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1.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542532

RESUMO

Ferroptosis, triggered by discoordination of iron, thiols and lipids, leads to the accumulation of 15-hydroperoxy (Hp)-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (15-HpETE-PE), generated by complexes of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) and a scaffold protein, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-binding protein (PEBP)1. As the Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2ß (iPLA2ß, PLA2G6 or PNPLA9 gene) can preferentially hydrolyze peroxidized phospholipids, it may eliminate the ferroptotic 15-HpETE-PE death signal. Here, we demonstrate that by hydrolyzing 15-HpETE-PE, iPLA2ß averts ferroptosis, whereas its genetic or pharmacological inactivation sensitizes cells to ferroptosis. Given that PLA2G6 mutations relate to neurodegeneration, we examined fibroblasts from a patient with a Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated mutation (fPDR747W) and found selectively decreased 15-HpETE-PE-hydrolyzing activity, 15-HpETE-PE accumulation and elevated sensitivity to ferroptosis. CRISPR-Cas9-engineered Pnpla9R748W/R748W mice exhibited progressive parkinsonian motor deficits and 15-HpETE-PE accumulation. Elevated 15-HpETE-PE levels were also detected in midbrains of rotenone-infused parkinsonian rats and α-synuclein-mutant SncaA53T mice, with decreased iPLA2ß expression and a PD-relevant phenotype. Thus, iPLA2ß is a new ferroptosis regulator, and its mutations may be implicated in PD pathogenesis.

2.
J Cell Sci ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414166

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a regulated, non-apoptotic form of cell death, characterized by hydroxy-peroxidation of discrete phospholipid hydroperoxides, particularly hydroperoxyl (Hp)- forms of arachidonoyl- and adrenoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, with a downstream cascade of oxidative damage to membrane lipids, proteins, and DNA, culminating in cell death. We recently showed that human trophoblasts are particularly sensitive to ferroptosis, caused by depletion or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) or the lipase PLA2G6. Here, we show that trophoblastic ferroptosis is accompanied by a dramatic change in trophoblast plasma membrane, with macro-blebbing and vesiculation. Immunofluorescence revealed that ferroptotic cell-derived blebs stained positive for F-actin, but negative for cytoplasmic organelle markers. Transfer of conditioned medium that contained detached macrovesicles or co-culture with blebbing cells did not stimulate ferroptosis in target cells. Molecular modeling showed that the presence of Hp- phosphatidylethanolamine in the cell membrane promoted its stretchability. Together, our data establish that membrane macro-blebbing is characteristic of trophoblast ferroptosis and can serve as a useful marker of this process. Whether or not these blebs are physiologically functional remains to be established.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(572)2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268511

RESUMO

Tumor recurrence years after seemingly successful treatment of primary tumors is one of the major causes of mortality in patients with cancer. Reactivation of dormant tumor cells is largely responsible for this phenomenon. Using dormancy models of lung and ovarian cancer, we found a specific mechanism, mediated by stress and neutrophils, that may govern this process. Stress hormones cause rapid release of proinflammatory S100A8/A9 proteins by neutrophils. S100A8/A9 induce activation of myeloperoxidase, resulting in accumulation of oxidized lipids in these cells. Upon release from neutrophils, these lipids up-regulate the fibroblast growth factor pathway in tumor cells, causing tumor cell exit from the dormancy and formation of new tumor lesions. Higher serum concentrations of S100A8/A9 were associated with shorter time to recurrence in patients with lung cancer after complete tumor resection. Targeting of S100A8/A9 or ß2-adrenergic receptors abrogated stress-induced reactivation of dormant tumor cells. These observations demonstrate a mechanism linking stress and specific neutrophil activation with early recurrence in cancer.

4.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101744, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126055

RESUMO

Hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (HpETE-PE) is a ferroptotic cell death signal. HpETE-PE is produced by the 15-Lipoxygenase (15LOX)/Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein-1 (PEBP1) complex or via an Fe-catalyzed non-enzymatic radical reaction. Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), a common ferroptosis inhibitor, is a lipophilic radical scavenger but a poor 15LOX inhibitor arguing against 15LOX having a role in ferroptosis. In the current work, we demonstrate that Fer-1 does not affect 15LOX alone, however, it effectively inhibits HpETE-PE production by the 15LOX/PEBP1 complex. Computational molecular modeling shows that Fer-1 binds to the 15LOX/PEBP1 complex at three sites and could disrupt the catalytically required allosteric motions of the 15LOX/PEBP1 complex. Using nine ferroptosis cell/tissue models, we show that HpETE-PE is produced by the 15LOX/PEBP1 complex and resolve the long-existing Fer-1 anti-ferroptotic paradox.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27319-27328, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087576

RESUMO

The recently identified ferroptotic cell death is characterized by excessive accumulation of hydroperoxy-arachidonoyl (C20:4)- or adrenoyl (C22:4)- phosphatidylethanolamine (Hp-PE). The selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) inhibits ferroptosis, converting unstable ferroptotic lipid hydroperoxides to nontoxic lipid alcohols in a tissue-specific manner. While placental oxidative stress and lipotoxicity are hallmarks of placental dysfunction, the possible role of ferroptosis in placental dysfunction is largely unknown. We found that spontaneous preterm birth is associated with ferroptosis and that inhibition of GPX4 causes ferroptotic injury in primary human trophoblasts and during mouse pregnancy. Importantly, we uncovered a role for the phospholipase PLA2G6 (PNPLA9, iPLA2beta), known to metabolize Hp-PE to lyso-PE and oxidized fatty acid, in mitigating ferroptosis induced by GPX4 inhibition in vitro or by hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in vivo. Together, we identified ferroptosis signaling in the human and mouse placenta, established a role for PLA2G6 in attenuating trophoblastic ferroptosis, and provided mechanistic insights into the ill-defined placental lipotoxicity that may inspire PLA2G6-targeted therapeutic strategies.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 922, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110056

RESUMO

Lipid peroxidation (LPO) drives ferroptosis execution. However, LPO has been shown to contribute also to other modes of regulated cell death (RCD). To clarify the role of LPO in different modes of RCD, we studied in a comprehensive approach the differential involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phospholipid peroxidation products, and lipid ROS flux in the major prototype modes of RCD viz. apoptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, and pyroptosis. LC-MS oxidative lipidomics revealed robust peroxidation of three classes of phospholipids during ferroptosis with quantitative predominance of phosphatidylethanolamine species. Incomparably lower amounts of phospholipid peroxidation products were found in any of the other modes of RCD. Nonetheless, a strong increase in lipid ROS levels was detected in non-canonical pyroptosis, but only during cell membrane rupture. In contrast to ferroptosis, lipid ROS apparently was not involved in non-canonical pyroptosis execution nor in the release of IL-1ß and IL-18, while clear dependency on CASP11 and GSDMD was observed. Our data demonstrate that ferroptosis is the only mode of RCD that depends on excessive phospholipid peroxidation for its cytotoxicity. In addition, our results also highlight the importance of performing kinetics and using different methods to monitor the occurrence of LPO. This should open the discussion on the implication of particular LPO events in relation to different modes of RCD.

7.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941182

RESUMO

Macrophages are main effectors of heme metabolism, increasing transiently in the liver during heightened disposal of damaged or senescent red blood cells (sRBC). Macrophages are also essential in defense against microbial threats, but pathologic states of heme excess may be immunosuppressive. Herein, we uncovered a mechanism whereby an acute rise in sRBC disposal by macrophages led to an immunosuppressive phenotype following intrapulmonary Klebsiella pneumoniae infection characterized by increased extrapulmonary bacterial proliferation and reduced survival from sepsis in mice. The impaired immunity to K. pneumoniae during heightened sRBC disposal was independent of iron acquisition by bacterial siderophores, as K. pneumoniae mutant lacking siderophore function recapitulated findings observed with wildtype strain. Rather, sRBC disposal induced a liver transcriptomic profile notable for suppression of Stat1 and interferon-related responses during K. pneumoniae sepsis. Excess heme handling by macrophages recapitulated STAT1 suppression during infection that required synergistic NRF1 and NRF2 activation but was independent of heme oxygenase-1 induction. Whereas iron was dispensable, the porphyrin moiety of heme was sufficient to mediate suppression of STAT1-dependent responses in human and mouse macrophages and promoted liver dissemination of K. pneumoniae in vivo. Thus, cellular heme metabolism dysfunction negatively regulates the STAT1 pathway with implications in severe infection.

8.
J Biol Chem ; 295(38): 13393-13406, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732285

RESUMO

Lysocardiolipin acyltransferase (LYCAT), a cardiolipin (CL)-remodeling enzyme, is crucial for maintaining normal mitochondrial function and vascular development. Despite the well-characterized role for LYCAT in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, its involvement in lung cancer, if any, remains incompletely understood. In this study, in silico analysis of TCGA lung cancer data sets revealed a significant increase in LYCAT expression, which was later corroborated in human lung cancer tissues and immortalized lung cancer cell lines via indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, respectively. Stable knockdown of LYCAT in NSCLC cell lines not only reduced CL and increased monolyso-CL levels but also reduced in vivo tumor growth, as determined by xenograft studies in athymic nude mice. Furthermore, blocking LYCAT activity using a LYCAT mimetic peptide attenuated cell migration, suggesting a novel role for LYCAT activity in promoting NSCLC. Mechanistically, the pro-proliferative effects of LYCAT were mediated by an increase in mitochondrial fusion and a G1/S cell cycle transition, both of which are linked to increased cell proliferation. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel role for LYCAT in promoting NSCLC and suggest that targeting LYCAT expression or activity in NSCLC may provide new avenues for the therapeutic treatment of lung cancer.

9.
Anal Chem ; 92(19): 12880-12890, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803946

RESUMO

Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a key enzyme released by neutrophils during inflammation, has been shown to catalyze the biodegradation of carbon nanomaterials. In this work, we perform photoluminescence studies on the MPO-catalyzed oxidation of graphene oxide (GO) and surfactant-coated pristine (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The enzymatic degradation mechanism involves the introduction of defects, which promotes further degradation. Interestingly, the photoluminescence responses of GO and SWCNTs to enzymatic degradation are counterposed. Although the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence intensity of SWCNTs at 998 nm is either unchanged or decreases depending on the surfactant identity, the blue fluorescence intensity of GO at 440 nm increases with the progression of oxidation by MPO/H2O2/Cl- due to the formation of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Turn-on GO fluorescence is also observed with neutrophil-like HL-60 cells, indicative of potential applications of GO for imaging MPO activity in live cells. Based on these results, we further construct two ratiometric sensors using SWCNT/GO nanoscrolls by incorporating surfactant-wrapped pristine SWCNTs as the internal either turn-off (with sodium cholate (SC)) or reference (with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)) sensor. The ratiometric approach enables the sensors to be more stable to external noise by providing response invariant to the absolute intensity emitted from the sensors. Our sensors show linear response to MPO oxidative machinery and hold the promise to be used as self-calibrating carbon nanomaterial-based MPO activity indicators.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14376-14385, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513718

RESUMO

Temporally harmonized elimination of damaged or unnecessary organelles and cells is a prerequisite of health. Under Type 2 inflammatory conditions, human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) generate proferroptotic hydroperoxy-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (HpETE-PEs) as proximate death signals. Production of 15-HpETE-PE depends on activation of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15LO1) in complex with PE-binding protein-1 (PEBP1). We hypothesized that cellular membrane damage induced by these proferroptotic phospholipids triggers compensatory prosurvival pathways, and in particular autophagic pathways, to prevent cell elimination through programmed death. We discovered that PEBP1 is pivotal to driving dynamic interactions with both proferroptotic 15LO1 and the autophagic protein microtubule-associated light chain-3 (LC3). Further, the 15LO1-PEBP1-generated ferroptotic phospholipid, 15-HpETE-PE, promoted LC3-I lipidation to stimulate autophagy. This concurrent activation of autophagy protects cells from ferroptotic death and release of mitochondrial DNA. Similar findings are observed in Type 2 Hi asthma, where high levels of both 15LO1-PEBP1 and LC3-II are seen in HAECs, in association with low bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mitochondrial DNA and more severe disease. The concomitant activation of ferroptosis and autophagy by 15LO1-PEBP1 complexes and their hydroperoxy-phospholipids reveals a pathobiologic pathway relevant to asthma and amenable to therapeutic targeting.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Asma/imunologia , Autofagia/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Ferroptose/imunologia , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/imunologia , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/metabolismo , Interleucina-13/imunologia , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/genética , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/imunologia , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
JCI Insight ; 5(15)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584791

RESUMO

DCs are a critical component of immune responses in cancer primarily due to their ability to cross-present tumor-associated antigens. Cross-presentation by DCs in cancer is impaired, which may represent one of the obstacles for the success of cancer immunotherapies. Here, we report that polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC) blocked cross-presentation by DCs without affecting direct presentation of antigens by these cells. This effect did not require direct cell-cell contact and was associated with transfer of lipids. Neutrophils (PMN) and PMN-MDSC transferred lipid to DCs equally well; however, PMN did not affect DC cross-presentation. PMN-MDSC generate oxidatively truncated lipids previously shown to be involved in impaired cross-presentation by DCs. Accumulation of oxidized lipids in PMN-MDSC was dependent on myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO-deficient PMN-MDSC did not affect cross-presentation by DCs. Cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens in vivo by DCs was improved in MDSC-depleted or tumor-bearing MPO-KO mice. Pharmacological inhibition of MPO in combination with checkpoint blockade reduced tumor progression in different tumor models. These data suggest MPO-driven lipid peroxidation in PMN-MDSC as a possible non-cell autonomous mechanism of inhibition of antigen cross-presentation by DCs and propose MPO as potential therapeutic target to enhance the efficacy of current immunotherapies for patients with cancer.

12.
Hepatology ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Iron is essential yet also highly chemically reactive and potentially toxic. The mechanisms that allow cells to use iron safely are not clear; defects in iron management are a causative factor in the cell-death pathway known as ferroptosis. Poly rC binding protein 1 (PCBP1) is a multifunctional protein that serves as a cytosolic iron chaperone, binding and transferring iron to recipient proteins in mammalian cells. Although PCBP1 distributes iron in cells, its role in managing iron in mammalian tissues remains open for study. The liver is highly specialized for iron uptake, utilization, storage, and secretion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Mice lacking PCBP1 in hepatocytes exhibited defects in liver iron homeostasis with low levels of liver iron, reduced activity of iron enzymes, and misregulation of the cell-autonomous iron regulatory system. These mice spontaneously developed liver disease with hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and degeneration. Transcriptome analysis indicated activation of lipid biosynthetic and oxidative-stress response pathways, including the antiferroptotic mediator, glutathione peroxidase type 4. Although PCBP1-deleted livers were iron deficient, dietary iron supplementation did not prevent steatosis; instead, dietary iron restriction and antioxidant therapy with vitamin E prevented liver disease. PCBP1-deleted hepatocytes exhibited increased labile iron and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), were hypersensitive to iron and pro-oxidants, and accumulated oxidatively damaged lipids because of the reactivity of unchaperoned iron. CONCLUSIONS: Unchaperoned iron in PCBP1-deleted mouse hepatocytes leads to production of ROS, resulting in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and steatosis in the absence of iron overload. The iron chaperone activity of PCBP1 is therefore critical for limiting the toxicity of cytosolic iron and may be a key factor in preventing the LPO that triggers the ferroptotic cell-death pathway.

13.
Exp Neurol ; 329: 113307, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289317

RESUMO

Mitochondria are essential for neuronal function because they serve not only to sustain energy and redox homeostasis but also are harbingers of death. A dysregulated mitochondrial network can cascade until function is irreparably lost, dooming cells. TBI is most prevalent in the young and comes at significant personal and societal costs. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a biphasic and mechanistically heterogenous response and this mechanistic heterogeneity has made the development of standardized treatments challenging. The secondary phase of TBI injury evolves over hours and days after the initial insult, providing a window of opportunity for intervention. However, no FDA approved treatment for neuroprotection after TBI currently exists. With recent advances in detection techniques, there has been increasing recognition of the significance and roles of mitochondrial redox lipid signaling in both acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Oxidized lipids and their downstream products result from and contribute to TBI pathogenesis. Therapies targeting the mitochondrial lipid composition and redox state show promise in experimental TBI and warrant further exploration. In this review, we provide 1) an overview for mitochondrial redox homeostasis with emphasis on glutathione metabolism, 2) the key mechanisms of TBI mitochondrial injury, 3) the pathways of mitochondria specific phospholipid cardiolipin oxidation, and 4) review the mechanisms of mitochondria quality control in TBI with consideration of the roles lipids play in this process.

14.
Cell Chem Biol ; 27(4): 387-408, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275865

RESUMO

Redox balance is essential for normal brain, hence dis-coordinated oxidative reactions leading to neuronal death, including programs of regulated death, are commonly viewed as an inevitable pathogenic penalty for acute neuro-injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Ferroptosis is one of these programs triggered by dyshomeostasis of three metabolic pillars: iron, thiols, and polyunsaturated phospholipids. This review focuses on: (1) lipid peroxidation (LPO) as the major instrument of cell demise, (2) iron as its catalytic mechanism, and (3) thiols as regulators of pro-ferroptotic signals, hydroperoxy lipids. Given the central role of LPO, we discuss the engagement of selective and specific enzymatic pathways versus random free radical chemical reactions in the context of the phospholipid substrates, their biosynthesis, intracellular location, and related oxygenating machinery as participants in ferroptotic cascades. These concepts are discussed in the light of emerging neuro-therapeutic approaches controlling intracellular production of pro-ferroptotic phospholipid signals and their non-cell-autonomous spreading, leading to ferroptosis-associated necroinflammation.

15.
Sci Adv ; 6(12): eaay4361, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219161

RESUMO

Biomaterials composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) provide both mechanical support and a reservoir of constructive signaling molecules that promote functional tissue repair. Recently, matrix-bound nanovesicles (MBVs) have been reported as an integral component of ECM bioscaffolds. Although liquid-phase extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the subject of intense investigation, their similarity to MBV is limited to size and shape. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based lipidomics and redox lipidomics were used to conduct a detailed comparison of liquid-phase EV and MBV phospholipids. Combined with comprehensive RNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of the intravesicular cargo, we show that MBVs are a distinct and unique subpopulation of EV and a distinguishing feature of ECM-based biomaterials. The results begin to identify the differential biologic activities mediated by EV that are secreted by tissue-resident cells and deposited within the ECM.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Lipidômica , Nanopartículas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células 3T3 , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Cromatografia Líquida , Matriz Extracelular , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipidômica/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Camundongos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares
16.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(3): 278-290, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080625

RESUMO

Ferroptotic death is the penalty for losing control over three processes-iron metabolism, lipid peroxidation and thiol regulation-that are common in the pro-inflammatory environment where professional phagocytes fulfill their functions and yet survive. We hypothesized that redox reprogramming of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) during the generation of pro-ferroptotic signal 15-hydroperoxy-eicosa-tetra-enoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (15-HpETE-PE) modulates ferroptotic endurance. Here, we have discovered that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO•-enrichment of activated M1 (but not alternatively activated M2) macrophages/microglia modulates susceptibility to ferroptosis. Genetic or pharmacologic depletion/inactivation of iNOS confers sensitivity on M1 cells, whereas NO• donors empower resistance of M2 cells to ferroptosis. In vivo, M1 phagocytes, in comparison to M2 phagocytes, exert higher resistance to pharmacologically induced ferroptosis. This resistance is diminished in iNOS-deficient cells in the pro-inflammatory conditions of brain trauma or the tumour microenvironment. The nitroxygenation of eicosatetraenoyl (ETE)-PE intermediates and oxidatively truncated species by NO• donors and/or suppression of NO• production by iNOS inhibitors represent a novel redox mechanism of regulation of ferroptosis in pro-inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Animais , Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase/fisiologia , Morte Celular , Feminino , Ferro/metabolismo , Ferro/fisiologia , Leucotrienos/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Peróxidos Lipídicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/fisiologia , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
J Neurotrauma ; 37(22): 2353-2371, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520681

RESUMO

New neuroprotective therapies for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not translated from pre-clinical to clinical success. Numerous explanations have been suggested in both the pre-clinical and clinical arenas. Coverage of TBI in the lay press has reinvigorated interest, creating a golden age of TBI research with innovative strategies to circumvent roadblocks. We discuss the need for more robust therapies. We present concepts for traditional and novel approaches to defining therapeutic targets. We review lessons learned from the ongoing work of the pre-clinical drug and biomarker screening consortium Operation Brain Trauma Therapy and suggest ways to further enhance pre-clinical consortia. Biomarkers have emerged that empower choice and assessment of target engagement by candidate therapies. Drug combinations may be needed, and it may require moving beyond conventional drug therapies. Precision medicine may also link the right therapy to the right patient, including new approaches to TBI classification beyond the Glasgow Coma Scale or anatomical phenotyping-incorporating new genetic and physiologic approaches. Therapeutic breakthroughs may also come from alternative approaches in clinical investigation (comparative effectiveness, adaptive trial design, use of the electronic medical record, and big data). The full continuum of care must also be represented in translational studies, given the important clinical role of pre-hospital events, extracerebral insults in the intensive care unit, and rehabilitation. TBI research from concussion to coma can cross-pollinate and further advancement of new therapies. Misconceptions can stifle/misdirect TBI research and deserve special attention. Finally, we synthesize an approach to deliver therapeutic breakthroughs in this golden age of TBI research.

18.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(1): 33-41, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the production of 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid during cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery, evaluate their relationship with increase in cell-free plasma hemoglobin, provide evidence of bioactivity through markers of inflammation and vasoactivity (WBC count, milrinone use, vasoactive-inotropic score), and examine their association with overall clinical burden (ICU/hospital length of stay and mechanical ventilation duration). DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Twelve-bed cardiac ICU in a university-affiliated children's hospital. PATIENTS: Children were prospectively enrolled during their preoperative clinic appointments with the following criteria: greater than 1 month to less than 18 years old, procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Plasma was collected at the start and end of cardiopulmonary bypass in 34 patients. 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, plasma hemoglobin, and WBC increased. 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with vasoactive-inotropic score at 2-24 hours postcardiopulmonary bypass (R = 0.25; p < 0.01), milrinone use (R = 0.17; p < 0.05), and WBC (R = 0.12; p < 0.05). 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with vasoactive-inotropic score at 2-24 hours (R = 0.17; p < 0.05), 24-48 hours postcardiopulmonary bypass (R = 0.12; p < 0.05), and milrinone use (R = 0.19; p < 0.05). 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid at the start and end of cardiopulmonary bypass were associated with the changes in plasma hemoglobin (R = 0.21 and R = 0.23; p < 0.01). The changes in plasma hemoglobin was associated with milrinone use (R = 0.36; p < 0.001) and vasoactive-inotropic score less than 2 hours (R = 0.22; p < 0.01), 2-24 hours (R = 0.24; p < 0.01), and 24-48 hours (R = 0.48; p < 0.001) postcardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiopulmonary bypass duration, 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid at start of cardiopulmonary bypass, and plasma hemoglobin may be risk factors for high vasoactive-inotropic score. Cardiopulmonary bypass duration, changes in plasma hemoglobin, 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, and vasoactive-inotropic score correlate with ICU and hospital length of stay and/mechanical ventilation days. CONCLUSIONS: In low-risk pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid was associated with changes in plasma hemoglobin, vasoactive-inotropic score, and WBC count, and may be a risk factor for high vasoactive-inotropic score, indicating possible inflammatory and vasoactive effects. Further studies are warranted to delineate the role of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids and plasma hemoglobin in cardiopulmonary bypass-related dysfunction and to explore hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid production as a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Ácidos Linoleicos/sangue , Oxilipinas/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Contagem de Leucócitos , Ácidos Linoleicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Milrinona/uso terapêutico , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
19.
FASEB J ; 33(12): 13503-13514, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570002

RESUMO

Cytochrome c (Cytc) is a multifunctional protein that operates as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and plays a key role in apoptosis. We have previously shown that tissue-specific phosphorylations of Cytc in the heart, liver, and kidney play an important role in the regulation of cellular respiration and cell death. Here, we report that Cytc purified from mammalian brain is phosphorylated on S47 and that this phosphorylation is lost during ischemia. We have characterized the functional effects in vitro using phosphorylated Cytc purified from pig brain tissue and a recombinant phosphomimetic mutant (S47E). We crystallized S47E phosphomimetic Cytc at 1.55 Å and suggest that it spatially matches S47-phosphorylated Cytc, making it a good model system. Both S47-phosphorylated and phosphomimetic Cytc showed a lower oxygen consumption rate in reaction with isolated Cytc oxidase, which we propose maintains intermediate mitochondrial membrane potentials under physiologic conditions, thus minimizing production of reactive oxygen species. S47-phosphorylated and phosphomimetic Cytc showed lower caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, phosphomimetic Cytc had decreased cardiolipin peroxidase activity and is more stable in the presence of H2O2. Our data suggest that S47 phosphorylation of Cytc is tissue protective and promotes cell survival in the brain.-Kalpage, H. A., Vaishnav, A., Liu, J., Varughese, A., Wan, J., Turner, A. A., Ji, Q., Zurek, M. P., Kapralov, A. A., Kagan, V. E., Brunzelle, J. S., Recanati, M.-A., Grossman, L. I., Sanderson, T. H., Lee, I., Salomon, A. R., Edwards, B. F. P, Hüttemann, M. Serine-47 phosphorylation of cytochrome c in the mammalian brain regulates cytochrome c oxidase and caspase-3 activity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Caspase 3/genética , Respiração Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Citocromos c/química , Citocromos c/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Oxirredução , Fosforilação , Conformação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Serina/química , Serina/genética , Suínos
20.
J Leukoc Biol ; 106(1): 57-81, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071242

RESUMO

In addition to the known prominent role of polyunsaturated (phospho)lipids as structural blocks of biomembranes, there is an emerging understanding of another important function of these molecules as a highly diversified signaling language utilized for intra- and extracellular communications. Technological developments in high-resolution mass spectrometry facilitated the development of a new branch of metabolomics, redox lipidomics. Analysis of lipid peroxidation reactions has already identified specific enzymatic mechanisms responsible for the biosynthesis of several unique signals in response to inflammation and regulated cell death programs. Obtaining comprehensive information about millions of signals encoded by oxidized phospholipids, represented by thousands of interactive reactions and pleiotropic (patho)physiological effects, is a daunting task. However, there is still reasonable hope that significant discoveries, of at least some of the important contributors to the overall overwhelmingly complex network of interactions triggered by inflammation, will lead to the discovery of new small molecule regulators and therapeutic modalities. For example, suppression of the production of AA-derived pro-inflammatory mediators, HXA3 and LTB4, by an iPLA2 γ inhibitor, R-BEL, mitigated injury associated with the activation of pro-inflammatory processes in animals exposed to whole-body irradiation. Further, technological developments promise to make redox lipidomics a powerful approach in the arsenal of diagnostic and therapeutic instruments for personalized medicine of inflammatory diseases and conditions.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oxirredução , Irradiação Corporal Total
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