Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 28
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248966, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of studies assessing non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality within population-based settings in Uganda. We assessed mortality due to major NCDs among persons ≥ 30 years in Eastern Uganda from 2010 to 2016. METHODS: The study was carried out at the Iganga-Mayuge health and demographic surveillance site in the Iganga and Mayuge districts of Eastern Uganda. Information on cause of death was obtained through verbal autopsies using a structured questionnaire to conduct face-face interviews with carers or close relatives of the deceased. Physicians assigned likely cause of death using ICD-10 codes. Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated using direct method, with the average population across the seven years of the study (2010 to 2016) as the standard. Age categories of 30-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and ≥ 71 years were used for standardization. RESULTS: A total of 1,210 deaths among persons ≥ 30 years old were reported from 2010 to 2016 (50.7% among women). Approximately 53% of all deaths were due to non-communicable diseases, 31.8% due to communicable diseases, 8.2% due to injuries, and 7% due to maternal-related deaths or undetermined causes. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for the largest proportion of NCD deaths in each year, and women had substantially higher cardiovascular disease mortality rates compared to men. Conversely, women had lower diabetes mortality rates than men for five of the seven years examined. CONCLUSIONS: Non-communicable diseases are major causes of death among adults in Iganga and Mayuge; and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are leading causes of NCD deaths. Efforts are needed to tackle NCD risk factors and provide NCD care to reduce associated burden and premature mortality.

2.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 14, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth registration is a child's first right. Registration of live births, stillbirths and deaths is foundational for national planning. Completeness of birth registration for live births in low- and middle-income countries is measured through population-based surveys which do not currently include completeness of stillbirth or death registration. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH population-based survey of women of reproductive age was undertaken in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Uganda (2017-2018). In four African sites, we included new/modified questions regarding registration for 1177 stillbirths and 11,881 livebirths (1333 neonatal deaths and 10,548 surviving the neonatal period). Questions were evaluated for completeness of responses, data quality, time to administer and estimates of registration completeness using descriptive statistics. Timing of birth registration, factors associated with non-registration and reported barriers were assessed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Almost all women, irrespective of their baby's survival, responded to registration questions, taking an average of < 1 min. Reported completeness of birth registration was 30.7% (6.1-53.5%) for babies surviving the neonatal period, compared to 1.7% for neonatal deaths (0.4-5.7%). Women were able to report age at birth registration for 93.6% of babies. Non-registration of babies surviving the neonatal period was significantly higher for home-born children (aOR 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.60)) and in Dabat (Ethiopia) (aOR 4.11 (95% CI 3.37-5.01)). Other socio-demographic factors associated with non-registration included younger age of mother, more prior births, little or no education, and lower socio-economic status. Neonatal death registration questions were feasible (100% women responded; only 1% did not know), revealing extremely low completeness with only 1.2% of neonatal deaths reported as registered. Despite > 70% of stillbirths occurring in facilities, only 2.5% were reported as registered. CONCLUSIONS: Questions on birth, stillbirth and death registration were feasible in a household survey. Completeness of birth registration is low in all four sites, but stillbirth and neonatal death registration was very low. Closing the registration gap amongst facility births could increase registration of both livebirths and facility deaths, including stillbirths, but will require co-ordination between civil registration systems and the often over-stretched health sector. Investment and innovation is required to capture birth and especially deaths in both facility and community systems.

3.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 16, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (gestational age (GA) <37 weeks) is the leading cause of child mortality worldwide. However, GA is rarely assessed in population-based surveys, the major data source in low/middle-income countries. We examined the performance of new questions to measure GA in household surveys, a subset of which had linked early pregnancy ultrasound GA data. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH population-based survey of 69,176 women was undertaken (2017-2018) in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Uganda. We included questions regarding GA in months (GAm) for all women and GA in weeks (GAw) for a subset; we also asked if the baby was 'born before expected' to estimate preterm birth rates. Survey data were linked to surveillance data in two sites, and to ultrasound pregnancy dating at <24 weeks in one site. We assessed completeness and quality of reported GA. We examined the validity of estimated preterm birth rates by sensitivity and specificity, over/under-reporting of GAw in survey compared to ultrasound by multinomial logistic regression, and explored perceptions about GA and barriers and enablers to its reporting using focus group discussions (n = 29). RESULTS: GAm questions were almost universally answered, but heaping on 9 months resulted in underestimation of preterm birth rates. Preference for reporting GAw in even numbers was evident, resulting in heaping at 36 weeks; hence, over-estimating preterm birth rates, except in Matlab where the peak was at 38 weeks. Questions regarding 'born before expected' were answered but gave implausibly low preterm birth rates in most sites. Applying ultrasound as the gold standard in Matlab site, sensitivity of survey-GAw for detecting preterm birth (GAw <37) was 60% and specificity was 93%. Focus group findings suggest that women perceive GA to be important, but usually counted in months. Antenatal care attendance, women's education and health cards may improve reporting. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first published study assessing GA reporting in surveys, compared with the gold standard of ultrasound. Reporting GAw within 5 years' recall is feasible with high completeness, but accuracy is affected by heaping. Compared to ultrasound-GAw, results are reasonably specific, but sensitivity needs to be improved. We propose revised questions based on the study findings for further testing and validation in settings where pregnancy ultrasound data and/or last menstrual period dates/GA recorded in pregnancy are available. Specific training of interviewers is recommended.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal immunization is a successful and cost-effective public health strategy. It protects pregnant women and their infants from vaccine-preventable diseases. Uganda is exploring new vaccines for pregnant women like replacing Tetanus Toxoid (TT) with Tetanus-Diphtheria (Td). Research on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and willingness among pregnant women is needed before the introduction of vaccines for pregnant women. This study was aimed at exploring maternal knowledge, attitudes, willingness, and beliefs towards maternal immunization among pregnant women in rural Uganda. METHODS: This was a qualitative descriptive study. Ten focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted at antenatal care (ANC) clinics and in a rural community of Uganda. Five key informant interviews (KIIs) were done with health workers, for triangulation. Considering context and research characteristics, data were collected and thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Women were familiar with the importance of maternal vaccines, had positive attitudes, and expressed willingness to take them. Acceptance of a new vaccine could be affected by worries of pregnant women and that of their partners, who influence health seeking decisions in a home concerning adverse events, following the maternal immunization (AEFI). There were misconceptions about introduction of vaccines such as the belief that vaccines treat malaria and general body weakness, and being used as guinea pigs to test for the vaccine before its introduction to the larger population. CONCLUSION: A range of diverse sentiments and beliefs may affect uptake and acceptability of vaccines that are introduced in communities. For instance, ignoring vaccine safety concerns may impede maternal immunization acceptability, because pregnant women and their husbands are concerned about AEFI. Moreover, husbands make all health-seeking decisions at home, and their opinion is key, when considering such interventions.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies from high-income countries reported reduced life expectancy in children with cerebral palsy (CP), while no population-based study has evaluated mortality of children with CP in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to estimate the mortality rate (MR) of children with CP in a rural region of Uganda and identify risk factors and causes of death (CODs). METHODS AND FINDINGS: This population-based, longitudinal cohort study was based on data from Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance System in eastern Uganda. We identified 97 children (aged 2-17 years) with CP in 2015, whom we followed to 2019. They were compared with an age-matched cohort from the general population (n = 41 319). MRs, MR ratios (MRRs), hazard ratios (HRs), and immediate CODs were determined. MR was 3952 per 100 000 person years (95% CI 2212-6519) in children with CP and 137 per 100 000 person years (95% CI 117-159) in the general population. Standardized MRR was 25·3 in the CP cohort, compared with the general population. In children with CP, risk of death was higher in those with severe gross motor impairments than in those with milder impairments (HR 6·8; p = 0·007) and in those with severe malnutrition than in those less malnourished (HR = 3·7; p = 0·052). MR was higher in females in the CP cohort, with a higher MRR in females (53·0; 95% CI 26·4-106·3) than in males (16·3; 95% CI 7·2-37·2). Age had no significant effect on MR in the CP cohort, but MRR was higher at 10-18 years (39·6; 95% CI 14·2-110·0) than at 2-6 years (21·0; 95% CI 10·2-43·2). Anaemia, malaria, and other infections were the most common CODs in the CP cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of premature death was excessively high in children with CP in rural sub-Saharan Africa, especially in those with severe motor impairments or malnutrition. While global childhood mortality has significantly decreased during recent decades, this observed excessive mortality is a hidden humanitarian crisis that needs to be addressed.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/mortalidade , Mortalidade Prematura , Adolescente , Paralisia Cerebral/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334903

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community and individual sociodemographic characteristics play an important role in child survival. However, a question remains how urbanisation and demographic changes in sub-Saharan Africa affect community-level determinants for child survival. METHODS: Longitudinal data from the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site was used to obtain postneonatal under-5 mortality rates between March 2005 and February 2015 in periurban and rural areas separately. Multilevel survival analysis models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: There were 43 043 postneonatal under-5 children contributing to 116 385 person years of observation, among whom 1737 died. Average annual crude mortality incidence rate (IR) differed significantly between periurban and rural areas (9.0 (8.1 to 10.0) per 1000 person-years vs 18.1 (17.1 to 19.0), respectively). In periurban areas, there was evidence for decreasing mortality from IR=11.3 (7.7 to 16.6) in 2006 to IR=4.5 (3.0 to 6.9) in 2015. The mortality fluctuated with no evidence for reduction in rural areas (IR=19.0 (15.8 to 22.8) in 2006; IR=15.5 (13.0 to 18.6) in 2015). BCG vaccination was associated with reduced mortality in periurban and rural areas (adjusted rate ratio (aRR)=0.45; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.67 and aRR=0.56; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.76, respectively). Maternal education level within the community was associated with reduced mortality in both periurban and rural sites (aRR=0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.99; aRR=0.90; 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99). The proportion of households in the poorest quintile within the community was associated with mortality in rural areas only (aRR=1.08; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.18). In rural areas, a large disparity existed between the least poor and the poorest (aRR=0.50; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.92). CONCLUSION: We found evidence for a mortality decline in peri-urban but not rural areas. Investments in the known key health (eg, vaccination) and socio-economic interventions (education, and economic development) continue to be crucial for mortality declines. Focused strategies to eliminate the disparity between wealth quintiles are also warranted. There may be equitable access to health services in peri-urban areas but improved metrics of socioeconomic position suitable for peri-urban residents may be needed.

7.
Disabil Health J ; : 101022, 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218854

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Empirical data is scare on assessment of concordance between caregiver-child responses on child functioning. OBJECTIVE: To assess correlation and agreement between children (11-17 years old) and their caregivers' responses to the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module (CFM) at the Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (IM-HDSS) in Uganda. METHODS: CFM with 24-questions corresponding to 13 domains of functioning was administered to children between 11 and 17 years of age and their caregivers. Descriptive analyses of the child/caregiver responses were conducted. Correlation and agreement between caregiver and child responses were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 217 caregiver/child pairs eligible for this study, 181 pairs agreed to participate (83.4%). The mean age of children was 13.9 ± 1.9 years, and 56.4% were males. Cronbach's alpha was 0.892 and 0.886 for the caregiver and child versions of CFM respectively, showing good internal consistency in both. There was a significant overall agreement between mean score of caregiver (5.36 ± 5.63 out of 39) and child (5.45 ± 5.34) pairs. Spearman's rank correlation between the pairs was 0.806 (strong positive correlation). Bland-Altman plots for CFM scores showed greater agreement between caregiver and child at lower scores. Percentage agreement between the pairs for overall disability was greater for mild (83.53%) and moderate (79.37%) categories as compared to the severe (66.67%) category. There was substantial agreement (kappa 0.623) for overall disability between the pairs. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that there is significant correlation and agreement between self-reported caregiver-child pair responses, opening the way for considering children as CFM respondents, when possible.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1334, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module (CFM) assesses child functioning among children between 5 and 17 years of age. This study adapted and validated the CFM at the Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (IM-HDSS) in Uganda. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2018-January 2019 at the IM-HDSS. Respondents were caregivers of children between 5 and 17 years of age who were administered modified Washington Group short set (mWG-SS) and CFM. The responses were recorded on a 4-point Likert scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted on child and caregiver demographic characteristics. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) assessed underlying factor structure, dimensionality and factor loadings. Cronbach's alpha was reported as an assessment of internal consistency. Face validity was assessed during the translation process, and concurrent validity of CFM was assessed through comparison with disability short form. RESULTS: Out of 1842 caregivers approached, 1439 (78.1%) participated in the study. Mean age of children was 11.06 ± 3.59 years, 51.4% were males, and 86.1% had a primary caregiver. Based on EFA, vision, hearing, walking, self-care, communication, learning, remembering, concentrating, accepting change, behavior control, and making friends loaded on factor 1 - "Motor and Cognition," while anxiety and depression loaded on factor 2 - "Mood". Cronbach's alpha for the overall CFM was 0.899 (good internal consistency). Cronbach's alpha for each extracted factor was excellent, motor and cognition (0.904), and mood (0.902). CFM had acceptable face validity. Spearman's rank correlation between scores of CFM and modified WG short set was 0.51 (p-value < 0.001). The overall mean CFM score was 2.47 ± 3.82 out of 39. The mean score for Mood (1.35 ± 1.42 out of 6) was higher compared to Motor and Cognition (1.12 ± 3.06 out of 33). Comparing modified WG short set and CFM Likert responses, the percent agreement was greatest for "cannot do at all." CONCLUSION: CFM is a two-factor, valid and reliable scale for assessing disability in Uganda and can be applied to other similar settings to contribute towards disability data from the region. It is an easy-to-administer tool that can help in deeper understanding of context-specific burden and extent of disability in children between 5 and 17 years of age.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the under-10 years of age mortality has not been comprehensively studied. We applied the life-course perspective in the analysis and interpretation of the event history demographic and verbal autopsy data to examine when and why children die before their 10th birthday. METHODS: We analysed a decade (2005-2015) of event histories data on 22385 and 1815 verbal autopsies data collected by Iganga-Mayuge HDSS in eastern Uganda. We used the lifetable for mortality estimates and patterns, and Royston-Parmar survival analysis approach for mortality risk factors' assessment. RESULTS: The under-10 and 5-9 years of age mortality probabilities were 129 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 123-370) per 1000 live births and 11 (95% CI = 7-26) per 1000 children aged 5-9 years, respectively. The top four causes of new-born mortality and stillbirth were antepartum maternal complications (31%), intrapartum-related causes including birth injury, asphyxia and obstructed labour (25%), Low Birth Weight (LBW) and prematurity (20%), and other unidentified perinatal mortality causes (18%). Malaria, protein deficiency including anaemia, diarrhoea or gastrointestinal, and acute respiratory infections were the major causes of mortality among those aged 0-9 years-contributing 88%, 88% and 46% of all causes of mortality for the post-neonatal, child and 5-9 years of age respectively. 33% of all causes of mortality among those aged 5-9 years was a share of Injuries (22%) and gastrointestinal (11%). Regarding the deterministic pattern, nearly 30% of the new-borns and sick children died without access to formal care. Access to the treatment for the top five morbidities was after 4 days of symptoms' recognition. The childhood mortality risk factors were LBW, multiple births, having no partner, adolescence age, rural residence, low education level and belonging to a poor household, but their association was stronger among infants. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the vulnerable groups at risk of mortality as LBW children, multiple births, rural dwellers, those whose mother are of low socio-economic position, adolescents and unmarried. The differences in causes of mortalities between children aged 0-5 and 5-9 years were noted. These findings suggest for a strong life-course approach in the design and implementation of child health interventions that target pregnant women and children of all ages.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade da Criança , Mortalidade Infantil , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda
11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(4): e555-e566, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 5·1 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Household surveys, most notably the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), run in more than 90 countries and are the main data source from the highest burden regions, but data-quality concerns remain. We aimed to compare two questionnaires: a full birth history module with additional questions on pregnancy losses (FBH+; the current DHS standard) and a full pregnancy history module (FPH), which collects information on all livebirths, stillbirths, miscarriages, and neonatal deaths. METHODS: Women residing in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites within the INDEPTH Network (Bandim in Guinea-Bissau, Dabat in Ethiopia, IgangaMayuge in Uganda, Matlab in Bangladesh, and Kintampo in Ghana) were randomly assigned (individually) to be interviewed using either FBH+ or FPH between July 28, 2017, and Aug 13, 2018. The primary outcomes were stillbirths and neonatal deaths in the 5 years before the survey interview (measured by stillbirth rate [SBR] and neonatal mortality rate [NMR]) and mean time taken to complete the maternity history section of the questionnaire. We also assessed between-site heterogeneity. This study is registered with the Research Registry, 4720. FINDINGS: 69 176 women were allocated to be interviewed by either FBH+ (n=34 805) or FPH (n=34 371). The mean time taken to complete FPH (10·5 min) was longer than for FBH+ (9·1 min; p<0·0001). Using FPH, the estimated SBR was 17·4 per 1000 total births, 21% (95% CI -10 to 62) higher than with FBH+ (15·2 per 1000 total births; p=0·20) in the 5 years preceding the survey interview. There was strong evidence of between-site heterogeneity (I2=80·9%; p<0·0001), with SBR higher for FPH than for FBH+ in four of five sites. The estimated NMR did not differ between modules (FPH 25·1 per 1000 livebirths vs FBH+ 25·4 per 1000 livebirths), with no evidence of between-site heterogeneity (I2=0·7%; p=0·40). INTERPRETATION: FPH takes an average of 1·4 min longer to complete than does FBH+, but has the potential to increase reporting of stillbirths in high burden contexts. The between-site heterogeneity we found might reflect variations in interviewer training and survey implementation, emphasising the importance of interviewer skills, training, and consistent implementation in data quality. FUNDING: Children's Investment Fund Foundation.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Guiné-Bissau/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
JMIR Form Res ; 3(4): e15000, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is need for more timely data to inform interventions that address the growing noncommunicable disease (NCD) epidemic. With a global increase in mobile phone ownership, mobile phone surveys can bridge this gap. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the acceptability and use of interactive voice response (IVR) surveys for surveillance of NCD behavioral risk factors in rural Uganda. METHODS: This qualitative study employed user group testing (UGT) with community members. The study was conducted at the Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (IM-HDSS) in Eastern Uganda. We conducted four UGTs which consisted of different categories of HDSS members: females living in urban areas, males living in urban areas, females living in rural areas, and males living in rural areas. Participants were individually sent an IVR survey, then were brought in for a group discussion using a semistructured guide. Data were analyzed thematically using directed content analysis. RESULTS: Participants perceived that IVR surveys may be useful in promoting confidentiality, saving costs, and raising awareness on NCD behavioral risk factors. Due to the clarity and delivery of questions in the local language, the IVR survey was perceived as easy to use. Community members suggested scheduling surveys on specific days and sending reminders as ways to improve their use for surveillance. Social issues such as domestic violence and perceptions toward unknown calls, technological factors including poor network connections and inability to use phones, and personal issues such as lack of access to phones and use of multiple networks were identified as barriers to the acceptability and use of mobile phone surveys. However, incentives were reported to motivate people to complete the survey. CONCLUSIONS: Community members reflected on contextual and sociological implications of using mobile phones for surveillance of NCD behavioral risk factors. The opportunities and challenges that affect acceptability and use of IVR surveys should be considered in designing and implementing surveillance programs for NCD risk factors.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0203721, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients experiencing adverse drug events (ADE) in many developing countries are in the best position to report these events to the authorities but need to be empowered to do so. Systematic evaluation of community engagement and patient support especially in rural areas would provide evidence for a program to monitor potential harm from medicines. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a community dialogue and sensitization (CDS) program on the knowledge, attitude and practises of community members for reporting ADE. METHODS: This an uncontrolled before-after study was conducted in two eastern Ugandan districts between September 2016 and August 2017. RESULTS: After implementation of the community dialogue and sensitization (CDS) program, there was an overall 20% (95% CI:16% to 25%) increase in knowledge about ADE in the community compared to before the program began. Awareness levels increased by 50% (95% CI: 37% to 63%) among those with little or no education and by41% (95% CI: 31% to 52%) among young people (15-24 years). Furthermore, 5% (95% CI: 3% to 7%) more respondents recognized the need for reporting ADEs compared to before the program. Finally, there was a significant increase of 115% (95% CI:137% to 217%) in respondent recognition and reporting of ADEs compared to the beginning of the CDS program. Overall, this community found the CDS program acceptable and proposed aspects that could be improved for future use. CONCLUSION: Our evaluation showed that the CDS program increased knowledge and improved attitudes by catalyzing discussions among community members and healthcare professionals on health issues and monitoring safety of medicines compared to before the program. Successful implementation of the program depends on holistic health systems strengthening and adaptation to the community's way of life.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública , População Rural , Autorrelato , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010901, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820319

RESUMO

Background: Under-five and maternal mortality were halved in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) era, with slower reductions for 2.6 million neonatal deaths and 2.6 million stillbirths. The Every Newborn Action Plan aims to accelerate progress towards national targets, and includes an ambitious Measurement Improvement Roadmap. Population-based household surveys, notably Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, are major sources of population-level data on child mortality in countries with weaker civil registration and vital statistics systems, where over two-thirds of global child deaths occur. To estimate neonatal/child mortality and pregnancy outcomes (stillbirths, miscarriages, birthweight, gestational age) the most common direct methods are: (1) the standard DHS-7 with Full Birth History with additional questions on pregnancy losses in the past 5 years (FBH+) or (2) a Full Pregnancy History (FPH). No direct comparison of these two methods has been undertaken, although descriptive analyses suggest that the FBH+ may underestimate mortality rates particularly for stillbirths. Methods: This is the protocol paper for the Every Newborn-INDEPTH study (INDEPTH Network, International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health Every Newborn, Every Newborn Action Plan), aiming to undertake a randomised comparison of FBH+ and FPH to measure pregnancy outcomes in a household survey in five selected INDEPTH Network sites in Africa and South Asia (Bandim in urban and rural Guinea-Bissau; Dabat in Ethiopia; IgangaMayuge in Uganda; Kintampo in Ghana; Matlab in Bangladesh). The survey will reach >68 000 pregnancies to assess if there is ≥15% difference in stillbirth rates. Additional questions will capture birthweight, gestational age, birth/death certification, termination of pregnancy and fertility intentions. The World Bank's Survey Solutions platform will be tailored for data collection, including recording paradata to evaluate timing. A mixed methods assessment of barriers and enablers to reporting of pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes will be undertaken. Conclusions: This large-scale study is the first randomised comparison of these two methods to capture pregnancy outcomes. Results are expected to inform the evidence base for survey methodology, especially in DHS, regarding capture of stillbirths and other outcomes, notably neonatal deaths, abortions (spontaneous and induced), birthweight and gestational age. In addition, this study will inform strategies to improve health and demographic surveillance capture of neonatal/child mortality and pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Vigilância da População/métodos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Malar J ; 18(1): 36, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injectable artesunate (AS) is the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended medication for the treatment of severe malaria followed with an oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). There are few studies indicating how physicians prescribe injectable AS, injectable quinine (Q) or injectable artemether (AR) and ACT for severe malaria. This study was undertaken to evaluate prescription compliance to the WHO recommendation in 8 public health facilities in Ghana and Uganda. This was a modified cohort event monitoring study involving patients who were administered with injectable anti-malarial for treatment of presumed or confirmed severe malaria. Patients prescribed at least one dose of injectable artesunate, artemether or quinine qualified to enrol in the study. Patients were recruited at inpatient facilities and followed up in the hospital, by phone or at home. Following WHO recommendations, patients are to be prescribed 3 doses of injectable AS, Q or AR for at least 24 h followed with oral ACT. Compliance rate was estimated as the number of patient prescriptions that met the WHO recommendation for treatment of severe malaria divided by the total number of patients who completed the study by end of follow up. Log-binomial regression model was used to identify predictors for compliance. Based on the literature and limitations of available data from the patients' record, the diagnosis results, age, gender, weight, and country were considered as potential predictors of prescriber adherence to the WHO recommendations. RESULTS: A total of 1191 patients completed the study, of which 93% were prescribed injectable AS, 3.1% (injectable AR or Q) with 32.5% prescribed follow-on oral ACT and 26% on concomitant antibiotics. 391 (32.8%) were in Ghana and 800 (67.2%) in Uganda. There were 582 (48.9%) women. The median age was 3.9 years (IQR = 2, 9) and median weight was 13 kg (IQR = 10, 20). Of the 1191 patients, 329 of the prescriptions complied with the WHO recommendation (compliance rate = 27.6%; 95% CI = [25.2, 30.2]). Diagnostic results (Adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 4.56; 95% = [3.42, 6.08]; p < 0.0001) and weight (20 + kg vs < 10 kg: aPR = 0.65; 95% = [0.44, 0.96]; p = 0.015) were identified as factors independently associated with compliance. CONCLUSION: Injectable AS is the most commonly prescribed medicine in the management of severe malaria in Ghana and Uganda. However, adherence to the WHO recommendation of at least 3 doses of injectable anti-malarial in 24 h followed by a full course of ACT is low, at less than 30%.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Gana , Guias como Assunto , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Uganda , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Int Health ; 11(2): 128-135, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standardized case definitions for obstetric and neonatal outcomes were developed by the Global Alignment of Immunization Safety Assessment in Pregnancy (GAIA) project. These definitions can facilitate comparable assessment of maternal immunization safety surveillance and research. This study assessed the capabilities of health centers (HC) in Uganda to implement these definitions in a low income country, which has not been explored. METHODS: Healthcare practitioners at 15 government-accredited health centers and one government-funded district hospital in the Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (IMHDSS) in Uganda were interviewed about the facility's clinical diagnostic and laboratory capabilities. Five obstetric and five neonatal case definitions were evaluated. Definitions with the highest diagnostic certainty were designated as level 1, while definitions that decreased in certainty were designated as level 2 or 4. HCs were evaluated on diagnostic and laboratory capabilities to apply the GAIA definitions. RESULTS: Higher-level facilities in the IMHDSS demonstrated the ability to diagnose more specific levels of the GAIA obstetric and neonatal outcomes than lower-level facilities. Furthermore, for the neonatal outcome assessment, there was an increased ability to diagnose outcomes moving from GAIA level 1 to level 3. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of health centers to implement globally standardized definitions is promising for implementation of standardized data collection methods for global vaccine safety surveillance and research.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Uganda
17.
Drug Saf ; 41(8): 753-765, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627926

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uganda has rapidly increased access to antimalarial medicines in an effort to address the huge malaria disease burden. Pharmacovigilance information is important to guide policy decisions. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish the burden of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and associated risk factors for developing ADRs to artemisinin-based antimalarial treatment in Uganda. METHODS: An active follow-up study was conducted between April and July 2017 in a cohort of patients receiving treatment for uncomplicated malaria in the Iganga, Mayuge, and Kampala districts. RESULTS: A total of 782 patients with a median age of 22 years (58.6% females) were recruited into this study, with the majority recruited from public health facilities (97%). Diagnostic tests before treatment were performed for 76% of patients, and 97% of patients received artemether/lumefantrine. The prevalence of ADRs was 22.5% (176/782); however, the total number of ADRs was 245 since some patients reported more than one ADR. The most commonly reported reactions were general body weakness (24%), headache (13%), and dizziness (11%). Women were more likely to develop an ADR (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.9), urban dwellers were more likely to develop an ADR than rural residents (aOR 9.9, 95% CI 5.4-17.9), and patients with comorbidities were more likely to develop an ADR than those without (aOR 7.4, 95% CI 4.4-12.3). CONCLUSION: The burden of ADRs is high among women and in patients from urban settings and those with comorbidities. Such risk factors need to be considered in order to optimise therapy. Close monitoring of ADRs is key in implementation of the malaria treatment policy.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/tendências , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
18.
Drug Saf ; 41(9): 871-880, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696507

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Injectable artesunate (Inj AS) is the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended product for treating severe malaria. However, despite widespread usage, there are few published safety studies involving large populations in real-world settings. In this study, we sought to assess the incidence of common adverse events (AEs) following the intake of Inj AS in real-life settings. METHODS: This is a modified cohort event monitoring study involving patients who were administered with Inj AS at eight sites (four each in Ghana and Uganda) between May and December 2016. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had severe/complicated malaria and were able and willing to participate in the study. Eligible patients were followed up by telephone or hospital or home visit on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after drug administration to document AEs and serious AEs (SAEs). Patients were also encouraged to report all AEs at any time during the study period. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the proportion of patients with any AEs by end of Day 28. Causality assessment was made on all AEs/SAEs using the WHO/UMC (Uppsala Monitoring Centre) causality method. RESULTS: A total of 1103 eligible patients were administered Inj AS, of which 360 patients were in Ghana and 743 in Uganda. The incidence of any AE by the end of follow-up among patients treated with AS was estimated to be 17.9% (197/1103) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.8-20.3). The median time-to-onset of any AEs was 9 days (interquartile range (IQR) = 4, 14). The top five AEs recorded among patients treated with AS were pyrexia (3.5%), abdominal pain (2.5%), diarrhoea (1.7%), cough (1.5%) and asthenia (1.5%). Most of these top five AEs occurred in the first 14 days following treatment. Regarding the relatedness of these AEs to Inj AS, 78.9% of pyrexia (30/38), 63.0% of pain (17/27), 68.4% of diarrhoea (13/19), 85.5% of cough (14/16) and 75.0% of asthenia (12/16) were assessed as 'possibly' related. There were 17 SAEs including 13 deaths. Two of the deaths are 'possibly' related to Inj AS, as were three non-fatal SAEs: severe abdominal pain, failure of therapy and severe anaemia. CONCLUSION: The incidence of common AEs among patients treated with Inj AS in real-world settings was found to be relatively low. Future studies should consider larger cohorts to document rare AEs as well. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02817919.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Artesunato , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/tendências , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Febre/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Gana , Humanos , Injeções , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(3): e0004504, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26942416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects almost 300 million people worldwide each year. It is highly endemic in Mozambique. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis relies mainly on mass drug administration (MDA), as well as adoption of basic sanitation practices. Individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis are likely to have a significant effect on prevention and control efforts. In order to establish a baseline to evaluate a community engagement intervention with a focus on schistosomiasis, a survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to the disease was conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A representative cross-sectional household survey was carried out in four districts of Nampula province, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted in a total of 791 households, using a structured questionnaire. While awareness of schistosomiasis was high (91%), correct knowledge of how it is acquired (18%), transmitted (26%) and prevented (13%) was low among those who had heard of the disease. Misconceptions, such as the belief that schistosomiasis is transmitted through sexual contact (27%), were common. Only about a third of those who were aware of the disease stated that they practiced a protective behaviour and only a minority of those (39%) reported an effective behaviour. Despite several rounds of MDA for schistosomiasis in the recent past, only a small minority of households with children reported that at least one of them had received a drug to treat the disease (9%). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Poor knowledge of the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it, coupled with persisting misconceptions, continue to pose barriers to effective disease prevention and control. To achieve high levels of uptake of MDA and adoption of protective behaviours, it will be essential to engage individuals and communities, improving their understanding of the causes and symptoms of schistosomiasis, recommended prevention mechanisms and the rationale behind MDA.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Doenças Endêmicas , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Drug Saf ; 38(4): 395-408, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25749663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the national HIV control programme in Uganda has a well-established system for monitoring disease progression and treatment outcomes, monitoring of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is inadequate. In order to address under-reporting of ADRs, the National Pharmacovigilance Centre, in collaboration with the HIV control programme, piloted a targeted spontaneous reporting (TSR) system as a complementary method to traditional spontaneous reporting. METHODS: From April 2012 to March 2014, all cases of suspected renal toxicity in 10,225 patients on tenofovir-based regimens were monitored in the regional pharmacovigilance centres of Masaka and Mbale. The identification of renal toxicity was performed using serum creatinine, urinalysis, and other signs and symptoms of kidney injury. RESULTS: There was one suspected renal toxicity reported for every 200 patients on a tenofovir-based regimen. Some of the serious reactions reported were death in two cases and bone demineralisation in five patients. Most of patients had been on treatment for 2 years. Those that had been on tenofovir for more than 4 years had raised serum creatinine levels, emphasising the importance of monitoring for the risk of renal damage for longer. We also found that the reporting rate of suspected ADRs for all medicines in the two sites increased almost fivefold during the implementation period. CONCLUSION: Although the occurrence of suspected tenofovir renal toxicity of HIV patients is low, there is need to monitor those at risk so as to prevent irreversible kidney injury. TSR can complement spontaneous reporting for collecting safety data on particular drugs and increase ADR reporting rates.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacovigilância , Projetos Piloto , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...