that their blood pressure levels are at risk of being underestimated. Therefore, this group would benefit from the addition of HBP measurements.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796692

RESUMO

The effect of the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na/K) on renal function within the clinically normal range of renal function are limited. We investigated the effects of an estimated 24 h urinary Na/K (e24hUNa/K) on a 6-year renal function decline among 927 urban Japanese community dwellers with no history of cardiovascular diseases and medication for hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. We partitioned the subjects into quartiles according to the e24hUNa/K. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD/EPI) formula and renal function decline was defined as an absolute value at or above the third quartile of the eGFR decline rate. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for estimation. Compared with the first quartile of the e24hUNa/K, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for eGFR decline in the second, third, and fourth quartiles were 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-1.51), 1.06 (0.67-1.66), and 1.65 (1.06-2.57), respectively. These results were similar when the simple spot urine Na/K ratio was used in place of the e24hUNa/K. Apparently healthy urban residents with an almost within normal range mean baseline eGFR and high e24hUNa/K ratios had an increased risk for a future decline in renal function. Reducing the Na/K ratio may be important in the prevention of chronic kidney disease in its early stage.


Assuntos
Rim/fisiopatologia , Potássio/urina , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Sódio/urina , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana
20.
Hypertens Res ; 43(12): 1344-1351, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636526

RESUMO

From the national surveys of Japan over a 55-year period (1961-2016), a steady decrease was observed in systolic blood pressure (BP) levels among all age groups of men and women, but not in diastolic BP levels-particularly among men. Hypertension prevalence remains high: over 60% of men aged ≥50 years and women aged ≥60 years had hypertension in 2016. However, the control rates of hypertension have continuously improved over a 36-year period, and were ~40% in 2016. Nonetheless, the over 50% prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension is a major risk factor for future cardiovascular diseases. Of the estimated 43 million hypertensives in Japan, most (31 million, 72%) were under poor control. According to new Japanese hypertension guidelines (JSH 2019), there will be only a small increase (2.2 million, 2.1 percentage points) in adults who are recommended for antihypertensive medication compared with 2014 guidelines. However, an additional 5.3 million (22.1 percentage points) adults taking antihypertensive medication would have a BP above the target defined by JSH 2019. The number of hypertensives with poor control was targeted to decrease by 7 million-from 31 million in 2017 to 24 million in 2028-when the followings are achieved: (1) the prevalence of hypertension decreases by 5 percentage points; (2) the treatment rate of hypertension among hypertensives increases by 10 percentage points; and (3) the control rate of hypertension, defined as BP <140/90 mmHg, among individuals taking antihypertensive medication increases by 10 percentage points. Both high-risk and population strategies to manage and prevent hypertension deserve greater priority.

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