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1.
Colorectal Dis ; 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505622

RESUMO

AIM: The surgical treatment of inguinal lymph node (ILN) metastases secondary to anorectal adenocarcinoma remains controversial. This study aimed to clarify the surgical treatment and management of ILN metastasis according to its classification. METHODS: This retrospective, multi-centre, observational study included patients with synchronous or metachronous ILN metastases who were diagnosed with rectal or anal canal adenocarcinoma between January 1997 and December 2011. Treatment outcomes were analysed according to recurrence and prognosis. RESULTS: Among 1,181 consecutively enrolled patients who received treatment for rectal or anal canal adenocarcinoma at 20 referral hospitals, 76 (6.4%) and 65 (5.5%) had synchronous and metachronous ILN metastases, respectively. Among 141 patients with ILN metastasis, differentiated carcinoma, solitary ILN metastasis, and ILN dissection were identified as independent predictive factors associated with a favourable prognosis. No significant difference was found in the frequency of recurrence after ILN dissection between patients with synchronous (80.6%) or metachronous (81.0%) ILN metastases. Patients who underwent R0 resection of the primary tumour and ILN dissection had a 5-year survival rate of 41.3% after ILN dissection (34.1% and 53.1% for patients with synchronous and metachronous ILN metastases, respectively, p = 0.55). CONCLUSION: The ILN can be appropriately classified as a regional lymph node (LN) in rectal and anal canal adenocarcinoma. Moreover, aggressive ILN dissection might be effective in improving the prognosis of low rectal and anal canal adenocarcinoma with ILN metastases; thus, prophylactic ILN dissection is unnecessary.

2.
J Gastroenterol ; 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, rectal cancer (RC) is classified according to tumor location. However, RC's genetic characteristics according to tumor location remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to compare RC's genetic characteristics according to tumor location. METHODS: In 611 patients with surgically resected RC, we performed genetic analyses and compared the results between low and other RCs. Low RC was defined according to the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines and Japanese Classification of Colorectal, Appendiceal, and Anal Carcinoma (JCCRC). RESULTS: KRAS mutation accumulation was significantly higher in low RC under the ESMO classification. Gene expression levels significantly differed between the groups for CTNNB1, KRAS, and ERBB2, under the ESMO classification and for TP53, KRAS, and ERBB2 under the JCCRC. Under the JCCRC, low RC had a significantly higher prevalence of fusion genes, such as EIF3E-RSPO2, PTPRK-RSPO3, and VTI1A-TCF7L2. Consensus molecular subtype (CMS) distribution was significantly different between the groups under both classifications. In particular, low RC had lower and higher frequencies of CMS2 and CMS4, respectively. CMS2 and CMS4 frequencies in low RC were 14.8% and 41.5% under the ESMO classification and 14.5% and 41.6% under the JCCRC, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that pT3-4, pN1-2, and CMS4 were associated with poor relapse-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Low RC exhibited distinct genetic characteristics from other RCs. In particular, CMS4 was more frequent in low RC and was a risk factor for poor prognosis. These findings potentially avail further information regarding tumor biology and could lead to improvements in RC treatment.

3.
Cancer Diagn Progn ; 2(1): 31-37, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400003

RESUMO

Aim: To clarify the impact of metastatic lymph node size on long-term outcomes in patients undergoing curative colectomy for pathological stage III colon cancer. Patients and Methods: This study enrolled patients who underwent curative colectomy for pStage III colon cancer between January 2013 and December 2015. All patients were divided into four groups based on the short-axis diameter of the largest MLN: Group A, <5 mm; Group B, ≥5 mm and <10 mm; Group C, ≥10 mm and <15 mm; Group D, ≥15 mm. Results: A total of 209 patients were analyzed. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rates of Groups A, B, C, and D were 82.3%, 74.6%, 74.5% and 60.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, Group D (hazard ratio=3.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-11.65; p=0.01) was independently associated with worse RFS. Conclusion: Bulky MLNs might be a poor prognostic factor in node-positive colon cancer.

4.
Ann Gastroenterol Surg ; 6(1): 92-100, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106419

RESUMO

AIM: Accurate preoperative diagnosis of lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM) from lower rectal cancer is important to identify patients who require lateral lymph node dissection (LLND). We aimed to create an effective prediction model for LLNM using machine learning by combining preoperative information. METHODS: We retrospectively examined patients who underwent primary rectal cancer surgery with unilateral or bilateral LLND between April 2010 and March 2020 at a single institution. Using the machine learning software "Prediction One" (Sony Network Communications), we developed a prediction model in the training cohort that included 267 consecutive patients (500 sides) from April 2010. Clinicopathological data obtained from the preoperative examinations were used as the learning items. In the validation cohort that included subsequent patients until March 2020, we compared the discriminating powers of the prediction model and the conventional method using the short-axis diameter of the largest lateral lymph node, as detected on magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the prediction model was 0.903 in the validation cohort comprising 56 patients (107 sides). This indicated significantly higher predictive power than that of the conventional method (AUC = 0.754; P = .022). Using the cutoff values defined in the training cohort, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the prediction model were 80.4%, 90.0%, and 79.4%, respectively. The model was able to correctly predict four of five sides comprising LLNM with the short-axis diameters ≤4 mm. CONCLUSION: Machine learning contributed to the creation of an effective prediction model for LLNM.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 73, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a key marker for predicting the response of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and for screening Lynch syndrome (LS). AIM: This study aimed to see the characteristics of cancers with high level of MSI (MSI-H) in genetic medicine and precision medicine. METHODS: This study analyzed the incidence of MSI-H in 1000 cancers and compared according to several clinical and demographic factors. RESULTS: The incidence of MSI-H was highest in endometrial cancers (26.7%, 20/75), followed by small intestine (20%, 3/15) and colorectal cancers (CRCs)(13.7%, 64/466); the sum of these three cancers (15.6%) was significantly higher than that of other types (2.5%)(P < 0.0001). MSI-H was associated with LS-related cancers (P < 0.0001), younger age (P = 0.009), and family history, but not with smoking, drinking, or serum hepatitis virus markers. In CRC cases, MSI-H was significantly associated with a family history of LS-related cancer (P < 0.0001), Amsterdam II criteria [odds ratio (OR): 5.96], right side CRCs (OR: 4.89), and multiplicity (OR: 3.31). However, MSI-H was very rare in pancreatic (0.6%, 1/162) and biliary cancers (1.6%, 1/64) and was null in 25 familial pancreatic cancers. MSI-H was more recognized in cancers analyzed for genetic counseling (33.3%) than in those for ICI companion diagnostics (3.1%)(P < 0.0001). Even in CRCs, MSI-H was limited to 3.3% when analyzed for drug use. CONCLUSIONS: MSI-H was predominantly recognized in LS-related cancer cases with specific family histories and younger age. MSI-H was limited to a small proportion in precision medicine especially for non-LS-related cancer cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina de Precisão
6.
Surg Today ; 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997331

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rectal cancers pose a threat to the mesorectal fascia or invade neighboring structures or organs. Some tumors are potentially resectable but are likely to be positive at the resection margin for cancer involvement and are thus recognized as "borderline resectable (BR)" tumors. This study aimed to clarify the short- and long-term outcomes of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for BR low rectal cancer at a single Japanese center. METHODS: Data of 55 patients, who received nCRT followed by BR low rectal cancer surgery between April 2010 and December 2019, were evaluated for the short-term outcomes. The oncological outcomes of 42 patients who underwent surgery between April 2010 and December 2018 were evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-six (65.5%) patients had cT4 tumors, and 53 (96.4%) patients had a clinical-stage III or IV. Lateral lymph node dissection was performed in 42 (76.4%) patients. The incidence of severe post-operative complications (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ III) was 18.2%. Fifty-two (94.5%) patients had a pathological negative resection margin. The 3-year overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate, and cumulative incidence of local recurrence were 100%, 70.3%, and 5.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The short- and long-term outcomes of nCRT for BR low rectal cancer were acceptable. In particular, reasonable local control was achieved.

7.
Surg Today ; 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039939

RESUMO

PURPOSES: The relationship between the general condition and long-term prognosis in elderly patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing curative surgery remains unclear. This study investigated the risk factors for poor long-term outcomes in elderly patients with CRC. METHODS: Data of pStage I to III patients with CRC ≥ 80 years old who underwent curative surgery were collected from a multi-institutional database of the Japanese study group for postoperative follow-up of CRC. We retrospectively investigated the poor prognostic factors for the overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: A total of 473 patients with a median age of 83 years were investigated (315, 121, 34, and 3 with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status [ECOG-PS] 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that ECOG-PS ≥ 2 and positive lymph node metastasis were independently associated with a poor OS (both p < 0.01). Positive lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01) and tumor depth (T3 or T4) (p = 0.02) were independently associated with a poor RFS. In Stages I and II, but not Stage III patients, the OS was significantly worse in those with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 than in those with ECOG-PS ≤ 1. CONCLUSION: Preoperative ECOG-PS was a significant prognostic factor for elderly patients with CRC after curative surgery.

8.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 407(2): 759-768, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821994

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are no established treatment strategies for patients with hepatic and pulmonary metastases at the time of primary colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. This study assessed patients undergoing complete resection of primary CRC and hepatic and pulmonary metastases, to evaluate long-term outcomes and clarify clinicopathological factors associated with failure of complete resection. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled patients at Shizuoka Cancer Center between 2002 and 2018 who underwent colorectal resection with curative intent for primary CRC with hepatic and pulmonary metastases. The curative resection (CR) group comprised patients who underwent complete resection of the primary tumor and metastatic lesions, and the non-curative resection (Non-CR) group consisted of those in whom resection of the metastatic lesions was not performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine clinicopathological factors associated with non-curative resection. RESULTS: Of 26 total patients, the CR and Non-CR groups consisted of 14 (54%) and 12 patients (46%), respectively. In the CR group, the 3-year overall and relapse-free survival rates were 92.9% and 28.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that pathological stage T4 (odds ratio 8.58, 95% confidence interval 1.13-65.20, p = 0.04) was independently associated with non-curative resection. CONCLUSION: The percentage of patients undergoing complete resection of primary CRC and metastatic lesions was 56%, and the 3-year OS rate was 92.9%. Resection of primary CRC and metastatic lesions was considered to be appropriate in this population, and pathological stage T4 tumor was associated with incomplete resection of metastatic tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Surg Today ; 52(1): 120-128, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110488

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical evidence demonstrating risk factors for anastomotic leakage including robotic staplers has remained limited, even though the use of robotic surgery has increased substantially. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of robotic staplers on symptomatic anastomotic leakage in robotic low anterior resection for rectal cancer. METHODS: A total of 427 consecutive patients with primary rectal cancer who underwent robotic low anterior resection without diverting stoma were investigated retrospectively. Symptomatic anastomotic leakage was defined as anastomotic leakage of Clavien-Dindo Grade ≥ II. We compared the symptomatic anastomotic leakage rates between manual and robotic staplers using propensity score matching and investigated the risk factors for symptomatic anastomotic leakage. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, 168 pairs of manual and robotic stapler cases were selected. The symptomatic anastomotic leakage rate was significantly higher for manual staplers (6.5%) than for robotic staplers (1.2%, p = 0.02). In a multivariate analysis, the use of a manual stapler (p = 0.04, OR 4.86, 95% CI 1.08-21.8) and anastomosis < 4 cm from the anal verge (p < 0.01, OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.48-12.9) were identified as independent risk factors for symptomatic anastomotic leakage. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic stapler use was associated with a significantly decreased rate of anastomotic leakage in robotic low anterior resection without diverting stoma for rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Fístula Anastomótica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/secundário , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Grampeadores Cirúrgicos , Grampeamento Cirúrgico/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Surg Endosc ; 36(1): 91-99, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal surgical approach for clinical T4 (cT4) rectal cancer is unknown. This study was conducted to clarify short- and long-term outcomes of robotic surgery for cT4 rectal cancer. METHODS: In our retrospective cohort study, we enrolled patients who underwent robotic surgery for cT4 rectal cancer within 15 cm from the anal verge between 2011 and 2018. The short- and long-term outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Of a total of 122 eligible patients, 70 (57%) had cT4a tumors and 52 (43%) had cT4b tumors. Thirty-five patients (29%) had distant metastasis and 21 (17%) underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Thirty-four patients (28%) underwent combined resection of adjacent organs and 43 (35%) underwent lateral lymph node dissection. The median operative time was 288 min and the median blood loss was 11 ml. No patients required conversion to open surgery. The incidences of postoperative complications of grades II, III, and IV or more according to the Clavien-Dindo classification were 17.2%, 3.5%, and 0%, respectively. Seventy-three patients (60%) had pathological T4 tumors, and the incidence of positive resection margins was 4.9%. The median follow-up time was 42.9 months. The 3-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and cumulative local recurrence rates were 87.5%, 70.4%, and 4.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The short- and long-term outcomes of robotic surgery for cT4 rectal cancer were favorable. Robotic surgery is considered to be a useful approach for cT4 rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Surg Today ; 52(4): 643-651, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417866

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although robotic surgery for rectal cancer can overcome the shortcomings of laparoscopic surgery, studies focusing on abdominoperineal resection are limited. The aim of this study was to compare the operative outcomes between robotic and laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted from April 2010 to March 2020. Patients with rectal cancer who underwent robotic or laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection without lateral lymph node dissection were enrolled. The perioperative and oncological outcomes were compared. RESULTS: We evaluated 33 and 20 patients in the robotic and laparoscopic groups, respectively. The median operative time and blood loss were comparable between the two groups. No significant differences in the overall complication rates were noted, whereas the rates of urinary dysfunction (3% vs. 26%, p = 0.02) and perineal wound infection (9% vs. 35%, p = 0.03) in the robotic group were significantly lower in comparison to the laparoscopic group. The median postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the robotic group (8 days vs. 11 days, p < 0.01). The positive resection margin rates were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Robotic abdominoperineal resection demonstrated better short-term outcomes than laparoscopic surgery, suggesting that it could be a useful approach.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Protectomia , Neoplasias Retais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Surg Innov ; : 15533506211030436, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228945

RESUMO

Background. The optimal radical surgical approach for rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is unknown. Methods. This study evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of 27 patients who underwent robotic radical surgery for rectal NET between 2011 and 2019. Results. The median distance from the lower border of the tumor to the anal verge was 5.0 cm. The median tumor size was 9.5 mm. Six patients (22%) had lymph node metastasis. The incidences of postoperative complications of grade II and grade III or more according to the Clavien-Dindo classification were 11% and 0%, respectively. All patients underwent sphincter-preserving surgery, and no patients required conversion to open surgery. The median follow-up time was 48.9 months, and both the 3-year overall survival and relapse-free survival rates were 100%. Conclusions. Short- and long-term outcomes of robotic surgery for rectal NET tumor were favorable. Robotic surgery may be a useful surgical approach for rectal NET.

13.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(9): 3469-3482, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982211

RESUMO

Despite the frequent detection of KRAS driver mutations in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), no effective treatments that target mutant KRAS proteins have been introduced into clinical practice. In this study, we identified potential effector molecules, based on differences in gene expression between CRC patients carrying wild-type KRAS (n = 390) and those carrying KRAS mutations in codon 12 (n = 240). CRC patients with wild-type KRAS harboring mutations in HRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, PIK3CD, PIK3CG, RALGDS, BRAF, or ARAF were excluded from the analysis. At least 11 promising candidate molecules showed greater than two-fold change between the KRAS G12 mutant and wild-type and had a Benjamini-Hochberg-adjusted P value of less than 1E-08, evidence of significantly differential expression between these two groups. Among these 11 genes examined in cell lines transfected with KRAS G12 mutants, BMP4, PHLDA1, and GJB5 showed significantly higher expression level in KRAS G12A, G12D, and G12V transfected cells than in the wild-type transfected cells. We expect that this study will lead to the development of novel treatments that target signaling molecules functioning with KRAS G12-driven CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
14.
Asian J Endosc Surg ; 14(4): 803-806, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797194

RESUMO

We present a very rare case of rectal cancer in a patient with situs inversus totalis (SIT), which is a complete transposition of the thoracic and abdominal viscera. A woman in her 60s visited a local hospital reporting bloody stool and was diagnosed with upper rectal cancer and SIT. We made careful preoperative preparations for the congenital anomaly, and robotic-assisted high anterior resection with D3 lymph node dissection was performed. Although we adopted an unusual six-port placement, the operation was performed safely and efficiently without any adverse events. The patient recovered uneventfully. The pathological specimen was classified as pT3N2bM0 with negative resection margins. Robotic-assisted surgery is advantageous for rectal cancer treatment even when anatomical abnormalities make the surgical procedure more difficult.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Situs Inversus , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Neoplasias Retais/complicações , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Situs Inversus/complicações , Situs Inversus/cirurgia
15.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(12): 4448-4456, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386521

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Endoscopic tattooing failure by deep mural injection or tattoo leakage-induced massive staining causes localization errors or decreased laparoscopic visualization. To overcome these, we developed a novel tattoo needle with comparatively shorter needle (length, 2.5 mm) and minimal-caliber catheter (volume, 0.3 mL). AIMS: The single-center, prospective observational study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of a small-doze endoscopic tattooing prior to laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer, using the needle. METHODS: Patients with colorectal cancer indicated for laparoscopic surgery were recruited. With the novel needle, a single tattoo was created at the anterior wall close to the lesion. During laparoscopic surgery, surgeons assessed the tattoo visibility, tattoo leakage, and the disturbance of laparoscopic view by tattoo leakage. The primary endpoint was an accurate localization by visible tattoo. Secondary endpoints were adverse events related to tattooing, the need for intraoperative endoscopy, and tattoo leakage. RESULTS: A total of 383 tattoos in 358 patients were analyzed. Accurate tumor localization rate was 96.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94.3-98.0%). No adverse events occurred. Intraoperative colonoscopy was performed in 7 (1.8%) patients with invisible tattoo. Tattoo leakage was found in 4.2% (95%CI: 2.6-6.7%), and leakage disturbed the laparoscopic view of the surgical plane in 0.7% (95%CI: 0.3-2.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Prior to laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer, our endoscopic tattooing with a standardized protocol using a novel needle is considered a simple, highly reliable localization technique with an extremely safe profile, which would be valuable to reduce physician's efforts and redundant medical resources. Trial registration number UMIN000021012. Date of registration: June 2016.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/instrumentação , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Agulhas , Tatuagem/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reto/cirurgia , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos , Tatuagem/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Surg Endosc ; 35(6): 2797-2804, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent descending mesocolon (PDM) is typically asymptomatic. However, features such as adhesion and variations in vessel anatomy could affect the surgical techniques for colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the frequency and radiological features of PDM. Short-term outcomes after conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS) for CRC with PDM were also investigated to assess the feasibility of CLS and identify strategies for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in CRC with PDM. METHODS: Patients who underwent MIS, including CLS and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS), for left-sided CRC between April 2016 and June 2019, were investigated. PDM was defined as the existence of the right border of the descending colon inside the right border of the left kidney based on preoperative computed tomography findings. RESULTS: Radiological findings of 837 patients were examined, and PDM was found in 19 (2.3%) patients. Radiality of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) was found in 5 of 19 (26.3%) PDM cases, which was significantly higher than that in non-PDM cases. The median lengths between the IMA and inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) and between the IMV and descending colon in PDM cases were 14.8 mm and 17.2 mm, respectively, which were significantly shorter than those in non-PDM cases. Short-term outcomes were evaluated only in CLS cases since the rate of hybrid surgery among RALS cases differed between non-PDM and PDM cases (0% vs. 44.4%), which would affect the surgical outcomes. The short-term outcomes in 447 CLS cases were similar between PDM and non-PDM cases. The frequency of extracorporeal division of the left colic artery (LCA) and IMV was significantly higher in PDM than in non-PDM cases (70.0% vs. 5.7%). CONCLUSIONS: This radiological definition of PDM was feasible. CLS for left-sided CRC with PDM was feasible, and dividing the LCA and IMV extracorporeally would be vital for safe surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Laparoscopia , Mesocolo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Humanos , Artéria Mesentérica Inferior , Veias Mesentéricas , Mesocolo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mesocolo/cirurgia
17.
Surg Endosc ; 35(3): 1317-1323, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary dysfunction (UD) remains a significant complication of rectal cancer surgery. In modern surgical treatment for rectal cancer, multiple operative approaches are used. Such approaches include open, laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted surgery; and multiple procedures, including anterior, intersphincteric, and abdominoperineal resection. Thus, modern surgical treatments for rectal cancer have diversified. This study aimed to identify risk factors for early UD (EUD) after total mesorectal excision (TME) and to explore the methods for decreasing postoperative EUD in diverse surgical treatments for rectal cancer. METHODS: In our retrospective cohort study, we enrolled patients with lower rectal cancer who underwent TME alone at a single high-volume cancer center between 2010 and 2017. EUD was defined as the presence of ≥ 50 mL residual urine volume. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine clinicopathological factors significantly associated with postoperative EUD. RESULTS: Of a total of 337 eligible patients, 32 patients (10%) had postoperative EUD. Multivariate analysis revealed that only the operative approach (laparoscopic surgery: odds ratio [OR], 8.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.94-27.14, open surgery: OR, 11.55; 95% CI 2.10-63.83) was significantly associated with an increase in postoperative EUD. Robotic-assisted surgery was associated with significant reduction in postoperative EUD. CONCLUSION: Only robotic-assisted surgery was inversely correlated with postoperative EUD. Robotic-assisted surgery may be a useful approach to protect urinary function in lower rectal cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
JGH Open ; 4(5): 1014-1016, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102780

RESUMO

An 85-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital with abdominal pain. Five years prior to admission, she had a history of hilar cholangiocarcinoma of pStage IIIC. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a mass between the rectum and uterus as well as bowel obstruction due to the lesion. Colonoscopy showed severe stenosis at the lower rectum and elevation of the submucosal layer with linear erosion. Rectal cancer was suspected, and pelvic recurrence of hilar cholangiocarcinoma or endometrial carcinoma infiltrating the rectum was considered as differential diagnosis. She underwent robot-assisted low anterior resection combined with partial resection of the uterus. The immunohistopathological findings of the resected specimen favored a diagnosis of metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma, rather than primary rectal cancer or endometrial carcinoma. There were no signs of recurrence after 10 months of follow-up. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis. Recurrence is frequently experienced even after curative resection. Patients with recurrence are rarely candidates for re-resection. However, better prognosis is reported for those with complete resection.

19.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 55(8): 988-994, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: If patients with surgically resectable colorectal cancershave synchronous colorectal neoplasms that are difficult to remove by endoscopic mucosal resection, preemptive endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) can avoid excessive colorectal resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the strategy of preemptive ESD and surgery for synchronous colorectal neoplasms. METHODS: Patients who underwent preemptive ESD and surgery for synchronous colorectal neoplasms between September 2002 and December 2017 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The proportion of cases in which extended surgery could be avoided following curative ESD was calculated. Clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated for all patients and long-term outcomes were analyzed for patients who underwent curative ESD and surgery. RESULTS: A total of 45 consecutive patients with 47 endoscopically-resected lesions and 46 surgically-resected lesions were retrospectively evaluated. Curative ESD was achieved in 44 lesions (93.6%) and an extended surgical procedure could be avoided in 42 patients (93.3%). Intraoperative perforation occurred in two lesions (4.3%), delayed perforation in one lesion (2.1%), and delayed bleeding in two lesions (4.3%). Final stages were as follows: stage 0, 3 patients (7.1%); stage I, 23 patients (54.8%); stage II, 3 patients (7.1%); stage III, 12 patients (28.6%); and stage IV, 1 patient (2.4%). The 5-year overall survival rates of patients with all pathological stages, stage 0-II, and stage III-IV were 93.7%, 100%, and 79.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The strategy of preemptive ESD and surgery for synchronous colorectal neoplasms is minimally invasive and has a favorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Radiat Res ; 61(5): 766-775, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672335

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of chemo-radiation on the genetic and immunological status of rectal cancer patients who were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The expression of immune response-associated genes was compared between rectal cancer patients treated (n = 9) and not-treated (n = 10) with preoperative CRT using volcano plot analysis. Apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker genes were analysed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Other markers associated with the tumor microenvironment (TME), such as tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and immune checkpoint molecules, were investigated using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The clinical responses of preoperative CRT for 9 rectal cancer patients were all rated as stable disease, while the pathological tumor regression score (TRG) revealed 6 cases of grade2 and 3 cases of grade1. According to the genetic signature of colon cancers, treated tumors belonged to consensus molecular subtype (CMS)4, while not-treated tumors had signatures of CMS2 or 3. CRT-treated tumors showed significant upregulation of EMT-associated genes, such as CDH2, TGF-beta and FGF, and cancer stem cell-associated genes. Additionally, qPCR and IHC demonstrated a suppressive immunological status derived from the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-beta) and immune checkpoint genes (B7-H3 and B7-H5) and from M2-type macrophage accumulation in the tumor. The induction of EMT and immune-suppressive status in the tumor after strong CRT treatment urges the development of a novel combined therapy that restores immune-suppression and inhibits EMT, ultimately leading to distant metastasis control.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Neoplasias Retais/imunologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Idoso , Apoptose/genética , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
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