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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28124, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850674

RESUMO

The opioid crisis in the United States has grown at an alarming rate. Children with cancer are at high risk for pain, and opioids are a first-line treatment in this population. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to optimize pain management in children with cancer without contributing to the opioid crisis. This report details opportunities for this optimization, including clinical practice guidelines, comprehensive approaches to pain management, mobile health, and telemedicine. It is vital to balance appropriate use of analgesics with efforts to prevent misuse in order to reduce unnecessary suffering and minimize unintended harms.

2.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 887-897, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An unintended consequence of medical technologies is loss of personal interactions and humanism between patients and their healthcare providers, leading to depersonalisation of medicine. As humanism is not integrated as part of formal postgraduate anaesthesiology education curricula, our goal was to design, introduce, and evaluate a comprehensive humanism curriculum into anaesthesiology training. METHODS: Subject-matter experts developed and delivered the humanism curriculum, which included interactive workshops, simulation sessions, formal feedback, and patient immersion experience. The effectiveness of the programme was evaluated using pre- and post-curriculum assessments in first-year postgraduate trainee doctors (residents). RESULTS: The anaesthesiology residents reported high satisfaction scores. Pre-/post-Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy showed an increase in empathy ratings with a median improvement of 12 points (range; P=0.013). After training, patients rated the residents as more empathetic (31 [4] vs 22 [5]; P<0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7-12) and professional (47 [3] vs 35 [8]; P<0.001; 95% CI: 9-16). Patient overall satisfaction with their anaesthesia provider improved after training (51 [6] vs 37 [10]; P<0.001; 95% CI: 10-18). Patients rated their anxiety lower in the post-training period compared with pretraining (1.8 [2.3] vs 3.6 [1.6]; P=0.001; 95% CI: 0.8-2.9). Patient-reported pain scores decreased after training (2.3 [2.5] vs 3.8 [2.1]; P=0.010; 95% CI: 0.4-2.8). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a humanism curriculum during postgraduate anaesthesiology training was well accepted, and can result in increased physician empathy and professionalism. This may improve patient pain, anxiety, and overall satisfaction with perioperative care.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/educação , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo , Humanismo , Internato e Residência , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesiologia/métodos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Perioper Med (Lond) ; 8: 11, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548883

RESUMO

The topic of patient satisfaction has gained increasing importance over the past decade. Due to the impact of patient satisfaction on health care quality, understanding factors that predict satisfaction is vital. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature and identify factors related to patient perioperative satisfaction as well as predictive variables that, if modified, can enhance satisfaction scores of patients undergoing surgery. Our review reports that patient satisfaction scores are affected by modifiable factors such as clinician-patient communication, information provision to patients, and operational function of a hospital. Non-modifiable factors affecting patient satisfaction scores include patient demographics such as gender, age, and education. In order to enhance patient perioperative satisfaction, we suggest that anesthesiologists and surgeons focus their efforts on enhancing their communication skills and providing information that is appropriately tailored to the understanding of their patients.

4.
Pain Manag ; 9(4): 389-397, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215311

RESUMO

Outpatient surgery has made it increasingly common for parents to manage pain in the home setting. Studies have shown that parents often under treat pain, leaving children vulnerable to the negative side effects of suboptimal pain management. Multiple factors affect pain management like child's age and developmental stage, language, cultural values like stoicism, parental beliefs about medication, biological differences among groups, etc. Understanding all the factors involved can help healthcare providers and parents better understand pain and contribute to optimal pain management. Multiple tools and technological interventions have been created to help create a better understanding of pain and a holistic approach to care.

5.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 123: 84-92, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare postoperative pain scores between children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) surgery and their parents, identify potential predictors for this disagreement, and determine possible impact on analgesic administration. METHODS: This is a prospective longitudinal study conducted with children undergoing outpatient T&A in 4 major tertiary hospitals and their parents. Children and their parents were enrolled prior to surgery and completed baseline psychological instruments assessing parental anxiety (STAI), parental coping style (MBSS), child temperament (EAS) and parental medication administration attitude questionnaire (MAQ). Postoperatively, parents and children completed at-home pain severity ratings (Faces Pain Scale-Revised, children; Numeric Rating Scale, parents) on postoperative recovery days 1, 2, and 3, reflecting an overall pain level for the past 24 h. Parents also completed a log of analgesic administration. Based on postoperative pain scores, parent-child dyads were classified as overestimators (i.e., parents rated their child's pain higher than children rated their own pain), in agreement (i.e., rating in agreement), or underestimators (i.e., parents rated their child's pain lower than children rated their own pain). RESULTS: A significant proportion of parent-child pairs disagreed on pain ratings on postoperative days 1-3 (30.05%-35.95%). Of those pairs in disagreement, the majority of parents overestimated their child's pain on all three postoperative days, specifically such that a total of 24-26% parents overestimated their child's pain on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3. Repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that parents in the overestimator group administered higher, though still within safe limits, amounts of ibuprofen and oxycodone (mg/day) than did the underestimator or agreement groups. Multiple regression models showed hospital site as the only independent predictor for postoperative pain rating disagreement between children and parents. CONCLUSIONS: Since parents overestimate their child's postoperative pain and may administer more analgesics to their child, it is essential to develop a standardized method of child pain assessment and a tailored recommended postoperative analgesic regimen amongst medical providers for children undergoing T&A.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Adenoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Pais , Tonsilectomia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 29(7): 730-737, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children who undergo surgery experience significant pain in the post anesthesia care unit. Nurse and parent behaviors in the post anesthesia care unit directly impact child postoperative pain. Therefore, we have developed and evaluated (Phase 1) and then tested (Phase 2) the feasibility of a new intervention (Nurse and Parent Training in Postoperative Stress) to alter parent and nurse behaviors in a way consistent with reducing child postoperative pain. METHODS: In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary team of experts (physicians, nurses, and psychologists) developed an empirically-based intervention which was then evaluated by experienced nurses (N = 8) and parents (N = 9) during focus groups. After revising the intervention based on focus group feedback, it was tested in Phase 2 using a pre-post study design. Nurses (N = 23) who worked in the recovery room were recruited to be part of both pre- and post-intervention data collection periods. Parents were recruited to be part of either the pre- (N = 52) or post-intervention (N = 60) data collection periods. Nurses and parent-child dyads were recorded in the post anesthesia care unit and videos were coded for the desired (ie, behaviors that may decrease child pain) and non-desired (ie, behaviors that may increase child pain) behaviors. Pain data was collected from the children's medical records to assess pain after surgery. The intervention was given to the nurses and parents in the post-intervention data collection period. RESULTS: Nurses significantly increased their rate of desired behaviors by 231% (P = 0.001; Somer's D = 1) and significantly decreased their rate of non-desired behaviors by 62% (P = 0.004, Somer's D = -0.88, 95% CI [-1.74, -0.03]). Parents significantly increased their rate of desired behaviors by 124% (P = 0.033). Moreover, the intervention significantly decreased child pain in the post anesthesia care unit (b = -2.19, SE = 0.63, z = -3.46, P = 0.001, 95%CI [-3.43, -0.95]). CONCLUSION: The intervention was effective in changing nurse and parent behaviors as well as child pain after surgery.

7.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 29(2): 120-124, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444558

RESUMO

The development and implementation of mobile health (mHealth) interventions provide an opportunity for more optimal management of pediatric pain in the home setting. Leveraging the popularity, mobility, and technological capabilities of digital mobile devices may reduce pediatric pain. Several mHealth applications have already been developed that target the reduction of acute and chronic pediatric pain by digitally delivering intervention strategies in an engaging manner, accumulating pain assessment data, facilitating patient-provider communication, and providing interactive training. Although several mHealth programs have begun to make strides in the management of pediatric pain, there are still many more possibilities for improvement as greater development and adoption of mHealth practices is on the horizon. Recommendations are provided that advocate for continued advancement of pediatric pain mHealth implementation with an emphasis on robust scientific evaluation, a structured approach to development and design elements that enhance engagement. Increased awareness about the positive influence of mHealth along with the encouragement of researchers and healthcare providers to promote and develop mHealth programs has the potential to transform pediatric pain management. This merger of evidence-based pain management strategies and digital technology positions pediatric mHealth to have a profound impact by effectively augmenting standard of care and benefiting healthcare providers, parents, and especially children in need.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Telemedicina , Criança , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis
8.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 28(11): 955-962, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Satisfaction in the hospital setting is an important component of both hospital funding and patient experience. When it comes to a child's hospital experience, parent satisfaction of their child's perioperative care is also necessary to understand. However, little research has been conducted on the predictors of this outcome. Therefore, the purpose of this current study was to validate a priori selected predictors for parental satisfaction in their child's perioperative process. METHODS: Eight hundred and ten pediatric patients who underwent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy surgery and their parents were included in this study. The primary outcome was assessed using a 21-item parent satisfaction questionnaire resulting in three satisfaction scores: overall care satisfaction, OR/induction satisfaction, and total satisfaction. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics and correlational analysis found that sedative-premedication, parental presence at anesthesia induction, child social functioning, parental anxiety, and language were all significant predictors of various components of the satisfaction score. Regression models, however, revealed that only parent anxiety and child social functioning remained significant predictors such that parents who reported lower state anxiety (OR/induction satisfaction: OR = 0.975, 95% CI [0.957, 0.994]; total satisfaction: OR = 0.968, 95% CI [0.943, 0.993]) and who had higher socially functioning children (overall care satisfaction: OR = 1.019, 95% CI [1.005, 1.033]; OR/induction satisfaction: OR = 1.011, 95% CI [1.000, 1.022]) were significantly more satisfied with the perioperative care they received. CONCLUSION: Lower parent anxiety and higher child social functioning were predictive of higher parental satisfaction scores.


Assuntos
Pais/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Perioperatória/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnose Anestésica/psicologia , Masculino
9.
J Spine Surg ; 4(2): 311-318, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069523

RESUMO

Background: This is a cross-sectional study. Our objective is to survey spine surgeons' views of responsibility to reduce healthcare costs, enthusiasm for cost reduction strategies, and agreement regarding roles in cost containment. The rising cost of healthcare has spurred debate about reducing expenditures. Previous studies have found that attitudes of anesthesiologists are predominantly in alignment with those of American physicians, but less is known about the views of spine surgeons. Methods: After obtaining institutional approval, an electronic survey was disseminated to active members of AO Spine North America (AOSNA) via email. Respondents were asked eight questions about their age, gender, years in practice, practice facility, political views and opinions regarding management of healthcare costs. Results: From 91 respondents, most were under the age of 60 years (87%), male (96%), and in practice for less than 30 years (91%), practiced at university hospitals (47%) and held politically conservative views (47%). Most responsibility was allocated to hospital and health systems, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, and device manufacturers. Respondents were most enthusiastic about rooting out fraud and abuse and aware of their role in managing the cost of healthcare. Spine surgeons who were in practice for longer were more enthusiastic about reducing cost by reducing overall physician reimbursement via bundled payments, Medicare payment reduction, ending fee-for-service, penalizing surgeons for patient readmissions, and lowering compensation to individual spine surgeons. Conclusions: Spine surgeons allocated responsibility to reduce healthcare costs to healthcare systems, were most enthusiastic about eliminating wasteful spending, and were in agreement regarding their responsibility to control the costs of healthcare. Compared to US physicians of various specialties and anesthesiologists, spine surgeons assigned less responsibility to trials lawyers and expressed markedly less enthusiasm for limiting access to expensive treatments.

10.
Comput Biol Med ; 101: 146-152, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Despite advances in health care, the majority of children undergoing cancer treatment experience pain, particularly in the home setting. Mobile health tools provide a promising avenue to deliver pain management education and information to parents of children receiving cancer treatment. The current study describes the development and formative evaluation of a novel intervention, Cancer-Tailored Intervention for Pain and Symptoms (C-TIPS), which provides empirically-based pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management information and coping skills training to parents of pediatric cancer patients. C-TIPS is a web-based application including a tailoring algorithm, customization tools, guided diaphragmatic breathing training, relaxation practice, and educational material (COPE modules). Thirty parents of children undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer participated in this initial mixed methods pilot study. Participants completed quantitative measures assessing their stress and relaxation ratings and satisfaction with C-TIPS. Formative evaluation and qualitative data were collected using individual and group interviews. RESULTS: Parents reported high satisfaction with both the educational and skills training modules of C-TIPS (ps < 0.001). Parent self-reported stress significantly reduced (p = 0.004) and relaxation increased (p = 0.05) following participation with the skills training module. CONCLUSIONS: C-TIPS is a feasible and well-received web-based intervention that promises to improve pain management in children undergoing cancer treatment, improve stress management in parents, and increase parents' knowledge and understanding of their child's cancer treatment. Results from the current study will help make improvements to C-TIPS in preparation for a randomized-controlled trial of this innovative program.


Assuntos
Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Adolescente , Dor do Câncer/fisiopatologia , Dor do Câncer/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Telemedicina
11.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 28(8): 719-725, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a large body of literature examining factors associated with children's preoperative anxiety; however, cultural variables such as ethnicity and language have not been included. AIMS: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the role of Latino ethnicity and Spanish-speaking families in pediatric preoperative anxiety. METHODS: Participants were 294 children aged 2-15 years of age undergoing outpatient, elective tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy surgery and general anesthesia. Participants were recruited and categorized into 3 groups: English-speaking non-Latino White (n = 139), English-speaking Latino (n = 88), and Spanish-speaking Latino (n = 67). Children's anxiety was rated at 2 time points before surgery: the time the child entered the threshold of the operating room (Induction 1) and the time when the anesthesia mask was placed (Induction 2). RESULTS: Results from separate linear regression models at Induction 1 and Induction 2, respectively, showed that being from a Spanish-speaking Latino family was associated with higher levels of preoperative anxiety compared with being from an English-speaking family. In addition, young age and low sociability was associated with higher preoperative anxiety in children. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware that younger, less sociable children of Spanish-speaking Latino parents are at higher risk of developing preoperative anxiety and manage these children based on this increased risk.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/psicologia , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Barreiras de Comunicação , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Adenoidectomia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pré-Operatório , Tonsilectomia/psicologia , Estados Unidos
12.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 31(3): 375-381, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561283

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review examines the different preventive measures that have been found to be useful to abolish or decrease the negative effects of burnout and increase resilience in anesthesiologists. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in anesthesiology cite autonomy, control of the work environment, professional relationships, leadership, and organizational justice as the most important factors in job satisfaction. Factors such as difficulty in balancing personal and professional life, poor attention to wellness, work alcoholism, and genetic factors increase an individual's susceptibility to burnout. Exposure to chronic or repeated stress instigates a spectrum of autonomic, endocrine, immunologic, and behavioral responses that activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Investigating the difference in psychobiologic reactivity, as well as defining the psychological symptoms that are characteristic to individuals vulnerable to stress-induced illness, would enable scientists to better look into the modalities to eradicate the negative effects. Recent studies have shown that a combination of individual and structural changes in institutions can increase resilience in physicians. SUMMARY: Burnout is a pathological syndrome that is triggered by constant levels of high stress. A combination of individual efforts as well as structural interventions can help to increase wellbeing in physicians.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Resiliência Psicológica
13.
Anesth Analg ; 126(2): 611-614, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189273

RESUMO

Anesthesiologists' perspectives on US health care finance reform are increasingly germane to recent policy reforms. The aim of this follow-up survey was to examine how anesthesiologists' views of health care costs and future practice roles have changed since 2014. Six thousand randomly chosen active members of the American Society of Anesthesiologists were again surveyed and were also asked several new questions regarding specialties and perioperative management. Results showed an increase in self-reported understanding of the perioperative surgical home. Government, insurance companies, and pharmaceutical companies saw an increase in perceived "major responsibility" for cost reduction. Respondents vastly preferred that patient care under the perioperative surgical home be multidisciplinary.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/economia , Anestesiologistas/tendências , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Papel do Médico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Feminino , Seguimentos , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Anesth Analg ; 125(5): 1653-1657, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742770

RESUMO

Several federal agencies have recently noted that the United States is in the midst of an unprecedented "opioid epidemic," with an increasing number of opioid-related overdoses and deaths. Providers currently face 3 population-level, public health challenges in providing optimal perioperative pain care: (1) the continued lack of overall improvement in the excessive incidence of inadequately treated postoperative pain, (2) minimizing or preventing postoperative opioid-related side effects, and (3) addressing current opioid prescribing patterns, and the accompanying problematic surge in prescription opioid diversion, misuse, abuse, addiction, and overdose. In the Perioperative Surgical Home model, anesthesiologists and other pain medicine specialists are uniquely qualified and positioned to develop, implement, and coordinate a comprehensive perioperative analgesic plan, which begins with the formal preoperative patient assessment and continues throughout the postdischarge, convalescence period. The scope and practice of pain management within the Perioperative Surgical Home should thus (a) expand to include routine preoperative patient-level pain-risk stratification (including the chronic use of opioid and nonopioid analgesics), (b) address the multitude of biopsychosocial factors that contribute to interpatient pain variability, and (c) extend and be well coordinated across all 4 phases of the surgical pain experience (preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and postdischarge). Specifically, safe and effective perioperative pain management should include a plan of care that is tailored to the individual patient's underlying disease(s), presence of a chronic pain condition and preoperative use of opioids, and the specific surgical procedure-with evidence-based, multimodal analgesic regimens being applied in the vast majority of cases. An iteratively evolutionary component of an existing institutional Perioperative Surgical Home program can be an integrated Transitional Pain Service, which is modeled directly after the well-established prototype at the Toronto General Hospital in Ontario, Canada. This multidisciplinary, perioperative Transitional Pain Service seeks to modify the pain trajectories of patients who are at increased risk of (a) long-term, increasing, excessive opioid consumption and/or (b) developing chronic postsurgical pain. Like the Perioperative Surgical Home program in which it can be logically integrated, such a Transitional Pain Service can serve as the needed but missing linkage to improve the continuum of care and perioperative pain management for elective, urgent, and emergent surgery. Even if successfully and cost-efficiently embedded within an existing Perioperative Surgical Home, a new perioperative Transitional Pain Service will require additional resources.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Esquema de Medicação , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Seleção de Pacientes , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 19(3): 738-744, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895152

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of acculturation on anxiety and stress in Latino and non-Latino white parents of children undergoing outpatient surgery. Participants included 686 parent-child dyads from four major children's hospitals in the United States. Latino parents who grew up in the U.S. reported higher levels of anxiety (p = 0.009) and stress (p < 0.001) compared to parents who grew up in a Latin American country. Additionally, English-speaking Latino parents reported higher anxiety and stress compared to both Spanish-speaking Latino and non-Latino white parents (p's < 0.05), whereas Spanish-speaking Latino and non-Latino white parents reported similar levels of stress and anxiety. Results of the current study were consistent with the immigrant health paradox in that more acculturated Latino parents reported higher levels of anxiety and stress than less acculturated Latino and non-Latino white parents, supporting the need for culturally tailored interventions in the perioperative environment.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Ansiedade/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Adenoidectomia/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Tonsilectomia
18.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 27(2): 126-136, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27900817

RESUMO

Pediatric disparities disproportionately affect Latino youth undergoing surgery and their families. As such, there is a critical need for culturally relevant frameworks that can advance perioperative intervention approaches in this population and reduce these disparities. In the following article, we first describe the methodological process of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and next report the results of the CBPR process that was conducted in this population. An interdisciplinary group of investigators, Latina mothers, and various other stakeholders met for a series of CBPR-based structured meetings. Qualitative data collection and analyses of the CBPR process were guided by principles of grounded theory that employs inductive techniques and constant comparison analyses until reaching saturation of data. Barriers identified in the process can be grouped within the following domains: child-related factors, family-related factors, health care provider factors, and hospital system factors. Family system factors category (coded references = 136) had the highest number of coded references; this category was found to be best described by the value of familismo or familism, including a duty to help family members when in need. The health care provider category (coded references = 42) was ranked second by frequency. Within this category, two major themes surfaced: health care provider cultural competence and overestimating health literacy. All barriers identified will be next incorporated in an innovative behavioral intervention that is currently being developed. We conclude that the model of CBPR can be used within the context of perioperative care of children and their families.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/métodos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos , Pediatria/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Adolescente , California , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Anesth Analg ; 124(3): 768-774, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the design, implementation, and associated outcome changes of a Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) for patients undergoing ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a Kaiser Permanente practice model. METHODS: A multidisciplinary planning committee of 15 individuals developed and implemented a new PSH program. A total of 878 subjects were included in the preimplementation period (T-fast), and 1082 patients were included in the postimplementation period (PSH) based on the date of their surgery. The primary goal of this report was to assess the changes in patient outcomes associated with this new PSH implementation on variables such as total length of stay and unplanned hospital admission (UHA). RESULTS: Patients assigned to the PSH model had a significantly shorter mean length of stay compared with patients in the T-fast group (162 ± 308 vs 369 ± 790 minutes, P = .00005). UHA was significantly higher in the T-fast group as compared with the PSH group (8.5% [95% CI 6.6-10.4] vs 1.7% [0.9-2.5], P < .00005). There was no difference in the 7 days readmission rates between patients managed in the T-fast track and the PSH track (5.4% [3.8-7.0] vs 5.0% [3.6-6.3], P = .066). CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of the PSH into a Kaiser Permanente model of care was associated with a simultaneous decrease of length of stay and UHA for laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/métodos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Seguro Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/normas , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Healthc (Amst) ; 4(4): 334-339, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28007227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The challenge of knowledge translation in medical settings is well known, and implementing change in clinical practice can take years. For the increasing number total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients annually, there is ample evidence to endorse neuraxial anesthesia over general anesthesia. The rate of adoption of this practice, however, is slow at the current time. We hypothesized that a Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) model facilitates rapid change implementation in anesthesia. METHODS: The PSH clinical pathways workgroup at a tertiary care Veterans Affairs hospital embarked on a 5-month process of changing the preferred anesthetic technique for patients undergoing TKA. This process involved multiple sequential steps: literature review; development of a work document; training of staff; and prospective collection of data. To assess the impact of this change, we examined data 6 months before (PRE, n=90) and after (POST) change implementation (n=128), and our primary outcome was the overall proportion of spinal anesthesia usage for each 6 month period. Secondary outcomes included minor and major complications associated with anesthetic technique. RESULTS: Over a period of one year, there was an increase in the proportion of patients who received spinal anesthesia (13% vs. 63%, p<0.001). For the following year, 53-92% of TKA patients per month received spinal anesthesia. There were no differences in major complications. CONCLUSION: Rapid and sustained change implementation in clinical anesthesia practice based on emerging evidence is feasible. IMPLICATIONS: Perioperative Surgical Home model may facilitate rapid change implementation in surgical care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Cohort study, Level 2.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho , Procedimentos Clínicos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Raquianestesia , Feminino , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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