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1.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3303-3308, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468723

RESUMO

In patients with Gárdos channelopathy (p.R352H), an increased concentration of intracellular Ca2+ was previously reported. This is a surprising finding because the Gárdos channel (KCa3.1) is a K+ channel. Here, we confirm the increased intracellular Ca2+ for patients with the KCa3.1 mutation p.S314P. Furthermore, we provide the concept of KCa3.1 activity resulting in a flickering of red blood cell (RBC) membranepotential, which activates the CaV2.1 channel allowing Ca2+ to enter the RBC. Activity of the nonselective cation channel Piezo1 modulates the aforementioned interplay in away that a closed Piezo1 is in favor of the KCa3.1-CaV2.1 interaction. In contrast, Piezo1 openings compromise the membrane potential flickering, thus limiting the activity of CaV2.1. With the compound NS309, we mimic a gain-of-function mutation of KCa3.1. Assessing the RBC Ca2+ response by Fluo-4-based flow cytometry and by measuring the membrane potential using the Macey-Bennekou-Egée method, we provide data that support the concept of the KCa3.1/CaV2.1/Piezo1 interplay as a partial explanation for an increased number of high Ca2+ RBCs. With the pharmacological inhibition of KCa3.1 (TRAM34 and Senicapoc), CaV2.1 (ω-agatoxin TK), and Piezo1 (GsMTx-4), we could project the NS309 behavior of healthy RBCs to the RBCs of Gárdos channelopathy patients.


Assuntos
Canalopatias , Agatoxinas , Cálcio/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/genética
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease with deformed red blood cells (RBCs), so-called acanthocytes, as a typical marker of the disease. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was recently proposed as a diagnostic biomarker. To date, there is no treatment option for affected patients, but promising therapy candidates, such as dasatinib, a Lyn-kinase inhibitor, have been identified. METHODS: RBCs of two ChAc patients during and after dasatinib treatment were characterized by the ESR, clinical hematology parameters and the 3D shape classification in stasis based on an artificial neural network. Furthermore, mathematical modeling was performed to understand the contribution of cell morphology and cell rigidity to the ESR. Microfluidic measurements were used to compare the RBC rigidity between ChAc patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: The mechano-morphological characterization of RBCs from two ChAc patients in an off-label treatment with dasatinib revealed differences in the ESR and the acanthocyte count during and after the treatment period, which could not directly be related to each other. Clinical hematology parameters were in the normal range. Mathematical modeling indicated that RBC rigidity is more important for delayed ESR than cell shape. Microfluidic experiments confirmed a higher rigidity in the normocytes of ChAc patients compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results increase our understanding of the role of acanthocytes and their associated properties in the ESR, but the data are too sparse to answer the question of whether the ESR is a suitable biomarker for treatment success, whereas a correlation between hematological and neuronal phenotype is still subject to verification.


Assuntos
Acantócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sedimentação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroacantocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Acantócitos/patologia , Adulto , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroacantocitose/sangue , Neuroacantocitose/patologia , Uso Off-Label , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(5): e1008934, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983926

RESUMO

The investigation of cell shapes mostly relies on the manual classification of 2D images, causing a subjective and time consuming evaluation based on a portion of the cell surface. We present a dual-stage neural network architecture for analyzing fine shape details from confocal microscopy recordings in 3D. The system, tested on red blood cells, uses training data from both healthy donors and patients with a congenital blood disease, namely hereditary spherocytosis. Characteristic shape features are revealed from the spherical harmonics spectrum of each cell and are automatically processed to create a reproducible and unbiased shape recognition and classification. The results show the relation between the particular genetic mutation causing the disease and the shape profile. With the obtained 3D phenotypes, we suggest our method for diagnostics and theragnostics of blood diseases. Besides the application employed in this study, our algorithms can be easily adapted for the 3D shape phenotyping of other cell types and extend their use to other applications, such as industrial automated 3D quality control.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/citologia , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Automação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918219

RESUMO

(1) Background: Chorea-acanthocytosis and McLeod syndrome are the core diseases among the group of rare neurodegenerative disorders called neuroacanthocytosis syndromes (NASs). NAS patients have a variable number of irregularly spiky erythrocytes, so-called acanthocytes. Their detection is a crucial but error-prone parameter in the diagnosis of NASs, often leading to misdiagnoses. (2) Methods: We measured the standard Westergren erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of various blood samples from NAS patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, we manipulated the ESR by swapping the erythrocytes and plasma of different individuals, as well as replacing plasma with dextran. These measurements were complemented by clinical laboratory data and single-cell adhesion force measurements. Additionally, we followed theoretical modeling approaches. (3) Results: We show that the acanthocyte sedimentation rate (ASR) with a two-hour read-out is significantly prolonged in chorea-acanthocytosis and McLeod syndrome without overlap compared to the ESR of the controls. Mechanistically, through modern colloidal physics, we show that acanthocyte aggregation and plasma fibrinogen levels slow down the sedimentation. Moreover, the inverse of ASR correlates with the number of acanthocytes (R2=0.61, p=0.004). (4) Conclusions: The ASR/ESR is a clear, robust and easily obtainable diagnostic marker. Independently of NASs, we also regard this study as a hallmark of the physical view of erythrocyte sedimentation by describing anticoagulated blood in stasis as a percolating gel, allowing the application of colloidal physics theory.

7.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672679

RESUMO

(1) Background: It is known that sickle cells contain a higher amount of Ca2+ compared to healthy red blood cells (RBCs). The increased Ca2+ is associated with the most severe symptom of sickle cell disease (SCD), the vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). The Ca2+ entry pathway received the name of Psickle but its molecular identity remains only partly resolved. We aimed to map the involved Ca2+ signaling to provide putative pharmacological targets for treatment. (2) Methods: The main technique applied was Ca2+ imaging of RBCs from healthy donors, SCD patients and a number of transgenic mouse models in comparison to wild-type mice. Life-cell Ca2+ imaging was applied to monitor responses to pharmacological targeting of the elements of signaling cascades. Infection as a trigger of VOC was imitated by stimulation of RBCs with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). These measurements were complemented with biochemical assays. (3) Results: Ca2+ entry into SCD RBCs in response to LPA stimulation exceeded that of healthy donors. LPA receptor 4 levels were increased in SCD RBCs. Their activation was followed by the activation of Gi protein, which in turn triggered opening of TRPC6 and CaV2.1 channels via a protein kinase Cα and a MAP kinase pathway, respectively. (4) Conclusions: We found a new Ca2+ signaling cascade that is increased in SCD patients and identified new pharmacological targets that might be promising in addressing the most severe symptom of SCD, the VOC.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Sinalização do Cálcio , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo N/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Canal de Cátion TRPC6/metabolismo , Doadores de Tecidos
8.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; 232(3): e13647, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729672

RESUMO

AIMS: Total haemoglobin mass (tot-Hb) increases during high-altitude acclimatization. Normalization of tot-Hb upon descent is thought to occur via neocytolysis, the selective destruction of newly formed erythrocytes. Because convincing experimental proof of neocytolysis is lacking, we performed a prospective study on erythrocyte survival after a stay at the Jungfraujoch Research Station (JFJRS; 3450 m). METHODS: Newly formed erythrocytes of 12 male subjects (mean age 23.3 years) were age cohort labelled in normoxia (110 m) and during a 19-day high-altitude sojourn by ingestion of 13 C2- and 15 N-labelled glycine respectively. Elimination dynamics for erythrocytes produced in normoxia and at high altitude were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry of haem, by determining tot-Hb, reticulocyte counts, erythrocyte membrane protein 4.1a/4.1b ratio and by mathematical modelling. RESULTS: Tot-Hb increased by 4.7% ± 2.7% at high altitude and returned to pre-altitude values within 11 days after descent. Elimination of 13 C- (normoxia) and 15 N- (high altitude) labelled erythrocytes was not different. Erythropoietin levels and counts of CD71-positive reticulocytes decreased rapidly after descent. The band 4.1a/4.1b ratio decreased at altitude and remained low for 3-4 days after descent and normalized slowly. There was no indication of haemolysis. CONCLUSION: We confirm a rapid normalization of tot-Hb upon descent. Based on the lack of accelerated removal of age cohorts of erythrocytes labelled at high altitude, on patterns of changes in reticulocyte counts and of the band 4.1a/4.1b ratio and on modelling, this decrease did not occur via neocytolysis, but by a reduced rate of erythropoiesis along with normal clearance of senescent erythrocytes.


Assuntos
Altitude , Eritropoetina , Adulto , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reticulócitos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478008

RESUMO

Bioreactors are increasingly implemented for large scale cultures of various mammalian cells, which requires optimization of culture conditions. Such upscaling is also required to produce red blood cells (RBC) for transfusion and therapy purposes. However, the physiological suitability of RBC cultures to be transferred to stirred bioreactors is not well understood. PIEZO1 is the most abundantly expressed known mechanosensor on erythroid cells. It is a cation channel that translates mechanical forces directly into a physiological response. We investigated signaling cascades downstream of PIEZO1 activated upon transitioning stationary cultures to orbital shaking associated with mechanical stress, and compared the results to direct activation of PIEZO1 by the chemical agonist Yoda1. Erythroblasts subjected to orbital shaking displayed decreased proliferation, comparable to incubation in the presence of a low dose of Yoda1. Epo (Erythropoietin)-dependent STAT5 phosphorylation, and Calcineurin-dependent NFAT dephosphorylation was enhanced. Phosphorylation of ERK was also induced by both orbital shaking and Yoda1 treatment. Activation of these pathways was inhibited by intracellular Ca2+ chelation (BAPTA-AM) in the orbital shaker. Our results suggest that PIEZO1 is functional and could be activated by the mechanical forces in a bioreactor setup, and results in the induction of Ca2+-dependent signaling cascades regulating various aspects of erythropoiesis. With this study, we showed that Yoda1 treatment and mechanical stress induced via orbital shaking results in comparable activation of some Ca2+-dependent pathways, exhibiting that there are direct physiological outcomes of mechanical stress on erythroblasts.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Eritroblastos/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Eritroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritropoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritropoese/fisiologia , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/agonistas , Canais Iônicos/fisiologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Rotação , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
10.
Biophys J ; 120(3): 432-439, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359171

RESUMO

The microvascular networks in the body of vertebrates consist of the smallest vessels such as arterioles, capillaries, and venules. The flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through these networks ensures the gas exchange in as well as the transport of nutrients to the tissues. Any alterations in this blood flow may have severe implications on the health state. Because the vessels in these networks obey dimensions similar to the diameter of RBCs, dynamic effects on the cellular scale play a key role. The steady progression in the numerical modeling of RBCs, even in complex networks, has led to novel findings in the field of hemodynamics, especially concerning the impact and the dynamics of lingering events when a cell meets a branch of the network. However, these results are yet to be matched by a detailed analysis of the lingering experiments in vivo. To quantify this lingering effect in in vivo experiments, this study analyzes branching vessels in the microvasculature of Syrian golden hamsters via intravital microscopy and the use of an implanted dorsal skinfold chamber. It also presents a detailed analysis of these lingering effects of cells at the apex of bifurcating vessels, affecting the temporal distribution of plasmatic zones of blood flow in the branches and even causing a partial blockage in severe cases.


Assuntos
Capilares , Microvasos , Animais , Arteríolas , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Cricetinae , Microcirculação
12.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 59(6): 102986, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153901

RESUMO

The application of artificial intelligence (AI) in hematology it not new at all. However, it increasingly becomes part of the measurement of hematological parameters and subsequently also influences decision making. Here some examples are provided where well established parameters could be exploited better, if data are not reduced to single values but instead the entire data generation process is considered. Furthermore applications of artificial neural networks (ANN), point of care (PoC) devices and the internet of things (IoT) are discussed. Beside all the technical advancements human judgement will remain the last decision.

13.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 155, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a Ca2+-binding trimeric glycoprotein secreted by multiple cell types, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several clinical conditions. Signaling involving TSP-1, through its cognate receptor CD47, orchestrates a wide array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal organization, migration, cell-cell interaction, cell proliferation, autophagy, and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of TSP-1/CD47 signaling on Ca2+ dynamics, survival, and deformability of human red blood cells (RBCs). METHODS: Whole-cell patch-clamp was employed to examine transmembrane cation conductance. RBC intracellular Ca2+ levels and multiple indices of RBC cell death were determined using cytofluorometry analysis. RBC morphology and microvesiculation were examined using imaging flow cytometry. RBC deformability was measured using laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyzer. RESULTS: Exposure of RBCs to recombinant human TSP-1 significantly increased RBC intracellular Ca2+ levels. As judged by electrophysiology experiments, TSP-1 treatment elicited an amiloride-sensitive inward current alluding to a possible Ca2+ influx via non-selective cation channels. Exogenous TSP-1 promoted microparticle shedding as well as enhancing Ca2+- and nitric oxide-mediated RBC cell death. Monoclonal (mouse IgG1) antibody-mediated CD47 ligation using 1F7 recapitulated the cell death-inducing effects of TSP-1. Furthermore, TSP-1 treatment altered RBC cell shape and stiffness (maximum elongation index). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data unravel a new role for TSP-1/CD47 signaling in mediating Ca2+ influx into RBCs, a mechanism potentially contributing to their dysfunction in a variety of systemic diseases. Video abstract.

14.
Front Physiol ; 11: 588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903637

RESUMO

Why should we take interest in studying red blood cells? This mini review attempts to answer this question and highlights the problems that authors find most appealing in this dynamic research area. It addresses the early career scientists who are just starting their independent journey and facing tough times. Despite unlimited access to information, the exponential development of computational and intellectual powers, and the seemingly endless possibilities open to talented and ambitious early career researchers, they soon realize that the pressure of imminent competition for financial support is hard. They have to hit deadlines, produce data, publish, report, teach, manage, lead groups, and remain loving family members at the same time. Are these countless hardships worth it? We think they are. Despite centuries of research, red blood cells remain a mysterious and fascinating study objects. These cells bring together experts within the family of the European Red Cell Society and beyond. We all share our joy for the unknown and excitement in understanding how red cells function and what they tell us about the microenvironments and macroenvironments they live in. This review is an invitation to our colleagues to join us on our quest.

15.
Front Physiol ; 11: 387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528298

RESUMO

In the recent years, the progress in genetic analysis and next-generation sequencing technologies have opened up exciting landscapes for diagnosis and study of molecular mechanisms, allowing the determination of a particular mutation for individual patients suffering from hereditary red blood cell-related diseases or anemia. However, the huge amount of data obtained makes the interpretation of the results and the identification of the pathogenetic variant responsible for the diseases sometime difficult. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that the same mutation can result in varying cellular properties and different symptoms of the disease. Even for the same patient, the phenotypic expression of the disorder can change over time. Therefore, on top of genetic analysis, there is a further request for functional tests that allow to confirm the pathogenicity of a molecular variant, possibly to predict prognosis and complications (e.g., vaso-occlusive pain crises or other thrombotic events) and, in the best case, to enable personalized theranostics (drug and/or dose) according to the disease state and progression. The mini-review will reflect recent and future directions in the development of diagnostic tools for red blood cell-related diseases and anemias. This includes point of care devices, new incarnations of well-known principles addressing physico-chemical properties, and interactions of red blood cells as well as high-tech screening equipment and mobile laboratories.

16.
Front Physiol ; 11: 392, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457644

RESUMO

Mean values of hematological parameters are currently used in the clinical laboratory settings to characterize red blood cell properties. Those include red blood cell indices, osmotic fragility test, eosin 5-maleimide (EMA) test, and deformability assessment using ektacytometry to name a few. Diagnosis of hereditary red blood cell disorders is complemented by identification of mutations in distinct genes that are recognized "molecular causes of disease." The power of these measurements is clinically well-established. However, the evidence is growing that the available information is not enough to understand the determinants of severity of diseases and heterogeneity in manifestation of pathologies such as hereditary hemolytic anemias. This review focuses on an alternative approach to assess red blood cell properties based on heterogeneity of red blood cells and characterization of fractions of cells with similar properties such as density, hydration, membrane loss, redox state, Ca2+ levels, and morphology. Methodological approaches to detect variance of red blood cell properties will be presented. Causes of red blood cell heterogeneity include cell age, environmental stress as well as shear and metabolic stress, and multiple other factors. Heterogeneity of red blood cell properties is also promoted by pathological conditions that are not limited to the red blood cells disorders, but inflammatory state, metabolic diseases and cancer. Therapeutic interventions such as splenectomy and transfusion as well as drug administration also impact the variance in red blood cell properties. Based on the overview of the studies in this area, the possible applications of heterogeneity in red blood cell properties as prognostic and diagnostic marker commenting on the power and selectivity of such markers are discussed.

17.
Soft Matter ; 16(7): 1941, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039425

RESUMO

Correction for 'Cross-sectional focusing of red blood cells in a constricted microfluidic channel' by Asena Abay et al., Soft Matter, 2020, 16, 534-543.

18.
Soft Matter ; 16(2): 534-543, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808773

RESUMO

Constrictions in blood vessels and microfluidic devices can dramatically change the spatial distribution of passing cells or particles and are commonly used in biomedical cell sorting applications. However, the three-dimensional nature of cell focusing in the channel cross-section remains poorly investigated. Here, we explore the cross-sectional distribution of living and rigid red blood cells passing a constricted microfluidic channel by tracking individual cells in multiple layers across the channel depth and across the channel width. While cells are homogeneously distributed in the channel cross-section pre-contraction, we observe a strong geometry-induced focusing towards the four channel faces post-contraction. The magnitude of this cross-sectional focusing effect increases with increasing Reynolds number for both living and rigid red blood cells. We discuss how this non-uniform cell distribution downstream of the contraction results in an apparent double-peaked velocity profile in particle image velocimetry analysis and show that trapping of red blood cells in the recirculation zones of the abrupt construction depends on cell deformability.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/química , Humanos , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Reologia
19.
Haematologica ; 105(2): 338-347, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147440

RESUMO

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) originates from defective anchoring of the cytoskeletal network to the transmembrane protein complexes of the red blood cell (RBC). Red cells in HS are characterized by membrane instability and reduced deformability and there is marked heterogeneity in disease severity among patients. To unravel this variability in disease severity, we analyzed blood samples from 21 HS patients with defects in ankyrin, band 3, α-spectrin or ß-spectrin using red cell indices, eosin-5-maleimide binding, microscopy, the osmotic fragility test, Percoll density gradients, vesiculation and ektacytometry to assess cell membrane stability, cellular density and deformability. Reticulocyte counts, CD71 abundance, band 4.1 a:b ratio, and glycated hemoglobin were used as markers of RBC turnover. We observed that patients with moderate/severe spherocytosis have short-living erythrocytes of low density and abnormally high intercellular heterogeneity. These cells show a prominent decrease in membrane stability and deformability and, as a consequence, are quickly removed from the circulation by the spleen. In contrast, in mild spherocytosis less pronounced reduction in deformability results in prolonged RBC lifespan and, hence, cells are subject to progressive loss of membrane. RBC from patients with mild spherocytosis thus become denser before they are taken up by the spleen. Based on our findings, we conclude that RBC membrane loss, cellular heterogeneity and density are strong markers of clinical severity in spherocytosis.


Assuntos
Esferocitose Hereditária , Anquirinas , Membrana Eritrocítica , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Contagem de Reticulócitos , Esferocitose Hereditária/diagnóstico
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 625-648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646528

RESUMO

Free Calcium (Ca2+) is an important and universal signalling entity in all cells, red blood cells included. Although mature mammalian red blood cells are believed to not contain organelles as Ca2+ stores such as the endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria, a 20,000-fold gradient based on a intracellular Ca2+ concentration of approximately 60 nM vs. an extracellular concentration of 1.2 mM makes Ca2+-permeable channels a major signalling tool of red blood cells. However, the internal Ca2+ concentration is tightly controlled, regulated and maintained primarily by the Ca2+ pumps PMCA1 and PMCA4. Within the last two decades it became evident that an increased intracellular Ca2+ is associated with red blood cell clearance in the spleen and promotes red blood cell aggregability and clot formation. In contrast to this rather uncontrolled deadly Ca2+ signals only recently it became evident, that a temporal increase in intracellular Ca2+ can also have positive effects such as the modulation of the red blood cells O2 binding properties or even be vital for brief transient cellular volume adaptation when passing constrictions like small capillaries or slits in the spleen. Here we give an overview of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+-regulated channels in red blood cells, namely the Gárdos channel, the non-selective voltage dependent cation channel, Piezo1, the NMDA receptor, VDAC, TRPC channels, CaV2.1, a Ca2+-inhibited channel novel to red blood cells and i.a. relate these channels to the molecular unknown sickle cell disease conductance Psickle. Particular attention is given to correlation of functional measurements with molecular entities as well as the physiological and pathophysiological function of these channels. This view is in constant progress and in particular the understanding of the interaction of several ion channels in a physiological context just started. This includes on the one hand channelopathies, where a mutation of the ion channel is the direct cause of the disease, like Hereditary Xerocytosis and the Gárdos Channelopathy. On the other hand it applies to red blood cell related diseases where an altered channel activity is a secondary effect like in sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Also these secondary effects should receive medical and pharmacologic attention because they can be crucial when it comes to the life-threatening symptoms of the disease.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/fisiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Mutação
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