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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(2)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547174

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With a view to inform policy for improved postabortion care, we describe abortion-related near-miss and mortality by sociodemographic risk factors and management options by pregnancy trimester in Uganda. METHODS: This secondary data analysis used an adapted WHO near-miss methodology to collect cross-sectional maternal near-miss and abortion complications data at 43 health facilities in Central and Eastern Uganda in 2016-2017. We computed abortion severe morbidity, near-miss and mortality ratios per 100 000 live births, and described the proportion of cases that worsened to an abortion near-miss or death, stratified by geographical region and trimester. We tested for association between independent variables and abortion near-miss, and obtained prevalence ratios for association between second trimester near-miss and independent demographic and management indicators. We assessed health facility readiness for postabortion care provision in Central and Eastern regions. RESULTS: Of 3315 recorded severe abortion morbidity cases, 1507 were near-misses. Severe abortion morbidity, near-miss and mortality ratios were 2063, 938 and 23 per 100 000 live births, respectively. Abortion-related mortality ratios were 11 and 57 per 100 000 in Central and Eastern regions, respectively. Abortion near-miss cases were significantly associated with referral (p<0.001). Second trimester had greater abortion mortality than first trimester. Eastern region had greater abortion-related morbidity and mortality than Central region with facilities in the former characterised by inferior readiness to provide postabortion care. CONCLUSIONS: Uganda has a major abortion near-miss morbidity and mortality; with mortality higher in the second trimester. Life-saving commodities are lacking especially in Eastern region compromising facility readiness for postabortion care provision.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth training on postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) near miss and case fatality rates in Uganda. METHODS: Training was evaluated using a cluster-randomized design between June 2016 and September 2017 in 18 typical rural districts (clusters) in Eastern and Central Uganda of which nine districts were randomly assigned to the intervention. The main outcome was PPH near miss defined using the World Health Organization's disease and management-based approach. Interrupted time series analysis was performed to estimate the difference in the change of outcomes. RESULTS: Outcomes of 58 000 and 95 455 deliveries during the 6-month baseline and 10-month endline periods, respectively, were included. A reduction of PPH near misses was observed in the intervention compared to the comparison districts (difference-in-difference of slopes 4.19, 95% CI, -7.64 to -0.74); P<0.05). There was an increase in overall reported near miss cases (difference-in-difference 1.24, 95% CI, 0.37-2.10; P<0.001) and an increase in PPH case fatality rate (difference-in-difference 2.13, 95% CI, 0.14-4.12; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: This pragmatic cluster-randomized trial conducted in typical rural districts of Uganda indicated a reduction of severe PPH cases while case fatality did not improve, suggesting that this basic training needs to be complemented by additional measures for sustained mortality reduction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR201604001582128.

3.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 74, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uganda has high adolescent pregnancy. The details of adolescent childbirth and urban/rural patterns are scarce. We investigated the levels, time trends and determinants of adolescent childbirth in Uganda separately for urban and rural women. METHODS: We estimated the percentage of women 20-24 years at each of the six Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys (1988/89, 1995, 2000/01, 2006, 2011 and 2016) who reported a live childbirth before age 20 years ("adolescent childbirth"), and examined change over time using t-test. A modified multivariable Poisson regression was used to examine determinants of having adolescent childbirth on the 2016 survey. RESULTS: Among these women, 67.5, 66.4, 70.1, 62.3, 57.3 and 54.1% reported an adolescent childbirth in 1988/89, 1995, 2000/01, 2006, 2011 and 2016 surveys, respectively. Between 1988/89 to 2000/01, there was no evidence of change (+ 2.6% point (pp), p = 0.170), unlike between the 2000/01 and 2016 surveys when a significant decline occurred (- 16.0 pp., p < 0.001). First childbirth < 18 years of age declined by - 13.5 pp. (p < 0.001) between 2000/01 and 2016. There was no change over time in the percentage of adolescents 18-19.9 years of age having first childbirth. Among rural residents, childbirth < 18 years declined from 43.8% in 1988/89 to 32.7% in 2016 (- 11.1 pp., p < 0.001), in urban it declined from 28.3 to 18.2% (- 10.1 pp., p = 0.006). There was an increase over time in the percentage of women, both rural and urban, who wanted to delay their first pregnancy. Independent determinants of reporting an adolescent childbirth in both urban and rural residents were: no education/incomplete primary and younger age at first sex. Additional determinants for rural women were residence in Eastern region, Muslim religion, and poor household wealth index. CONCLUSION: In the 30-year period examined, adolescent childbirth in Uganda declined from highs of 7 in 10 to approximately 5 in 10 women, with more wanting to delay the pregnancy. The decline started after the 2000/01 survey and affected predominantly younger adolescent childbirth < 18 years among both rural and urban residence women. Efforts need to be intensified to sustain the decline in adolescent pregnancies. Targeted and specific strategies for urban and rural areas might be required.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on repeat adolescent birth remains scarce in sub-Sahara Africa. We investigated the prevalence and time trends in repeat adolescent birth in Uganda, and associated factors. METHODS: We analyzed Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data of women age 20-24 years collected on 6 surveys (1988/89-2016) to estimate repeat adolescent birth (first live birth <18 years of age followed by another live birth(s) <20 years). Further, we estimated the wantedness of the second order birth and the prevalence of short birth intervals birth (<13 months) between the first and second such birth. On the 2016 survey, we examined factors associated with repeat adolescent birth using bivariate and multivariate modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: At the 1988/89 survey, 58.9% of women with first birth <18 years reported a repeat adolescent birth. This percentage increased to 66.8% in 2006 (+7.9 percentage points [pp], p = 0.010) and thereafter declined to 55.6% by 2016 (-11.2 pp, p<0.001), nevertheless, no change occurred between 1988/89 and 2016 (-3.3pp, p = 0.251). Among women with repeat adolescent births, the mean number of live births by exact age 20 years (2.2 births) and prevalence of short birth intervals (3.5% in 1988/89, 5.4% in 2016) (+1.9pp, p = 0.245) did not change. Increasingly more women with repeat adolescent births preferred to have had the second child later, 22.5% in 1995 and 43.1% in 2016 (+20.6pp, p = <0.001). On the 2016 survey, women from poorer households and those of younger age at first birth were significantly more likely to report repeat adolescent birth. CONCLUSION: Following a first birth <18 years, more than half of the women report a repeat adolescent birth (<20 years), with no decline observed in 30 years. Increasingly more women wanted the second adolescent pregnancy later, highlighting the need to support adolescents with improved family planning services at each contact.


Assuntos
Paridade , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento/psicologia , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/tendências , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Idade Materna , Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(3): 389-396, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the consistency of maternal near-miss incidence and mortality index between two definitions across 104 facilities in Tanzania and Uganda. METHODS: Based on WHO guidance, cross-sectional near-miss data were collected in Tanzania (July 2015 to October 2016) and Uganda (June 2016 to September 2017). Prepartum hemorrhage and abortion were included as additional screening events and the number of blood units transfused was recorded. Near-miss incidence and mortality index were determined by using two near-miss definitions: the WHO standard definition, and a modified definition including women receiving at least 1 unit of blood. A sensitivity analysis excluded the additional screening events. RESULTS: Near-miss incidence differed between Tanzania and Uganda (1.79 and 4.00, respectively, per 100 deliveries) when estimated by the standard definition, but was similar (5.24 and 4.94, respectively) by the modified definition. The mortality index was higher in Tanzania than in Uganda when estimated by the standard definition (8.56% vs 3.54%), but was similar by the modified definition (3.10% vs 2.89%). CONCLUSION: The modified definition provided a more consistent estimate of near-miss incidence and mortality index. Lowering the threshold for units of blood transfusion might improve comparability between settings, but more research is needed.


Assuntos
Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mortalidade Materna , Pobreza , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 54, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the greatest challenges that countries face regarding the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for child health regard the actions required to improve neonatal health; these interventions have to be informed by evidence. In view of the persisting high numbers of newborn deaths in Uganda, we aimed to define a locally contextualised national research agenda for newborn health to guide national investments towards SDG targets. METHODS: We adopted a systematic approach for priority-setting adapted from the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. We identified and listed local newborn researchers and experts in Uganda by reviewing the PubMed database, through a snowballing technique, and engaged the Ministry of Health. Participants were requested to generate at least three research questions. The collated questions were sent to the same expert group to be rated using five criteria, including answerability, scalability, impact, generalisability and speed. FINDINGS: Of the 300 researchers and stakeholders contacted, 104 responded (36%) and generated 304 questions. These questions were collated and duplicates removed giving a condensed list of 41 research questions. These questions were then rated by 82 experts. Of the top 15 research questions, 86.7% (13/15) were in the service delivery and 6.7% (1/15) in the development domain, while only 6.7% (1/15) was in the group 'other'. None of the leading 15 questions was in the discovery domain. Strategies to improve quality of intrapartum care featured high in the responses, while research around care for premature babies was not a perceived focus of research. CONCLUSIONS: The focus of improved evidence to guide and innovate service delivery, foremost intrapartum care, reflects the importance of this area as accelerated improvement is likely to yield fast and sustained survival gains in the neonatal period and beyond in Uganda. We recommend that other countries adapt a similar approach in defining priority reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health areas for investment in order to accelerate progress towards achieving the SDGs.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Prioridades em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Saúde do Lactente , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Objetivos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Assistência Perinatal , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Uganda
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 132, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cesarean section (CS) is an important intervention in complicated births when the safety of the mother or baby is compromised. Despite worldwide concerns about the overutilization of CS in recent years, many African women and their newborns still die because of limited or no access to CS services. We evaluated temporal and spatial trends in CS births in Uganda and modeled future trends to inform programming. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of total births data from the Uganda National Health Management Information System (HMIS) reports during 2012-2016. We reviewed data from 3461 health facilities providing basic, essential obstetric and emergency obstetric care services in all 112 districts. We defined facility-based CS rate as the proportion of cesarean deliveries among total live births in facilities, and estimated the population-based CS rate using the total number of cesarean deliveries as a proportion of annual expected births (including facility-based and non-facility-based) for each district. We predicted CS rates for 2021 using Generalised Linear Models with Poisson family, Log link and Unbiased Sandwich Standard errors. We used cesarean deliveries as the dependent variable and calendar year as the independent variable. RESULTS: Cesarean delivery rates increased both at facility and population levels in Uganda. Overall, the CS rate for live births at facilities was 9.9%, increasing from 8.5% in 2012 to 11% in 2016. The overall population-based CS rate was 4.7%, and increased from 3.2 to 5.9% over the same period. Health Centre IV level facilities had the largest annual rate of increase in CS rate between 2012 and 2016. Among all 112 districts, 80 (72%) had a population CS rate below 5%, while 38 (34%) had a CS rate below 1% over the study period. Overall, Uganda's facility-based CS rate is projected to increase by 36% (PRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.35-1.36) in 2021 while the population-based CS rate is estimated to have doubled (PRR 2.12, 95% CI 2.11-2.12) from the baseline in 2016. CONCLUSION: Cesarean deliveries are increasing in Uganda. Health center IVs saw the largest increases in CS, and while there was regional heterogeneity in changes in CS rates, utilization of CS services is inadequate in most districts. We recommend expansion of CS services to improve availability.


Assuntos
Cesárea/tendências , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Sobremedicalização/tendências , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
9.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 7(Suppl 1): S27-S47, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal and perinatal mortality is a global development priority that continues to present major challenges in sub-Saharan Africa. Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL) was a multipartner initiative implemented from 2012 to 2017 with the goal of improving maternal and perinatal health in high-mortality settings. The initiative accomplished this by reducing delays to timely and appropriate obstetric care through the introduction and support of community and facility evidence-based and district-wide health systems strengthening interventions. METHODS: SMGL-designated pilot districts in Uganda and Zambia documented baseline and endline maternal and perinatal health outcomes using multiple approaches. These included health facility assessments, pregnancy outcome monitoring, enhanced maternal mortality detection in facilities, and district population-based identification and investigation of maternal deaths in communities. RESULTS: Over the course of the 5-year SMGL initiative, population-based estimates documented a 44% reduction in the SMGL-supported district-wide maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Uganda (from 452 to 255 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) and a 41% reduction in Zambia (from 480 to 284 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). The MMR in SMGL-supported health facilities declined by 44% in Uganda and by 38% in Zambia. The institutional delivery rate increased by 47% in Uganda (from 45.5% to 66.8% of district births) and by 44% in Zambia (from 62.6% to 90.2% of district births). The number of facilities providing emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) rose from 10 to 26 in Uganda and from 7 to 13 in Zambia, and lower- and mid-level facilities increased the number of EmONC signal functions performed. Cesarean delivery rates increased by more than 70% in both countries, reaching 9% and 5% of all births in Uganda and Zambia districts, respectively. Maternal deaths in facilities due to obstetric hemorrhage declined by 42% in Uganda and 65% in Zambia. Overall, perinatal mortality rates declined, largely due to reductions in stillbirths in both countries; however, no statistically significant changes were found in predischarge neonatal death rates in predischarge either country. CONCLUSIONS: MMRs fell significantly in Uganda and Zambia following the introduction of the SMGL interventions, and SMGL's comprehensive district systems-strengthening approach successfully improved coverage and quality of care for mothers and newborns. The lessons learned from the initiative can inform policy makers and program managers in other low- and middle-income settings where similar approaches could be used to rapidly reduce preventable maternal and newborn deaths.


Assuntos
Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
10.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 7(Suppl 1): S48-S67, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867209

RESUMO

Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL), a 5-year initiative implemented in selected districts in Uganda and Zambia, was designed to reduce deaths related to pregnancy and childbirth by targeting the 3 delays to receiving appropriate care at birth. While originally the "Three Delays" model was designed to focus on curative services that encompass emergency obstetric care, SMGL expanded its application to primary and secondary prevention of obstetric complications. Prevention of the "first delay" focused on addressing factors influencing the decision to seek delivery care at a health facility. Numerous factors can contribute to the first delay, including a lack of birth planning, unfamiliarity with pregnancy danger signs, poor perceptions of facility care, and financial or geographic barriers. SMGL addressed these barriers through community engagement on safe motherhood, public health outreach, community workers who identified pregnant women and encouraged facility delivery, and incentives to deliver in a health facility. SMGL used qualitative and quantitative methods to describe intervention strategies, intervention outcomes, and health impacts. Partner reports, health facility assessments (HFAs), facility and community surveillance, and population-based mortality studies were used to document activities and measure health outcomes in SMGL-supported districts. SMGL's approach led to unprecedented community outreach on safe motherhood issues in SMGL districts. About 3,800 community health care workers in Uganda and 1,558 in Zambia were engaged. HFAs indicated that facility deliveries rose significantly in SMGL districts. In Uganda, the proportion of births that took place in facilities rose from 45.5% to 66.8% (47% increase); similarly, in Zambia SMGL districts, facility deliveries increased from 62.6% to 90.2% (44% increase). In both countries, the proportion of women delivering in facilities equipped to provide emergency obstetric and newborn care also increased (from 28.2% to 41.0% in Uganda and from 26.0% to 29.1% in Zambia). The districts documented declines in the number of maternal deaths due to not accessing facility care during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period in both countries. This reduction played a significant role in the decline of the maternal mortality ratio in SMGL-supported districts in Uganda but not in Zambia. Further work is needed to sustain gains and to eliminate preventable maternal and perinatal deaths.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
11.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 7(Suppl 1): S85-S103, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL) is a 5-year initiative implemented in participating districts in Uganda and Zambia that aimed to reduce deaths related to pregnancy and childbirth by targeting the 3 delays to receiving appropriate care: seeking, reaching, and receiving. Approaches to addressing the third delay included adequate health facility infrastructure, specifically sufficient equipment and medications; trained providers to provide quality evidence-based care; support for referrals to higher-level care; and effective maternal and perinatal death surveillance and response. METHODS: SMGL used a mixed-methods approach to describe intervention strategies, outcomes, and health impacts. Programmatic and monitoring and evaluation data-health facility assessments, facility and community surveillance, and population-based mortality studies-were used to document the effectiveness of intervention components. RESULTS: During the SMGL initiative, the proportion of facilities providing emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) increased from 10% to 25% in Uganda and from 6% to 12% in Zambia. Correspondingly, the delivery rate occurring in EmONC facilities increased from 28.2% to 41.0% in Uganda and from 26.0% to 29.1% in Zambia. Nearly all facilities had at least one trained provider on staff by the endline evaluation. Staffing increases allowed a higher proportion of health centers to provide care 24 hours a day/7 days a week by endline-from 74.6% to 82.9% in Uganda and from 64.8% to 95.5% in Zambia. During this period, referral communication improved from 93.3% to 99.0% in Uganda and from 44.6% to 100% in Zambia, and data systems to identify and analyze causes of maternal and perinatal deaths were established and strengthened. CONCLUSION: SMGL's approach was associated with improvements in facility infrastructure, equipment, medication, access to skilled staff, and referral mechanisms and led to declines in facility maternal and perinatal mortality rates. Further work is needed to sustain these gains and to eliminate preventable maternal and perinatal deaths.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde/normas , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
12.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 7(Suppl 1): S188-S206, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL) significantly reduced maternal and perinatal mortality in Uganda and Zambia by using a district health systems strengthening approach to address the key delays women and newborns face in receiving quality, timely, and appropriate medical care. This article documents the transition of SMGL from pilot to scale in Uganda and Zambia and analyzes the sustainability of the approach, examining the likelihood of maintaining positive trends in maternal and newborn health in both countries. METHODS: We analyzed the potential sustainment of SMGL achievements using a tool adapted from the HIV-focused domains and elements of the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Sustainability Index and Dashboard for maternal and neonatal health pro-gramming adding a domain on community normative change. Information for each of the 5 resulting domains was drawn from SMGL and non-SMGL reports, individual stakeholder interviews, and group discussions. FINDINGS: In both Uganda and Zambia, the SMGL proof-of-concept phase catalyzed commitment to saving mothers and newborns and a renewed belief that significant change is possible. Increased leadership and accountability for maternal and newborn health, particularly at the district and facility levels, was bolstered by routine maternal death surveillance reviews that engaged a wide range of local leadership. The SMGL district-strengthening model was found to be cost-effective with cost of death averted estimated at US$177-206 per year of life gained. When further considering the ripple effect that saving a mother has on child survival and the household economy, the value of SMGL increases. Ministries of health and donor agencies have already demonstrated a willingness to pay this amount per year of life for other programs, such as HIV and AIDS. CONCLUSION: As SMGL scaled up in both Uganda and Zambia, the intentional integration of SMGL interventions into host country systems, alignment with other large-scale programs, and planned reductions in annual SMGL funding all contributed to increasing host government ownership of the interventions and set the SMGL approach on a path more likely to be sustained following the close of the initiative. Lessons from the learning districts resulted in increased efficiency in allocation of resources for maternal and newborn health, better use of strategic information, improved management capacities, and increased community engagement.


Assuntos
Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 144(1): 37-48, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the stillbirth risk associated with intrapartum adverse events, controlling for fetal and maternal factors. METHODS: The present study was an analysis of cross-sectional patient-record and facility-file data from women with viable fetuses who experienced obstetric adverse events at 23 hospitals and 38 health centers in Tanzania (between December 2015 and October 2016), and 22 hospitals, 16 level-4 health centers, and five level-3 health centers in Uganda (between May 2016 and September 2017). Adverse events were categorized in three severity groups (postpartum, intrapartum non-near-miss, and intrapartum near-miss) to calculate stillbirth rates and adjusted prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Data from 3816 women in Tanzania and 8305 in Uganda were included. Compared with postpartum adverse events, intrapartum near-miss was associated with a 3.73- and 4.55-fold higher prevalence of stillbirth in Uganda and Tanzania, respectively. Most women who experienced near-miss had organ dysfunction on arrival or developed it soon after. The risk of stillbirth was higher among preterm deliveries compared with term deliveries, and was 42% and 59% lower in Tanzania and Uganda, respectively, for cesarean deliveries compared with vaginal deliveries after intrapartum non-near-miss adverse events. CONCLUSION: Stillbirth risk increased with severity of complications and was higher among premature deliveries. Survival was higher for cesarean deliveries in intrapartum non-near-miss complications, identifying the opportunity to prevent deterioration by timely actions.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0198568, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of accurate data on trends and the burden of human rabies infection in developing countries, animal bite injuries provide useful information to bridge that gap. Rabies is one of the most deadly infectious diseases, with a case fatality rate approaching 100%. Despite availability of effective prevention and control strategies, rabies still kills 50,000 to 60,000 people worldwide annually, the majority of whom are in the developing world. We describe trends and geographical distribution of animal bite injuries (a proxy of potential exposure to rabies) and deaths due to suspected human rabies in Uganda from 2001 to 2015. METHODS: We used 2001-2015 surveillance data on suspected animal bite injuries, collected from health facilities in Uganda. To describe annual trends, line graphs were used and linear regression tested significance of observed trends at P<0.05. We used maps to describe geographical distribution of animal bites by district. RESULTS: A total of 208,720 cases of animal bite injuries were reported. Of these, 27% were in Central, 22% in Eastern, 27% in Northern and 23% in Western regions. Out of 48,720 animal bites between 2013 and 2015, 59% were suffered by males and 81% were persons aged above 5 years. Between 2001 and 2015, the overall incidence (per 100,000 population) of animal bites was 58 in Uganda, 76 in Northern, 58 in Central, 53 in Western and 50 in Eastern region. From 2001 to 2015, the annual incidence (per 100,000 population) increased from 21 to 47 (P = 0.02) in Central, 27 to 34 (P = 0.04) in Eastern, 23 to 70 (P = 0.01) in Northern and 16 to 46 (P = 0.001) in Western region. A total of 486 suspected human rabies deaths were reported, of which 29% were reported from Eastern, 28% from Central, 27% from Northern and 17% from Western region. CONCLUSION: Animal bite injuries, a potential exposure to rabies infection, and mortality attributed to rabies infection are public health challenges affecting all regions of Uganda. Eliminating rabies requires strengthening of rabies prevention and control strategies at all levels of the health sector. These strategies should utilize the "One Health" approach with strategic focus on strengthening rabies surveillance, controlling rabies in dogs and ensuring availability of post exposure prophylaxis at lower health facilities.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Raiva/mortalidade , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 139, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: East and South Africa contributes 59% of all pediatric HIV infections globally. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among HIV exposed infants was estimated at 5.3% in 2014. Understanding the remaining bottlenecks to elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT) is critical to accelerating efforts towards eMTCT. This study determined factors associated with HIV positive sero-status among exposed infants attending mother-baby care clinics in rural Kasese so as to inform enhancement of interventions to further reduce MTCT. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional mixed methods study. Quantitative data was derived from routine service data from the mother's HIV care card and exposed infant clinical chart. Key informant interviews were conducted with health workers and in-depth interviews with HIV infected mothers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Stata version 12. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with HIV sero-status. Latent content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. RESULTS: Overall, 32 of the 493 exposed infants (6.5%) were HIV infected. Infants who did not receive ART prophylaxis at birth (AOR = 4.9, 95% CI: 1.901-13.051, p=0.001) and those delivered outside of a health facility (AOR = 5.1, 95% CI: 1.038 - 24.742, p = 0.045) were five times more likely to be HIV infected than those who received prophylaxis and those delivered in health facilities, respectively. Based on the qualitative findings, health system factors affecting eMTCT were long waiting time, understaffing, weak community follow up system, stock outs of Neverapine syrup and lack of HIV testing kits. CONCLUSION: Increasing facility based deliveries and addressing underlying health system challenges related to staffing and availability of the required commodities may further accelerate eMTCT.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Centros de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 641, 2017 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28946853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between January and June, 2015, a large typhoid fever outbreak occurred in Kampala, Uganda, with 10,230 suspected cases. During the outbreak, area surgeons reported a surge in cases of typhoid intestinal perforation (TIP), a complication of typhoid fever. We conducted an investigation to characterize TIP cases and identify modifiable risk factors for TIP. METHODS: We defined a TIP case as a physician-diagnosed typhoid patient with non-traumatic terminal ileum perforation. We identified cases by reviewing medical records at all five major hospitals in Kampala from 2013 to 2015. In a matched case-control study, we compared potential risk factors among TIP cases and controls; controls were typhoid patients diagnosed by TUBEX TF, culture, or physician but without TIP, identified from the outbreak line-list and matched to cases by age, sex and residence. Cases and controls were interviewed using a standard questionnaire from 1st -23rd December 2015. We used conditional logistic regression to assess risk factors for TIP and control for confounding. RESULTS: Of the 88 TIP cases identified during 2013-2015, 77% (68/88) occurred between January and June, 2015; TIPs sharply increased in January and peaked in March, coincident with the typhoid outbreak. The estimated risk of TIP was 6.6 per 1000 suspected typhoid infections (68/10,230). The case-fatality rate was 10% (7/68). Cases sought care later than controls; Compared with 29% (13/45) of TIP cases and 63% (86/137) of controls who sought treatment within 3 days of onset, 42% (19/45) of cases and 32% (44/137) of controls sought treatment 4-9 days after illness onset (ORadj = 2.2, 95%CI = 0.83-5.8), while 29% (13/45) of cases and 5.1% (7/137) of controls sought treatment ≥10 days after onset (ORadj = 11, 95%CI = 1.9-61). 68% (96/141) of cases and 23% (23/100) of controls had got treatment before being treated at the treatment centre (ORadj = 9.0, 95%CI = 1.1-78). CONCLUSION: Delay in seeking treatment increased the risk of TIPs. For future outbreaks, we recommended aggressive community case-finding, and informational campaigns in affected communities and among local healthcare providers to increase awareness of the need for early and appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Perfuração Intestinal/epidemiologia , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Febre Tifoide/complicações , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/mortalidade , Perfuração Intestinal/terapia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Febre Tifoide/terapia , Uganda/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 96(6): 1490-1496, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719274

RESUMO

AbstractPodoconiosis, a noninfectious elephantiasis, is a disabling neglected tropical disease. In August 2015, an elephantiasis case-cluster was reported in Kamwenge District, western Uganda. We investigated to identify the disease's nature and risk factors. We defined a suspected podoconiosis case as onset in a Kamwenge resident of bilateral asymmetrical lower limb swelling lasting ≥ 1 month, plus ≥ 1 of the following associated symptoms: skin itching, burning sensation, plantar edema, lymph ooze, prominent skin markings, rigid toes, or mossy papillomata. A probable case was a suspected case with negative microfilaria antigen immunochromatographic card test (ruling out filarial elephantiasis). We conducted active case-finding. In a case-control investigation, we tested the hypothesis that the disease was caused by prolonged foot skin exposure to irritant soils, using 40 probable case-persons and 80 asymptomatic village control-persons, individually matched by age and sex. We collected soil samples to characterize irritants. We identified 52 suspected (including 40 probable) cases with onset from 1980 to 2015. Prevalence rates increased with age; annual incidence (by reported onset of disease) was stable over time at 2.9/100,000. We found that 93% (37/40) of cases and 68% (54/80) of controls never wore shoes at work (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [ORMH] = 7.7; 95% [confidence interval] CI = 2.0-30); 80% (32/40) of cases and 49% (39/80) of controls never wore shoes at home (ORMH = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.8-15); and 70% (27/39) of cases and 44% (35/79) of controls washed feet at day end (versus immediately after work) (OR = 11; 95% CI = 2.1-56). Soil samples were characterized as rich black-red volcanic clays. In conclusion, this reported elephantiasis is podoconiosis associated with prolonged foot exposure to volcanic soil. We recommended foot hygiene and universal use of protective shoes.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Elefantíase/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Elefantíase/diagnóstico , Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Sapatos , Solo/parasitologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Trials ; 18(1): 307, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage complicates approximately 10% of all deliveries and contributes to at least a quarter of all maternal deaths worldwide. The competency-based Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth (HMS BAB) training was developed to support evidence-based management of postpartum haemorrhage. This one-day training includes low-cost MamaNatalie® birthing simulators and addresses both prevention and first-line treatment of haemorrhage. While evidence is accumulating that the training improves health provider's knowledge, skills and confidence, evidence is missing as to whether this translates into improved practices and reduced maternal morbidity and mortality. This cluster-randomised trial aims to assess whether this training package - involving a one-day competency-based HMS BAB in-facility training provided by certified trainers followed by 8 weeks of in-service peer-based practice - has an effect on the occurrence of haemorrhage-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS/DESIGN: In Tanzania and Uganda we randomise 20 and 18 districts (clusters) respectively, with half receiving the training intervention. We use unblinded matched-pair randomisation to balance district health system characteristics and the main outcome, which is in-facility severe morbidity due to haemorrhage defined by the World Health Organizationation-promoted disease and management-based near-miss criteria. Data are collected continuously in the intervention and comparison districts throughout the 6-month baseline and the 9-month intervention phase, which commences after the training intervention. Trained facility midwives or clinicians review severe maternal complications to identify near misses on a daily basis. They abstract the case information from case notes and enter it onto programmed tablets where it is uploaded. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used, taking the matched design into consideration using paired t test statistics to compare the outcomes between the intervention and comparison districts. We also assess the impact pathway from the effects of the training on the health provider's skills, care and interventions and health system readiness. DISCUSSION: This trial aims to generate evidence on the effect and limitations of this well-designed training package supported by birthing simulations. While the lack of blinding of participants and data collectors provides an inevitable limitation of this trial, the additional evaluation along the pathway of implementation will provide solid evidence on the effects of this HMS BAB training package. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, PACTR201604001582128 . Registered on 12 April 2016.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Obstetrícia/educação , Parto , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Protocolos Clínicos , Currículo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Mortalidade Materna , Tocologia/educação , Near Miss , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda
19.
J Sex Transm Dis ; 2016: 7673014, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27493826

RESUMO

Introduction. While four in ten female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with HIV, only a small proportion is enrolled in HIV care. We explored facilitators and barriers to linkage to HIV care among FSWs receiving HIV testing services at a community-based organization in periurban Uganda. Methods. The cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted among 28 HIV positive FSWs from May to July 2014. Key informant interviews were conducted with five project staff and eleven peer educators. Data were collected on facilitators for and barriers to linkage to HIV care and manually analyzed following a thematic framework approach. Results. Facilitators for linkage to HIV care included the perceived good quality of health services with same-day results and immediate initiation of treatment, community peer support systems, individual's need to remain healthy, and having alternative sources of income. Linkage barriers included perceived stigma, fear to be seen at outreach HIV clinics, fear and myths about antiretroviral therapy, lack of time to attend clinic, and financial constraints. Conclusion. Linkage to HIV care among FSWs is influenced by good quality friendly services and peer support. HIV service delivery programs for FSWs should focus on enhancing these and dealing with barriers stemming from stigma and misinformation.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 101, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26830678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared clinical outcomes among HIV-infected participants receiving ART who were randomized to viral load (VL) and CD4 cell count monitoring in comparison to CD4 cell count monitoring alone in Tororo, Uganda. METHODS: Beginning in May 2003, participants with CD4 cell counts <250 cells/µL or WHO stage 3 or 4 disease were randomized to clinical monitoring alone, clinical monitoring plus quarterly CD4 cell counts (CD4-only); or clinical monitoring, quarterly CD4 cell counts and quarterly VL testing (CD4-VL). In 2007, individuals in clinical monitoring arm were re-randomized to the other two arms and all participants were followed until March 31, 2009. We used Cox Proportional Hazard models to determine if study arm was independently associated with the development of opportunistic infections (OIs) or death. RESULTS: We randomized 1211 participants to the three original study arms and 331 surviving participants in the clinical monitoring arm were re-randomized to the CD4-VL and CD4 only arms. At enrolment the median age was 38 years and the median CD4 cell count was 134 cells/µL. Over a median of 5.2 years of follow-up, 37 deaths and 35 new OIs occurred in the VL-CD4 arm patients, 39 deaths and 42 new OIs occurred in CD4-only patients. We did not observe an association between monitoring arm and new OIs or death (AHR =1.19 for CD4-only vs. CD4-VL; 95 % CI 0.82-1.73). CONCLUSION: We found no differences in clinical outcomes associated with the addition of quarterly VL monitoring to quarterly CD4 cell count monitoring.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uganda/epidemiologia
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