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1.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 144: 109746, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541573

RESUMO

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have been introduced into industrial cocktails used for biomass saccharification due to their capacity to boost enzymatic conversion of recalcitrant cellulose. The genome of the thermotolerant ascomycete Aspergillus fumigatus encodes 7 genes for LPMOs that belong to auxiliary activity family 9 (AA9). Here, we cloned, successfully expressed and performed biochemical evaluation of two CBM-less A. fumigatus LPMOs (AfAA9A and AfAA9B). A high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) analysis demonstrated that AfAA9A and AfAA9B are able to oxide cellulose at C1 and C1/C4 positions, respectively. Synergic effects of LPMOs (separately and in combination) with cellulases were investigated. Supplementation of Celluclast 1.5 L with a low concentration of AfAA9B improved in 20 % the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by steam explosion (SEB), while AfAA9A did not improvethe saccharification. Analysis of the hydrolyzed biomass by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed the LPMOs are promoting lignin oxidation in the lignocellulosic material. This study complements the available results concerning the utilization of LPMOs in the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Aspergillus fumigatus , Celulose , Lignina
2.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 143: 109704, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375972

RESUMO

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are industrially important enzymes able to enhance the enzymatic lignocellulose saccharification in synergism with classical glycoside hydrolases. Fungal LPMOs have been classified as AA9, AA11, and AA13-16 families showing a diverse specificity for substrates such as soluble and insoluble beta-glucans, chitin, starch, and xylan, besides cellulose. These enzymes are still not fully characterized, and for example this is testify by their mechanism of oxidation regularly reviewed multiple times in the last decade. Noteworthy is that despite the extremely large abundance in the entire Tree of Life, our structural and functional knowledge is based on a restricted pool of LPMO, and probably one of the main reason reside in the challenging posed by their heterologous expression. Notably, the lack of a simple cloning protocol that could be universally applied to LPMO, hinders the conversion of the ever-increasing available genomic information to actual new enzymes. Here, we provide an easy and fast protocol for cloning, expression, and purification of active LPMOs in the following architecture: natural signal peptide, LPMO enzyme, TEV protease site, and His6-Tag. For this purpose, a commercial methanol inducible expression vector was initially modified to allow the LPMO expression containing the above characteristics. Gibson assembly, a one-step isothermal DNA assembly, was adopted for the direct assembly of intron-less or intron-containing genes and the modified expression vector. Moreover, His6-tagged LPMO constructs can be submitted to TEV proteolysis for removal of the questionable C-terminal His6-Tag, obtaining a close-to-native form of LPMO. We successfully applied this method to clone, express, and purify six LPMOs from AA9 family with different regioselectivities. The proposed protocol, provided as step-by-step, could be virtually applied in many laboratories thanks to the choice of popular and commons materials.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas , Oxigenases de Função Mista , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Humanos , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Polissacarídeos , Xilanos
3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(19): 8309-8326, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813063

RESUMO

Arabinanases from glycoside hydrolase family GH93 are enzymes with exo-activity that hydrolyze the α-1,5 bonds between arabinose residues present on arabinan. Currently, several initiatives aiming to use byproducts rich in arabinan such as pectin and sugar beet pulp as raw material to produce various compounds of interest are being developed. However, it is necessary to use robust enzymes that have an optimal performance under pH and temperature conditions used in the industrial processes. In this work, the first GH93 from the thermophilic fungus Thermothielavioides terrestris (Abn93T) was heterologously expressed in Aspergillus nidulans, purified and biochemically characterized. The enzyme is a thermophilic glycoprotein (optimum activity at 70 °C) with prolonged stability in acid pHs (4.0 to 6.5). The presence of glycosylation affected slightly the hydrolytic capacity of the enzyme, which was further increased by 34% in the presence of 1 mM CoCl2. Small-angle X-ray scattering results show that Abn93T is a globular-like-shaped protein with a slight bulge at one end. The hydrolytic mechanism of the enzyme was elucidated using capillary zone electrophoresis and molecular docking calculations. Abn93T has an ability to produce (in synergism with arabinofuranosidases) arabinose and arabinobiose from sugar beet arabinan, which can be explored as fermentable sugars and prebiotics. KEY POINTS: • Thermophilic exo-arabinanase from family GH93 • Molecular basis of arabinan depolymerization.


Assuntos
Arabinose , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sordariales , Especificidade por Substrato
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(10): 129681, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653619

RESUMO

Background Fungal aryl-alcohol oxidases (AAOx) are extracellular flavoenzymes that belong to glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family and are responsible for the selective conversion of primary aromatic alcohols into aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding acids, with concomitant production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as by-product. The H2O2 can be provided to lignin degradation pathway, a biotechnological property explored in biofuel production. In the thermophilic fungus Thermothelomyces thermophilus (formerly Myceliophthora thermophila), just one AAOx was identified in the exo-proteome. Methods The glycosylated and non-refolded crystal structure of an AAOx from T. thermophilus at 2.6 Å resolution was elucidated by X-ray crystallography combined with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. Moreover, biochemical analyses were carried out to shed light on enzyme substrate specificity and thermostability. Results This flavoenzyme harbors a flavin adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor and is able to oxidize aromatic substrates and 5-HMF. Our results also show that the enzyme has similar oxidation rates for bulky or simple aromatic substrates such as cinnamyl and veratryl alcohols. Moreover, the crystal structure of MtAAOx reveals an open active site, which might explain observed specificity of the enzyme. Conclusions MtAAOx shows previously undescribed structural differences such as a fully accessible catalytic tunnel, heavy glycosylation and Ca2+ binding site providing evidences for thermostability and activity of the enzymes from AA3_2 subfamily. General significance Structural and biochemical analyses of MtAAOx could be important for comprehension of aryl-alcohol oxidases structure-function relationships and provide additional molecular tools to be used in future biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/enzimologia , Oxirredutases do Álcool/química , Ascomicetos/química , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Estabilidade Enzimática , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura
5.
Biochimie ; 165: 275-284, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472178

RESUMO

Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 45 is one of the smallest and poorly studied endoglucanase family with a broad biotechnological application ranging from treatment of textiles to conversion of complex cell wall polysaccharides into simple oligo- and monosaccharides. In a present study, GH45 cellulase from Neurospora crassa OR74A (NcCel45A) was characterized both biochemically and structurally. HPLC analysis of the hydrolytic products confirmed the endo-ß(1,4) mode of action of the enzyme. Moreover, such pattern revealed that NcCel45A cannot hydrolyze efficiently oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization smaller than six. The crystal structure of NcCel45A catalytic domain in the apo-form was determined at 1.9 Šresolution and the structure of the enzyme bound to cellobiose was solved and refined to 1.8 Šresolution. Comparative structural analyses and molecular dynamics simulations show that the enzyme dynamics is affected by substrate binding. Taken together, MD simulations and statistical coupling analysis revealed previously unknown correlation of a loop 6 with the breakdown of cellulose substrates by GH45.


Assuntos
Celulase/química , Celulose/metabolismo , Neurospora crassa/enzimologia , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Hidrólise , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 120(Pt B): 1893-1905, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290254

RESUMO

Esterases are widely applied in industrial processes due to their versatility, regio- and enantioselectivity, lack of cofactors and stability in organic solvents. Bacillus licheniformis, a microorganism frequently used in industrial and biotechnological applications such as dairy, baking, beverage, pulp and paper, detergent and cosmetics production, organic synthesis and waste management, is a promising source of esterases. Here we describe the biochemical and biophysical characterization of B. licheniformis carboxylesterase BlEst1 and its SAXS-derived molecular envelope. BlEst1 has optimal hydrolytic activity against p­nitrophenyl acetate at pH 7.0 and 40 °C. Furthermore, BlEst1 is stable in different organic solvents such as methanol, isopropanol and butanol. The BlEst1 homology model reveals a typical α/ß hydrolase core with an adjacent auxiliary domain, snuggly fitting the experimental low-resolution SAXS molecular envelope. Moreover, BlEst1 maintained considerable part of its activity in the presence of up to 5 M NaCl and its thermal stability was significantly enhanced by the presence of salt, revealing its halotolerant character. The ability to work under harsh conditions makes BlEst1 an interesting candidate for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/enzimologia , Carboxilesterase/química , Carboxilesterase/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Estereoisomerismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 111: 302-310, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29292147

RESUMO

Economic sustainability of modern biochemical technologies for plant cell wall transformations in renewable fuels, green chemicals, and sustainable materials is considerably impacted by the elevated cost of enzymes. Therefore, there is a significant drive toward discovery and characterization of novel carbohydrate-active enzymes. Here, the BlCel48 cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis, a glycoside hydrolase family 48 member (GH48), was functionally and biochemically characterized. The enzyme is catalytically stable in a broad range of temperatures and pH conditions with its enzymatic activity at pH5.0 and 60°C. BlCel48 exhibits high hydrolytic activity against phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) and bacterial cellulose (BC) and significantly lower activity against carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). BlCel48 releases predominantly cellobiose, and also small amounts of cellotriose and cellotetraose as products from PASC hydrolysis. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data analysis revealed a globular molecular shape and monomeric state of the enzyme in solution. Its molecular mass estimated based on SAXS data is ~77.2kDa. BlCel48 has an (αα)6-helix barrel-fold, characteristic of GH48 members. Comparative analyses of homologous sequences and structures reveal the existence of two distinct loops in BlCel48 that were not present in other structurally characterized GH48 enzymes which could have importance for the enzyme activity and specificity.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/enzimologia , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Celulase/química , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Tetroses/química , Bacillus licheniformis/química , Celulose/química , Hidrólise , Cinética , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Especificidade por Substrato , Difração de Raios X
8.
N Biotechnol ; 40(Pt B): 268-274, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993256

RESUMO

Among the structural polymers present in the plant cell wall, pectin is the main component of the middle lamella. This heterogeneous polysaccharide has an α-1,4 galacturonic acid backbone, which can be broken by the enzymatic action of pectinases, such as exo-polygalacturonases, that sequentially cleave pectin from the non-reducing ends, releasing mono or di-galacturonic acid residues. Constant demand for pectinases that better suit industrial requirements has motivated identification and characterization of novel enzymes from diverse sources. Bacillus licheniformis has been used as an important source for bioprospection of several industrial biomolecules, such as surfactants and enzymes, including pectate lyases. Here we cloned, expressed, purified, and biochemically and structurally characterized an exo-polygalacturonase from B. licheniformis (BlExoPG). Its low-resolution molecular envelope was derived from experimental small-angle scattering data (SAXS). Our experimental data revealed that BlExoPG is a monomeric enzyme with optimum pH at 6.5 and optimal temperature of approximately 60°C, at which it has considerable stability over the broad pH range from 5 to 10. After incubation of the enzyme for 30min at pH ranging from 5 to 10, no significant loss of the original enzyme activity was observed. Furthermore, the enzyme maintained residual activity of greater than 80% at 50°C after 15h of incubation. BlExoPG is more active against polygalacturonic acid as compared to methylated pectin, liberating mono galacturonic acid as a unique product. Its enzymatic parameters are Vmax=4.18µM.s-1,Km=3.25mgmL-1 and kcat=2.58s-1.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/enzimologia , Poligalacturonase/química , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Poligalacturonase/isolamento & purificação , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 109: 560-568, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274424

RESUMO

Environmental issues are promoting the development of innovative technologies for the production of renewable energy and "green products" from plant biomass residues. These technologies rely on the conversion of the plant cell wall (PCW) polysaccharides into simple sugars, which involve synergistic activities of different PCW degrading enzymes, including xylanases; these are widely applied in food and feed sectors, paper and textile industries, among others. We cloned, expressed and biochemically characterized a novel xylanase (Xyn10) from the GH10 identified in a metatranscriptome of compost-derived microbial consortia and determined its low-resolution SAXS molecular envelope in solution. Our results reveal that Xyn10 is a monomeric flexible globular enzyme, with high stability with a broad pH range from 4 to 10 and optimal activity conditions at pH 7 and 40 °C. Only 10% of activity loss was observed after the enzyme was incubated for 30 h at 40 °C with a pH ranging from 5 to 10. Moreover, Xyn10 maintained 100% of its initial activity after incubation for 120 h at 40 °C and 51% after incubation for 24 h at 50 °C (pH = 7.0). Xyn10 shows endocatalytic activity towards xylan and arabinoxylan, liberating xylose, xylobiose, 1,2-α-d-methylglucuronic acid decorated xylotriose, and 1,3-α-l-arabinofuranose decorated xylobiose and xylotriose oligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Celulose/metabolismo , Compostagem , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Microbiologia , Saccharum/química , Tampões (Química) , Clonagem Molecular , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
10.
Mol Biotechnol ; 57(6): 574-88, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25711741

RESUMO

Biomass is the most abundant and short-term renewable natural resource on Earth whose recalcitrance toward enzymatic degradation represents significant challenge for a number of biotechnological applications. The not so abundant but critically necessary class of GH45 endoglucanases constitutes an essential component of tailored industrial enzyme cocktails because they randomly and internally cleave cellulose molecules. Moreover, GH45 glucanases are core constituents of major-brand detergent formulations as well as enzymatic aid components in the cotton processing industry, clipping unwanted cellulosic fibers from cotton (cellulosic)-based tissues. Here we report on a recombinant high-yield Neurospora crassa OR74A NcCel45A production system, a single-band GH45 endoglucanase purification, and a complete enzyme functional characterization. NcCel45A is a bimodular endoglucanase showing maximum activity at pH 6.0 and 60 °C, while most active against lichenan and ß-glucans and lesser active toward filter paper, carboxymethylcellulose, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. Gluco-oligosaccharide degradation fingerprinting experiments suggest cellopentaose as the minimal length substrate and ThermalFluor studies indicate that NcCel45A displays excellent stability at elevated temperatures up to 70 °C and pHs ranging from 5 to 9. Remarkably, we show that NcCel45A is uniquely resistant to a wide-range of organic solvents and small-angle X-ray scattering show a monkey-wrench molecular shape structure in solution, which indicates, unlike to other known cellulases, a non-fully extended conformation, thus conferring solvent protection. These NcCel45A unique enzymatic properties maybe key for specific industrial applications such as cotton fiber processing and detergent formulations.


Assuntos
Celulase/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Neurospora crassa/enzimologia , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Celulase/química , Celulase/genética , Celulase/isolamento & purificação , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Difração de Raios X
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23722852

RESUMO

Xyloglucanases (Xghs) are important enzymes involved in xyloglucan modification and degradation. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a phytopathogenic bacterium which produces a large number of glycosyl hydrolases (GH), but has only one family 74 GH (Xcc-Xgh). This enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data sets were collected for the native enzyme and its complex with glucose to maximum resolutions of 2.0 and 2.1 Å, respectively. The data were indexed in a hexagonal crystal system with unit-cell parameters a = b = 153.4, c = 84.9 Å. As indicated by molecular-replacement solution, the crystals belonged to space group P6(1).


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Xanthomonas campestris/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Cristalização , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/análise , Difração de Raios X
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1824(2): 359-65, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22154803

RESUMO

The RNA chaperone Hfq is a homohexamer protein identified as an E. coli host factor involved in phage Qß replication and it is an important posttranscriptional regulator of several types of RNA, affecting a plethora of bacterial functions. Although twenty Hfq crystal structures have already been reported in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), new insights into these protein structures can still be discussed. In this work, the structure of Hfq from the ß-proteobacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a diazotroph associated with economically important agricultural crops, was determined by X-ray crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Biochemical assays such as exclusion chromatography and RNA-binding by the electrophoretic shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the purified protein is homogeneous and active. The crystal structure revealed a conserved Sm topology, composed of one N-terminal α-helix followed by five twisted ß-strands, and a novel π-π stacking intra-subunit interaction of two histidine residues, absent in other Hfq proteins. Moreover, the calculated ab initio envelope based on small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data agreed with the Hfq crystal structure, suggesting that the protein has the same folding structure in solution.


Assuntos
Herbaspirillum/química , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/química , Chaperonas Moleculares/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromatografia em Gel , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Histidina/química , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Dobramento de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo
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