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1.
Kidney Int ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718844

RESUMO

Renal allograft rejection can be prevented by immunological tolerance, which may be associated with de novo formed lymphatic vessels in the donor kidney after transplantation in man. A suitable mouse model of renal allograft rejection in which lymphangiogenesis can be deliberately induced in the graft is critical for elucidating the mechanisms responsible for the association between attenuated transplant rejection and abundance of lymphatic vessels. Here we describe the development of a novel mouse model of rapid renal transplant rejection in which transgenic induction of lymphangiogenesis in the immune-incompatible graft greatly extends its survival time. Thus, our novel approach may facilitate exploitation of lymphangiogenesis in the grafted organ.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(9): 1641-1658, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GATA3 is a dual-zinc finger transcription factor that regulates gene expression in many developing tissues. In the kidney, GATA3 is essential for ureteric bud branching, and mice without it fail to develop kidneys. In humans, autosomal dominant GATA3 mutations can cause renal aplasia as part of the hypoparathyroidism, renal dysplasia, deafness (HDR) syndrome that includes mesangioproliferative GN. This suggests that GATA3 may have a previously unrecognized role in glomerular development or injury. METHODS: To determine GATA3's role in glomerular development or injury, we assessed GATA3 expression in developing and mature kidneys from Gata3 heterozygous (+/-) knockout mice, as well as injured human and rodent kidneys. RESULTS: We show that GATA3 is expressed by FOXD1 lineage stromal progenitor cells, and a subset of these cells mature into mesangial cells (MCs) that continue to express GATA3 in adult kidneys. In mice, we uncover that GATA3 is essential for normal glomerular development, and mice with haploinsufficiency of Gata3 have too few MC precursors and glomerular abnormalities. Expression of GATA3 is maintained in MCs of adult kidneys and is markedly increased in rodent models of mesangioproliferative GN and in IgA nephropathy, suggesting that GATA3 plays a critical role in the maintenance of glomerular homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide new insights on the role GATA3 plays in MC development and response to injury. It also shows that GATA3 may be a novel and robust nuclear marker for identifying MCs in tissue sections.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3106, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308374

RESUMO

Immune responses need to be controlled tightly to prevent autoimmune diseases, yet underlying molecular mechanisms remain partially understood. Here, we identify biallelic mutations in three patients from two unrelated families in differentially expressed in FDCP6 homolog (DEF6) as the molecular cause of an inborn error of immunity with systemic autoimmunity. Patient T cells exhibit impaired regulation of CTLA-4 surface trafficking associated with reduced functional CTLA-4 availability, which is replicated in DEF6-knockout Jurkat cells. Mechanistically, we identify the small GTPase RAB11 as an interactor of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DEF6, and find disrupted binding of mutant DEF6 to RAB11 as well as reduced RAB11+CTLA-4+ vesicles in DEF6-mutated cells. One of the patients has been treated with CTLA-4-Ig and achieved sustained remission. Collectively, we uncover DEF6 as player in immune homeostasis ensuring availability of the checkpoint protein CTLA-4 at T-cell surface, identifying a potential target for autoimmune and/or cancer therapy.

5.
Matrix Biol ; 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288084

RESUMO

Metastasis is a major cause of death in cancer patients. The extracellular matrix molecule tenascin-C is a known promoter of metastasis, however the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To further analyze the impact of tenascin-C on cancer progression we generated MMTV-NeuNT mice that develop spontaneous mammary tumors, on a tenascin-C knockout background. We also developed a syngeneic orthotopic model in which tumor cells derived from a MMTV-NeuNT tumor. Tumor cells were transfected with control shRNA or with shRNA to knockdown tenascin-C expression and, were grafted into the mammary gland of immune competent, wildtype or tenascin-C knockout mice. We show that stromal-derived tenascin-C increases metastasis by reducing apoptosis and inducing the cellular plasticity of cancer cells located in pulmonary blood vessels invasions (BVI), before extravasation. We characterized BVI as organized structures of tightly packed aggregates of proliferating tumor cells with epithelial characteristics, surrounded by Fsp1+ cells, internally located platelets and, a luminal monolayer of endothelial cells. We found extracellular matrix, in particular, tenascin-C, between the stromal cells and the tumor cell cluster. In mice lacking stromal-derived tenascin-C, the organization of pulmonary BVI was significantly affected, revealing novel functions of host-derived tenascin-C in supporting the integrity of the endothelial cell coat, increasing platelet abundance, tumor cell survival, epithelial plasticity, thereby promoting overall lung metastasis. Many effects of tenascin-C observed in BVI including enhancement of cellular plasticity, survival and migration, could be explained by activation of TGF-ß signaling. Finally, in several human cancers, we also observed BVI to be surrounded by an endothelial monolayer and to express tenascin-C. Expression of tenascin-C is specific to BVI and is not observed in lymphatic vascular invasions frequent in breast cancer, which lack an endothelial lining. Given that BVI have prognostic significance for many tumor types, such as shorter cancer patient survival, increased metastasis, vessel occlusion, and organ failure, our data revealing a novel mechanism by which stromal tenascin-C promotes metastasis in human cancer, may have potential for diagnosis and therapy.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9762, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278281

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) are beneficial in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Yet, their clinical effects after kidney transplantation (KTx) remain ambiguous and local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulation including the 'classical' and 'alternative' RAS has not been studied so far. Here, we investigated both systemic and kidney allograft-specific intrarenal RAS using tandem mass-spectrometry in KTx recipients with or without established ACEi therapy (n = 48). Transplant patients were grouped into early (<2 years), intermediate (2-12 years) or late periods after KTx (>12 years). Patients on ACEi displayed lower angiotensin (Ang) II plasma levels (P < 0.01) and higher levels of Ang I (P < 0.05) and Ang-(1-7) (P < 0.05) compared to those without ACEi independent of graft vintage. Substantial intrarenal Ang II synthesis was observed regardless of ACEi therapy. Further, we detected maximal allograft Ang II synthesis in the late transplant vintage group (P < 0.005) likely as a consequence of increased allograft chymase activity (P < 0.005). Finally, we could identify neprilysin (NEP) as the central enzyme of 'alternative RAS' metabolism in kidney allografts. In summary, a progressive increase of chymase-dependent Ang II synthesis reveals a transplant-specific distortion of RAS regulation after KTx with considerable pathogenic and therapeutic implications.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691124

RESUMO

Kidney injury due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common primary glomerular disorder causing end-stage renal disease. Homozygous mutations in either glomerular basement membrane or slit diaphragm genes cause early renal failure. Heterozygous carriers develop renal symptoms late, if at all. In contrast to mutations in slit diaphragm genes, hetero- or hemizygous mutations in the X-chromosomal COL4A5 Alport gene have not yet been recognized as a major cause of kidney injury by FSGS. We identified cases of FSGS that were unexpectedly diagnosed: In addition to mutations in the X-chromosomal COL4A5 type IV collagen gene, nephrin and podocin polymorphisms aggravated kidney damage, leading to FSGS with ruptures of the basement membrane in a toddler and early renal failure in heterozygous girls. The results of our case series study suggest a synergistic role for genes encoding basement membrane and slit diaphragm proteins as a cause of kidney injury due to FSGS. Our results demonstrate that the molecular genetics of different players in the glomerular filtration barrier can be used to evaluate causes of kidney injury. Given the high frequency of X-chromosomal carriers of Alport genes, the analysis of genes involved in the organization of podocyte architecture, the glomerular basement membrane, and the slit diaphragm will further improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of FSGS and guide prognosis of and therapy for hereditary glomerular kidney diseases.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Nefrite Hereditária/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Lesão Renal Aguda/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/complicações , Hemizigoto , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem
9.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 20(5): 512-524, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649240

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) leads to signs and symptoms of heart failure (HF). The mechanisms of biventricular dysfunction and their impact on outcome in subtypes of CA are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) parameters in patients with light chain (AL) and wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRw) and evaluate their ability to predict cardiac outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included patients with CA into a prospective registry. Baseline assessment included biventricular 2D speckle tracking imaging parameters. Patients were followed-up in regular intervals. The composite endpoint was defined as cardiovascular death, heart transplantation or ventricular assist device implantation, and HF hospitalization. We included 122 patients with CA. Sixty-two of these patients (50.8%) were diagnosed with ATTRw and 60 (49.2%) with AL. In ATTRw, parameters of RV size and function correlated well with symptom severity and only morphological and functional parameters of the RV predicted outcome. RV free wall strain was the only independent predictor of outcome with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.185 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.047-1.342, P = 0.007]. In AL on the other hand, RV function correlated well with symptoms but was not associated with outcome. In contrast, global longitudinal strain of the LV (LV-GLS) was predictive for outcome. After adjusting in a multivariable model, LV-GLS remained predictive with a HR of 1.180 (95% CI 1.032-1.348, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that mechanisms underlying HF differ between ATTRw and AL. This may have substantial implications in particular in light of emerging therapies for both subtypes of CA.

10.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: It is increasingly recognized that biomedical research has serious reproducibility issues, which could be overcome at least in part by standardized processing of biomaterials. Therefore, professional biobanks have emerged, positively influencing sample and data quality. However, quantitative data about a biobank's contribution to published results are still hard to find, although they could serve as valuable benchmark figures for the community. We therefore aimed to report usage data from the MedUni Wien Biobank facility regarding its prospective fluid cohorts. METHODS: Input and access statistics and publication output were reported for the years 2010-2017. Performance dynamics were tested by correlation analyses according to Spearman. Additionally, virtual costs per sample were calculated. RESULTS: The amount of annually collected aliquots rose significantly from 68,500 in 2010 to 151,966 in 2017 (p = 0.015), although no further increase was recorded after 2012 (p = 0.266). In the same period, the quotient of requested to stored aliquots increased from 3.5% to 6.1% (p = 0.001), as the yearly number of requested aliquots nearly quadrupled from 2401 to 9342. Likewise, the number of published research articles per year to which the MedUni Wien Biobank contributed increased from 2 (total impact factor: 8.6) in 2010 to 16 (total impact factor: 69.0) in 2017, resulting in a total of 69 identified publications. Currently, the biobank operates at 15- to 20-fold overproduction, leading to virtual costs per accessed sample of ∼€20. CONCLUSION: The reported usage data might serve as a benchmark for other hospital-integrated biobanks, and implies that academic biobanks are able to produce considerable scientific impact at comparable moderate costs.

12.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797348

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles, released from cells, are important for intercellular communication. They are heterogeneous but fall into two broad categories based on origin and function: microvesicles formed by outward budding from the plasma membrane; and exosomes that originate as intraluminal vesicles in multivesicular endosomes that fuse with the plasma membrane to release them. Extracellular vesicles generally and exosomes in particular have powerful effects on specific immune responses, and recent advances highlight their potential therapeutic uses. Dendritic cells (DC) that have internalized antigen release exosomes that express MHC class II molecules loaded with antigenic peptides, co-stimulatory molecules and intact antigen. Depending on the setting, these stimulate CD4 T-cell proliferation either directly or only in the context of accessory antigen naïve DC. Here, we discuss the reasons for this; and review current knowledge about the loading of antigen, class II and other cargo into exosomes released by DC and other professional antigen-presenting cells in the context of advances in exosome biology more generally.

13.
J Cell Biol ; 217(6): 2205-2221, 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650776

RESUMO

Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) release extracellular chemokines to guide the migration of dendritic cells. In this study, we report that LECs also release basolateral exosome-rich endothelial vesicles (EEVs) that are secreted in greater numbers in the presence of inflammatory cytokines and accumulate in the perivascular stroma of small lymphatic vessels in human chronic inflammatory diseases. Proteomic analyses of EEV fractions identified >1,700 cargo proteins and revealed a dominant motility-promoting protein signature. In vitro and ex vivo EEV fractions augmented cellular protrusion formation in a CX3CL1/fractalkine-dependent fashion and enhanced the directional migratory response of human dendritic cells along guidance cues. We conclude that perilymphatic LEC exosomes enhance exploratory behavior and thus promote directional migration of CX3CR1-expressing cells in complex tissue environments.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 155(1): 130-143.e15, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Congenital diarrheal disorders are rare inherited intestinal disorders characterized by intractable, sometimes life-threatening, diarrhea and nutrient malabsorption; some have been associated with mutations in diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which catalyzes formation of triacylglycerol from diacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. We investigated the mechanisms by which DGAT1 deficiency contributes to intestinal failure using patient-derived organoids. METHODS: We collected blood samples from 10 patients, from 6 unrelated pedigrees, who presented with early-onset severe diarrhea and/or vomiting, hypoalbuminemia, and/or (fatal) protein-losing enteropathy with intestinal failure; we performed next-generation sequencing analysis of DNA from 8 patients. Organoids were generated from duodenal biopsies from 3 patients and 3 healthy individuals (controls). Caco-2 cells and patient-derived dermal fibroblasts were transfected or transduced with vectors that express full-length or mutant forms of DGAT1 or full-length DGAT2. We performed CRISPR/Cas9-guided disruption of DGAT1 in control intestinal organoids. Cells and organoids were analyzed by immunoblot, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, chromatography, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and for the activity of caspases 3 and 7. RESULTS: In the 10 patients, we identified 5 bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations in DGAT1. In patient-derived fibroblasts and organoids, the mutations reduced expression of DGAT1 protein and altered triacylglycerol metabolism, resulting in decreased lipid droplet formation after oleic acid addition. Expression of full-length DGAT2 in patient-derived fibroblasts restored formation of lipid droplets. Organoids derived from patients with DGAT1 mutations were more susceptible to lipid-induced cell death than control organoids. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a large cohort of patients with congenital diarrheal disorders with mutations in DGAT1 that reduced expression of its product; dermal fibroblasts and intestinal organoids derived from these patients had altered lipid metabolism and were susceptible to lipid-induced cell death. Expression of full-length wildtype DGAT1 or DGAT2 restored normal lipid metabolism in these cells. These findings indicate the importance of DGAT1 in fat metabolism and lipotoxicity in the intestinal epithelium. A fat-free diet might serve as the first line of therapy for patients with reduced DGAT1 expression. It is important to identify genetic variants associated with congenital diarrheal disorders for proper diagnosis and selection of treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Duodeno/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Hipoalbuminemia/genética , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Organoides/metabolismo , Enteropatias Perdedoras de Proteínas/genética , Células CACO-2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Derme/citologia , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/deficiência , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Forbóis , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Turquia
15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 588, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651288

RESUMO

Specific granule deficiency (SGD) is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal neutrophils evidenced by reduced granules, absence of granule proteins, and atypical bilobed nuclei. Mutations in CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-ε (CEBPE) are one molecular etiology of the disease. Although C/EBPε has been studied extensively, the impact of CEBPE mutations on neutrophil biology remains elusive. Here, we identified two SGD patients bearing a previously described heterozygous mutation (p.Val218Ala) in CEBPE. We took this rare opportunity to characterize SGD neutrophils in terms of granule distribution and protein content. Granules of patient neutrophils were clustered and polarized, suggesting that not only absence of specific granules but also defects affecting other granules contribute to the phenotype. Our analysis showed that remaining granules displayed mixed protein content and lacked several glycoepitopes. To further elucidate the impact of mutant CEBPE, we performed detailed proteomic analysis of SGD neutrophils. Beside an absence of several granule proteins in patient cells, we observed increased expression of members of the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex (nesprin-2, vimentin, and lamin-B2), which control nuclear shape. This suggests that absence of these proteins in healthy individuals might be responsible for segmented shapes of neutrophilic nuclei. We further show that the heterozygous mutation p.Val218Ala in CEBPE causes SGD through prevention of nuclear localization of the protein product. In conclusion, we uncover that absence of nuclear C/EBPε impacts on spatiotemporal expression and subsequent distribution of several granule proteins and further on expression of proteins controlling nuclear shape.

16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(3): 1020-1029, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282226

RESUMO

Atypical HUS (aHUS) is a disorder most commonly caused by inherited defects of the alternative pathway of complement, or the proteins that regulate this pathway, and life-threatening episodes of aHUS can be provoked by pregnancy. We retrospectively and prospectively investigated 27 maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes in 14 women with aHUS from the Vienna Thrombotic Microangiopathy Cohort. Seven pregnancies (26%) were complicated by pregnancy-associated aHUS (p-aHUS), of which three appeared to be provoked by infection, bleeding, and curettage, and three individuals were considered to have preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome before the definitive diagnosis of p-aHUS was made. Mutations in genes that encode the complement alternative pathway proteins or the molecules that regulate this pathway were detected in 71% of the women, with no relationship to pregnancy outcome. Twenty-one pregnancies (78%) resulted in a live birth, two preterm infants were stillborn, and four pregnancies resulted in early spontaneous abortions. Although short-term renal outcome was good in most women, long-term renal outcome was poor; among the 14 women, four had CKD stage 1-4, five had received a renal allograft, and three were dialysis-dependent at study end. We prospectively followed nine pregnancies of four women and treated six of these pregnancies with prophylactic plasma infusions (one pregnancy resulted in p-aHUS, one intrauterine fetal death occurred, and seven pregancies were uneventful). Our study emphasizes the frequency of successful pregnancies in women with aHUS. Close monitoring of such pregnancies for episodes of thrombotic microangiopathy is essential but, the best strategy to prevent these episodes remains unclear.

17.
Clin Kidney J ; 10(2): 176-187, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28584625

RESUMO

The introduction of digital pathology to nephrology provides a platform for the development of new methodologies and protocols for visual, morphometric and computer-aided assessment of renal biopsies. Application of digital imaging to pathology made substantial progress over the past decade; it is now in use for education, clinical trials and translational research. Digital pathology evolved as a valuable tool to generate comprehensive structural information in digital form, a key prerequisite for achieving precision pathology for computational biology. The application of this new technology on an international scale is driving novel methods for collaborations, providing unique opportunities but also challenges. Standardization of methods needs to be rigorously evaluated and applied at each step, from specimen processing to scanning, uploading into digital repositories, morphologic, morphometric and computer-aided assessment, data collection and analysis. In this review, we discuss the status and opportunities created by the application of digital imaging to precision nephropathology, and present a vision for the near future.

18.
J Immunol ; 199(2): 531-546, 2017 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28607115

RESUMO

The lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) family includes the dendritic cell endocytic receptors DC-LAMP and CD68, as well as LAMP-1 and LAMP-2. In this study we identify LAMP-1 (CD107a) and LAMP-2 (CD107b) on the surface of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) and show only LAMP-2 is internalized after ligation by specific Abs, including H4B4, and traffics rapidly but transiently to the MHC class II loading compartment, as does Ag conjugated to H4B4. However, pulsing MoDC with conjugates of primary (keyhole limpet hemocyanin; KLH) and recall (Bet v 1) Ags (H4B4*KLH and H4B4*Bet v 1) induced significantly less CD4 cell proliferation than pulsing with native Ag or Ag conjugated to control mAb (ISO*KLH and ISO*Bet v 1). In H4B4*KLH-pulsed MoDC, the duration of KLH residence in MHC class II loading compartments was significantly reduced, as were surface HLA-DR and DR-bound KLH-derived peptides. Paradoxically, MoDC pulsed with H4B4*KLH, but not the other KLH preparations, induced robust proliferation of CD4 cells separated from them by a transwell membrane, indicating factors in the supernatant were responsible. Furthermore, extracellular vesicles from supernatants of H4B4*KLH-pulsed MoDC contained significantly more HLA-DR and KLH than those purified from control MoDC, and KLH was concentrated specifically in exosomes that were a uniquely effective source of Ag in standard T cell proliferation assays. In summary, we identify LAMP-2 as an endocytic receptor on human MoDC that routes cargo into unusual Ag processing pathways, which reduces surface expression of Ag-derived peptides while selectively enriching Ag within immunogenic exosomes. This novel pathway has implications for the initiation of immune responses both locally and at distant sites.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Exossomos/imunologia , Proteína 2 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Hemocianinas/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/genética , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/imunologia , Proteína 2 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/genética , Proteína 2 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/imunologia , Camundongos , Monócitos/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
19.
N Engl J Med ; 377(1): 52-61, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28657829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of monogenic gastrointestinal diseases have revealed molecular pathways critical to gut homeostasis and enabled the development of targeted therapies. METHODS: We studied 11 patients with abdominal pain and diarrhea caused by early-onset protein-losing enteropathy with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, edema due to hypoproteinemia, malabsorption, and less frequently, bowel inflammation, recurrent infections, and angiopathic thromboembolic disease; the disorder followed an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify gene variants. We evaluated the function of CD55 in patients' cells, which we confirmed by means of exogenous induction of expression of CD55. RESULTS: We identified homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding CD55 (decay-accelerating factor), which lead to loss of protein expression. Patients' T lymphocytes showed increased complement activation causing surface deposition of complement and the generation of soluble C5a. Costimulatory function and cytokine modulation by CD55 were defective. Genetic reconstitution of CD55 or treatment with a complement-inhibitory therapeutic antibody reversed abnormal complement activation. CONCLUSIONS: CD55 deficiency with hyperactivation of complement, angiopathic thrombosis, and protein-losing enteropathy (the CHAPLE syndrome) is caused by abnormal complement activation due to biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CD55. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others.).


Assuntos
Antígenos CD55/genética , Ativação do Complemento/genética , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Mutação , Enteropatias Perdedoras de Proteínas/genética , Trombose/genética , Antígenos CD55/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativadores do Complemento/farmacologia , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Lactente , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Enteropatias Perdedoras de Proteínas/complicações , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Síndrome , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(4): 502-511, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891745

RESUMO

AIMS: Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). However, its prognostic relevance is poorly investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 73 HF patients who underwent LV endomyocardial biopsy were enrolled in our study. ECM area was quantified by TissueFAXS and ImageJ software. Patients were followed-up at 6-month intervals. The study endpoint was defined as hospitalization for a cardiac reason and/or cardiac death. Furthermore, the influence of the ECM on invasively measured haemodynamic parameters was tested. During a median follow-up period of 9.0 months, 34 patients (46.6%) reached the combined endpoint. Median ECM area was 30.5%. Patients with ECM area ≥30.5% experienced significantly more events (67.6% vs. 25.0%, P < 0.001) in comparison with patients with an ECM area <30.5%. ECM area was independently associated with outcome in the total HF cohort [hazard ratio (HR) 1.041, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.017-1.066, P = 0.001] as well as in HF patients with preserved (HR 1.079, 95% CI 1.001-1.163, P =0 .046) or reduced ejection fraction (HR 1.149, 95% CI 1.036-1.275, P = 0.009). Positive correlations were found between ECM area and LV end-diastolic pressure (P = 0.021, R = 0.303), pulmonary artery wedge pressure (P = 0.042, R = 0.249), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (P = 0.035, R = 0.258), as well as right atrial pressure (P = 0.003, R = 0.353). CONCLUSION: ECM area within the LV myocardium correlates with left and right heart haemodynamics and is associated with clinical course in various non-ischaemic HF types.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Idoso , Pressão Atrial , Doença Crônica , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Volume Sistólico
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