Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 41
Filtrar
1.
Health Care Women Int ; : 1-15, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030977

RESUMO

Rapid dissemination of mobile technology provides substantial opportunity for overcoming challenges reaching rural and marginalized populations. We assessed feasibility and acceptability of longitudinal mobile data capture among women undergoing fistula surgery in Uganda (n = 60) in 2014-2015. Participants were followed for 12 months following surgery, with data captured quarterly, followed by interviews at 12 months. Participant retention was high (97%). Most respondents reported no difficulty with mobile data capture (range 93%-100%), and preferred mobile interview (88%-100%). Mobile data capture saved 1000 person-hours of transit and organizational time. Phone-based mobile data collection provided social support. Our results support this method for longitudinal studies among geographically and socially marginalized populations.

2.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 72, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low contraceptive uptake exposes women to unintended pregnancies and often the resultant obstetric complications. The immigrant communities especially from countries with low contraceptive use present a unique challenge. The main objective of the study was to describe modern contraceptive use and associated factors among married Somali women living in Kampala. METHODS: A community based cross sectional survey was conducted among Somali women living in Kampala from August to November 2016. Using consecutive sampling, 341 respondents were recruited after informed consent. Data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaires on contraceptives use and factors associated. Data was entered in Epidata 3.1 and analyzed using STATA 11.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with use of modern contraceptives. RESULTS: Majority of the participants were refugees 317/341(94%), with a mean age of 30.4 (±6.7) years and 136/341 (40%) had no formal education. More than 325/341 (95%) of respondents desired to have five or more children (Average 9 + 3) and 164/341 (45%) had five or more living children. Only 29% of women were using modern contraceptives, of which 51% used oral pills, 15% condoms and 15% injectables. Having tertiary education, one who had ever used modern contraceptives and desire for spacing of more than two years were independently associated with current of use modern contraceptives. CONCLUSIONS: The Contraceptive prevalence rate among married Somali women in Kampala was (29%). A majority of the respondents were using short acting contraceptive methods. Attaining tertiary education, ever use of modern contraceptives, those whose source of contraceptive information was health worker and desire to space for more than two years were associated with current use of modern contraceptives. There is a need for improvement of girl child education, contraceptive awareness and male involvement to increase contraceptive uptake in this community. Research looking at attitude of this community towards use of long term contraception is recommended.

3.
Cult Health Sex ; 22(3): 352-367, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035913

RESUMO

Fistula-related stigma is common. The absence of a unifying conceptual framework prevents a nuanced understanding of the nature of fistula-related stigma, comparison across contexts and the ability to contrast with other stigmas. It also hinders intervention development. We conducted in-depth interviews or focus groups with 60 women who had undergone fistula surgery 6-24 months prior at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda in 2014. Transcripts were analysed for experiences and consequences of enacted, anticipated and internalised stigma. Narratives revealed experiences with enacted stigma, including gossip, verbal abuse and social exclusion. Women also anticipated and feared stigma in the future. Internalised stigma reports revealed shame and low self-esteem: self-worth reduction, feeling disgraced and envisioning no future. Consequences included social isolation, changes to normal activities, non-disclosure and poor mental health. Refining stigma theory to specific conditions has resulted in a more nuanced understanding of stigma dimensions, manifestations, mechanisms and consequences, permitting comparison across contexts and populations and the development of stigma-reduction interventions. These lessons should be applied to fistula, acknowledging unique features: concealability, the potential for treatment, lack of community awareness and the social consequences of stillbirth. Reducing fistula-related stigma requires timely surgery and supportive care, stigma-reduction interventions and addressing the complex societal structures that perpetuate fistula.

4.
Trials ; 20(1): 376, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of abortion-related mortality and morbidity occurs in the second trimester of pregnancy. The Uganda Ministry of Health policy restricts management of second-trimester incomplete abortion to physicians who are few and unequally distributed, with most practicing in urban regions. Unsafe and outdated methods like sharp curettage are frequently used. Medical management of second-trimester post-abortion care by midwives offers an advantage given the difficulty in providing surgical management in low-income settings and current health worker shortages. The study aims to assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of treatment of incomplete second-trimester abortion using misoprostol provided by midwives compared with physicians. METHODS: A randomized controlled equivalence trial implemented at eight hospitals and health centers in Central Uganda will include 1192 eligible women with incomplete abortion of uterine size > 12 weeks up to 18 weeks. Each participant will be randomly assigned to undergo a clinical assessment and treatment by either a midwife (intervention arm) or a physician (control arm). Enrolled participants will receive 400 µg misoprostol administered sublingually every 3 h up to five doses within 24 h at the health facility until a complete abortion is confirmed. Women who do not achieve complete abortion within 24 h will undergo surgical uterine evacuation. Pre discharge, participants will receive contraceptive counseling and information on what to expect in terms of side effects and signs of complications, with follow-up 14 days later to assess secondary outcomes. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Background characteristics and outcomes will be presented using descriptive statistics. Differences between groups will be analyzed using risk difference (95% confidence interval) and equivalence established if this lies between the predefined range of - 5% and + 5%. Chi-square tests will be used for comparison of outcome and t tests used to compare mean values. P ≤ 0.05 will be considered statistically significant. DISCUSSION: Our study will provide evidence to inform national and international policies, standard care guidelines and training program curricula on treatment of second-trimester incomplete abortion for improved access. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03622073 . Registered on 9 August 2018.


Assuntos
Aborto Incompleto/tratamento farmacológico , Tocologia , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Médicos , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa
5.
Trop Med Int Health ; 24(1): 53-64, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore trajectories of physical and psychosocial health, and their interrelationship, among women completing fistula repair in Uganda for 1 year post-surgery. METHODS: We recruited a 60-woman longitudinal cohort at surgical hospitalisation from Mulago Hospital in Kampala Uganda (Dec 2014-June 2015) and followed them for 1 year. We collected survey data on physical and psychosocial health at surgery and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months via mobile phone. Fistula characteristics were abstracted from medical records. All participants provided written informed consent. We present univariate analysis and linear regression results. RESULTS: Across post-surgical follow-up, most women reported improvements in physical and psychosocial health, largely within the first 6 months. By 12 months, urinary incontinence had declined from 98% to 33% and general weakness from 33% to 17%, while excellent to good general health rose from 0% to 60%. Reintegration, self-esteem and quality of life all increased through 6 months and remained stable thereafter. Reported stigma reduced, yet some negative self-perception remained at 12 months (mean 17.8). Psychosocial health was significantly impacted by the report of physical symptoms; at 12 months, physical symptoms were associated with a 21.9 lower mean reintegration score (95% CI -30.1, -12.4). CONCLUSIONS: Our longitudinal cohort experienced dramatic improvements in physical and psychosocial health after surgery. Continuing fistula-related symptoms and the substantial differences in psychosocial health by physical symptoms support additional intervention to support women's recovery or more targeted psychosocial support and reintegration services to ensure that those coping with physical or psychosocial challenges are appropriately supported.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoimagem , Estigma Social , Fístula Vaginal/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher , Adaptação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fístula Retovaginal/psicologia , Uganda , Fístula Vaginal/cirurgia , Fístula Vesicovaginal/psicologia
6.
Contraception ; 99(2): 87-93, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether immediate postpartum insertion of levonorgestrel contraceptive implants is associated with a difference in infant growth from birth to 6 months, onset of lactogenesis, or breastfeeding continuation at 3 and 6 months postpartum compared to delayed insertion at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized trial of women in Uganda who desired contraceptive implants postpartum. We randomly assigned participants to receive either immediate (within 5 days of delivery) or delayed (6 to 8 weeks postpartum) insertion of a two-rod levonorgestrel contraceptive implant system. This is a prespecified secondary analysis evaluating breastfeeding outcomes. The primary outcome of this secondary analysis was change in infant weight; infants were weighed and measured at birth and 6 months. We used a validated questionnaire to assess onset of lactogenesis daily in person while participants were in the hospital, and then daily by phone after they left the hospital, until lactogenesis was documented. We used interviewer-administered questionnaires to assess breastfeeding continuation and concerns at 3 months and 6 months postpartum. RESULTS: Among the 96 women randomized to the immediate group and the 87 women to the delayed group, the mean change in infant weight from birth to 6 months was similar between groups: 4632 g in the immediate group and 4407 g in the delayed group (p=.26). Among the 97 women who had not experienced lactogenesis prior to randomization, the median time to onset of lactogenesis did not differ significantly between the immediate and delayed groups (65 h versus 63 h; p=.84). Similar proportions of women in the immediate and delayed groups reported exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months (74% versus 71%; p=.74) and 6 months (48% versus 52%; p=.58). CONCLUSION: We found no association between the timing of postpartum initiation of levonorgestrel contraceptive implants and change in infant growth from birth to 6 months, onset of lactogenesis, or breastfeeding continuation at 3 or 6 months postpartum. IMPLICATIONS: This study provides evidence that immediate postpartum initiation of contraception implants does not have a deleterious effect on infant growth or initiation or continuation of breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Contraceptivos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Levanogestrel/efeitos adversos , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Contraceptivos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Levanogestrel/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
Reprod Health ; 14(1): 109, 2017 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstetric fistula is a debilitating and traumatic birth injury affecting 2-3 million women globally, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Affected women suffer physically, psychologically and socioeconomically. International efforts have increased access to surgical treatment, yet attention to a holistic outcome of post-surgical rehabilitation is nascent. We sought to develop and pilot test a measurement instrument to assess post-surgical family and community reintegration. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory sequential mixed-methods study, beginning with 16 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with 17 women who underwent fistula surgery within two previous years to inform measure development. The draft instrument was validated in a longitudinal cohort of 60 women recovering from fistula surgery. Qualitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Socio-demographic characteristics were described using one-way frequency tables. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine the latent structure of the scale, then tested the fit of a single higher-order latent factor. We evaluated internal consistency and temporal stability reliability through Raykov's ρ and Pearson's correlation coefficient, respectively. We estimated a series of linear regression models to explore associations between the standardized reintegration measure and validated scales representing theoretically related constructs. RESULTS: Themes central to women's experiences following surgery included resuming mobility, increasing social interaction, improved self-esteem, reduction of internalized stigma, resuming work, meeting their own needs and the needs of dependents, meeting other expected and desired roles, and negotiating larger life issues. We expanded the Return to Normal Living Index to reflect these themes. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor structure, titled 'Mobility and social engagement', 'Meeting family needs', 'Comfort with relationships', and 'General life satisfaction', and goodness of fit statistics supported a higher-order latent variable of 'Reintegration.' Reintegration score correlated significantly with quality of life, depression, self-esteem, stigma, and social support in theoretically expected directions. CONCLUSION: As more women undergo surgical treatment for obstetric fistula, attention to the post-repair period is imperative. This preliminary validation of a reintegration instrument represents a first step toward improving measurement of post-surgical reintegration and has important implications for the evidence base of post-surgical reintegration epidemiology and the development and evaluation of fistula programming.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Apoio Social , Fístula Vaginal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda , Fístula Vaginal/psicologia
8.
AIDS Res Treat ; 2017: 6531709, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831309

RESUMO

This study assessed the effect of efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among 49 HIV infected women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel, including 34 HIV positive women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and 15 HAART naïve HIV infected women, purposively selected from Mulago Hospital, Uganda. A blood sample was collected once between days 20 and 22 of each woman's menstrual cycle for measuring endogenous progesterone and efavirenz concentrations by electrochemiluminescence technology and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Descriptive statistical analysis and correlation and logistic regression analysis were done using SPSS v.21 and R3.1. Efavirenz showed a weak positive linear relationship with endogenous progesterone at efavirenz concentrations below 12 µg/ml. Based on serum endogenous progesterone, the observed hormonal contraceptives failure rate (24.5%) was higher than expected (maximum 8%). A higher proportion of HIV positive women on efavirenz based HAART (26.5%) was at risk of contraceptive failure than their HIV infected HAART naïve counterparts (20%) though it was not statistically significant (p = 0.63). Efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations seem to have no significant effect on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among HIV infected Ugandan women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel oral pills.

9.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 259, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) causes the Trichomoniasis Syndrome composed of vaginitis in women, urethritis in men and tube infection in both sexes. This infection is strongly associated with premature rupture of membranes, preterm delivery, low birth weight, promoting HIV sexual transmission and infertility. Prevention of these complications requires accurate early detection and effective treatment of infected individuals. In the resource limited settings, the wet mount microscopy (WMM) is often the only available test for laboratory detection of TV, but its accuracy and that of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tools in Uganda remain poorly studied. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the WMM and PCR against culture as reference standard for the direct diagnosis of TV among symptomatic women. Three high vaginal swabs were collected from each of one hundred fifty women presenting with symptoms suggestive of active vaginal trichomoniasis at the sexually transmitted diseases clinic of Mulago National Referral Hospital Kampala, Uganda. The swabs were tested for TV with WMM, in-house PCR and TV culture. Results were analysed using excel 2007, SPSS v16, and Meta-disc software to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the tests. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity and kappa agreement of the WMM was 25% (95% CI 5.5-57.2%), 100% (95% CI 97-100) and 0.38, respectively. Corresponding values for the PCR were 91.7% (95% CI 61.5-99.8), 99.3% (95% CI 96-100) and 0.91, respectively. CONCLUSION: Among the TV symptomatic women, the sensitivity of the WMM was very low, with two-thirds of the patients missing a diagnosis while the in-house PCR was highly sensitive and specific. Feasibility studies aimed at incorporating PCR tools in algorithms for diagnosis of TV infection in resource-limited settings are recommended.


Assuntos
Microscopia/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Vaginite por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Trichomonas vaginalis , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 217(5): 568.e1-568.e7, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28610898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of long-acting, highly effective contraception has the potential to improve women's ability to avoid short interpregnancy intervals, which are associated with an increased risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, and preterm delivery. In Uganda, contraceptive implants are not routinely available during the immediate postpartum period. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the proportion of women using levonorgestrel contraceptive implants at 6 months after delivery in women randomized to immediate or delayed insertion. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized controlled trial among women in Kampala, Uganda. Women who desired contraceptive implants were randomly assigned to insertion of a 2-rod contraceptive implant system containing 75 mg of levonorgestrel immediately following delivery (within 5 days of delivery and before discharge from the hospital) or delayed insertion (6 weeks postpartum). The primary outcome was implant utilization at 6 months postpartum. RESULTS: From June to October 2015, 205 women were randomized, 103 to the immediate group and 102 to the delayed group. Ninety-three percent completed the 6 month follow-up visit. At 6 months, implant use was higher in the immediate group compared with the delayed group (97% vs 68%; P < .001), as was the use of any highly effective contraceptive (98% vs 81%; P = .001). Women in the immediate group were more satisfied with the timing of implant placement. If given the choice, 81% of women in the immediate group and 63% of women in the delayed group would choose the same timing of placement again (P = .01). There were no serious adverse events in either group. CONCLUSION: Offering women the option of initiating contraceptive implants in the immediate postpartum period has the potential to increase contraceptive utilization, decrease unwanted pregnancies, prevent short interpregnancy intervals, and help women achieve their reproductive goals.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Levanogestrel/administração & dosagem , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Implantes de Medicamento , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Desejada , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16: 205, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27492552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective was to estimate the disease burden attributable to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in two referral hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: Through a prospective cohort study conducted in Jinja and Mulago hospitals in Uganda from March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, hypertension-related cases were analyzed. Maternal near miss cases were defined according to the WHO criteria. Maternal deaths were also analyzed. The maternal near miss incidence ratio, the case-specific severe maternal outcome ratio, the case-specific maternal mortality ratio and the case-fatality ratio were computed. RESULTS: Of 403 women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, 218 (54.1 %) had severe preeclampsia, 172 (42.7 %) had eclampsia, and 13 had chronic hypertension or Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes or low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. The case-specific maternal near miss incidence ratios was 8.60 per 1,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, 3.06 per 1,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 5.11 per 1,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-specific severe maternal outcome ratio was 9.37 per 1,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, and was 3.25 per 1,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 5.61 per 1,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-specific maternal mortality ratio was 780 per 100,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, and was 1940 per 100,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 501 per 100,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-fatality ratio was 5.1 % overall (for all hypertensive disorders), but was 8 times higher for eclampsia compared to severe preeclampsia. Cyanosis, abnormal respiration, oliguria, circulatory collapse, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum lactate were significantly associated with severe maternal outcomes. CONCLUSION: There is high morbidity attributable to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Since some of the complications associated with morbidity can be recognized early, it is possible to prevent severe morbidity through early intervention with delivery, antihypertensive therapy and prophylactic magnesium sulphate treatment. The findings highlight the feasibility of implementing a facility-based surveillance system for severe maternal morbidity due to hypertensive disorders.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/mortalidade , Mortalidade Materna , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Morbidade , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 21(3): 220-6, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to compare acceptability of the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) among women living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We randomly assigned 703 HIV-positive women in Uganda to receive either a Cu-IUD or an LNG-IUS and followed them for at least one year. During the follow-up visits, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the women and acceptability of the Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS was assessed, using a Likert scale, at one, three, six and twelve months. At the final follow-up visit, women were also assessed for satisfaction with either method. RESULTS: Between 9 September 2013 and 31 December 2014, 703 women were recruited and assigned as follows: 349 to a Cu-IUD group and 354 to an LNG-IUS group. Acceptability decreased from 94.3% at one month to 87.7% at 12 months in the Cu-IUD group and from 96.3% at one month to 86.7% at 12 months in the LNG-IUS group (p = 0.97). Satisfaction with intrauterine contraception was reported by 83.7% (283/338) in the Cu-IUD group and by 90.4% (302/334) in the LNG-IUS group (p = 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in acceptability between the LNG-IUS and Cu-IUD among HIV-positive women. Satisfaction rates were high and similar in the two groups. Both the Cu-IUD and LNG-IUS are acceptable forms of contraception for HIV-positive women and should be made available to women in HIV care to increase their contraceptive method options. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR 201308000561212).


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Dispositivos Intrauterinos de Cobre , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto , Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Levanogestrel , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Saúde da Mulher
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16: 24, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal near misses occur more often than maternal deaths and could enable more comprehensive analysis of risk factors, short-term outcomes and prognostic factors of complications during pregnancy and childbirth. The study determined the incidence, determinants and prognostic factors of severe maternal outcomes (near miss or maternal death) in two referral hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, where cases of severe pregnancy and childbirth complications were included. The clinical conditions included abortion-related complications, obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, obstructed labour, infection and pregnancy-specific complications such as febrile illness, anemia and premature rupture of membranes. Near miss cases were defined according to the WHO criteria. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify prognostic factors for severe maternal outcomes. RESULTS: Of 3100 women with severe obstetric complications, 130 (4.2%) were maternal deaths and 695 (22.7%) were near miss cases. Severe pre-eclampsia was the commonest morbidity (incidence ratio (IR) 7.0%, case-fatality rate (CFR) 2.3%), followed by postpartum haemorrhage (IR 6.7%, CFR 7.2%). Uterine rupture (IR 5.5%) caused the highest CFR (17.9%), followed by eclampsia (IR 0.4%, CFR 17.8%). The three groups (maternal deaths, near misses and non-life-threatening obstetric complications) differed significantly regarding gravidity and education level. The commonest diagnostic criteria for maternal near miss were admission to the high dependency unit (HDU) or to the intensive care unit (ICU). Thrombocytopenia, circulatory collapse, referral to a more specialized unit, intubation unrelated to anaesthesia, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were predictive of maternal death (p < 0.05). Gravidity (ARR 1.4, 95% C1 1.0-1.2); elevated serum lactate levels (ARR 4.5, 95% CI 2.3-8.7); intubation for conditions unrelated to general anaesthesia (ARR 2.6 (95% CI 1.2-5.7), cardiovascular collapse (ARR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-9.5); transfusion of 4 or more units of blood (ARR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1); being an emergency referral (ARR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.6); and need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ARR 6.1, 95% CI 3.2-11.7), were prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of near misses is a useful tool in the investigation of severe maternal morbidity. The prognostic factors for maternal death, if instituted, might save many women with obstetric complications.


Assuntos
Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Morte Materna/etiologia , Mortalidade Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Ruptura Uterina/etiologia , Ruptura Uterina/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Reprod Health ; 12: 115, 2015 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26683687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstetric fistula is a debilitating birth injury that affects an estimated 2-3 million women globally, most in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The urinary and/or fecal incontinence associated with fistula affects women physically, psychologically and socioeconomically. Surgical management of fistula is available with clinical success rates ranging from 65-95 %. Previous research on fistula repair outcomes has focused primarily on clinical outcomes without considering the broader goal of successful reintegration into family and community. The objectives for this study are to understand the process of family and community reintegration post fistula surgery and develop a measurement tool to assess long-term success of post-surgical family and community reintegration. METHODS: This study is an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design including a preliminary qualitative component comprising in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to explore reintegration to family and community after fistula surgery. These results will be used to develop a reintegration tool, and the tool will be validated within a small longitudinal cohort (n = 60) that will follow women for 12 months after obstetric fistula surgery. Medical record abstraction will be conducted for patients managed within the fistula unit. Ethical approval for the study has been granted. DISCUSSION: This study will provide information regarding the success of family and community reintegration among women returning home after obstetric fistula surgery. The clinical and research community can utilize the standardized measurement tool in future studies of this patient population.


Assuntos
Fístula Retovaginal/cirurgia , Fístula Vesicovaginal/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fístula Retovaginal/complicações , Fístula Retovaginal/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Apoio Social , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/cirurgia , Fístula Vesicovaginal/complicações , Fístula Vesicovaginal/psicologia
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 624, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26518174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elective caesarean sections (ECS) have been implicated in increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. The primary objective was to assess the incidence and determinants of neonatal morbidity after elective caesarean section deliveries. The secondary objective was to describe the maternal morbidity associated with elective caesarean section. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of women admitted for ECS, as well as their newborns, conducted at Mulago hospital from March 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014. These were followed from the time of the operation until 6 weeks after hospitalization following the caesarean delivery. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and review of medical records for demographic characteristics, obstetric history, current pregnancy complications and pregnancy outcomes up to hospital discharge. Study outcomes were maternal and neonatal morbidity. The data was analyzed using Stata version 12. RESULTS: There were 25,846 deliveries during the study period, of which 20,083 (77.7%) were vaginal deliveries or assisted deliveries, and 5763 (22.3%) were caesarean sections. Of the caesarean sections, 920 (15.9%) were ECS. The commonest maternal morbidity was hemorrhage (17.2%). A birth weight less than 2500 g (aRR 11.0 [95% CI 8.1-17.2]) or more than 4000 g (aRR 12.2 [95% CI 10.6-23.2]), delivery at gestation age less than or equal to 38 weeks (aRR 1.62 [95% 1.20-2.10]), multigravidity (aRR 1.70 [95% CI 1.20-2.90]) and using general anaesthesia (aRR 2.43 [95% CI 1.20-5.90]) were associated with risk of neonatal morbidity. The commonest neonatal morbidity is respiratory distress especially if delivery occurs at a gestation age of 37 weeks or lower, if the birth weight is less than 2500 g or more than 4000 g, and if general anesthesia is used. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that at Mulago Hospital, ECS is associated with significant neonatal and maternal morbidity. We recommend that elective caesarean sections be performed after 39 weeks of gestation, and preferably avoid using general anaesthesia.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Obstet Gynecol ; 126(5): 928-34, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26444127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare discontinuation rates of the levonorgestrel and copper intrauterine devices (IUDs) among women with human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS: A double-masked randomized trial was conducted at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Women received either a copper or levonorgestrel IUD. The primary outcome was discontinuation of intrauterine contraception within 1 year of placement. The secondary outcomes were incidence of side effects and severe adverse events. To discern a difference of 10% from a copper IUD discontinuation rate of 18%, power of 80%, and 95% confidence interval (CI), a sample size of 351 per arm was estimated. Analysis of the primary outcome was by intension-to-treat principle. RESULTS: From September 2013 to December 2014, 979 were screened and 703 randomized as follows: 349 to the copper group and 354 to the levonorgestrel group. In total, 8.6% (29/338) women in the copper group compared with 8.1% (27/334) in the levonorgestrel group discontinued intrauterine conception within 1 year of placement (incidence rate ratio 1.1 [95% CI 0.64-1.96]). Overall, the incidence of heavy bleeding was higher in the copper group (37% [125/338]) than in the levonorgestrel group (19.5% [65/334]). However, the incidence of amenorrhea, which occurred in 3.3% (11/338) of women, was lower in the copper group than the 19.8% (66/334) of women who reported amenorrhea in the levonorgestrel group. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in discontinuation rates between the copper and levonorgestrel devices. Women in the levonorgestrel group had reduced incidence of heavy bleeding and a higher incidence of amenorrhea compared with those in the copper group. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, www.pactr.org, PACTR 201308000561212. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV , Dispositivos Intrauterinos de Cobre/estatística & dados numéricos , Levanogestrel/administração & dosagem , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 15: 190, 2015 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25943551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Client satisfaction is a common outcome measure for quality of care and goal for quality improvement in healthcare. We assessed women's perceptions of the structure, process and outcome of intrapartum care in Mulago hospital, specifically, labor ward duty shift handovers. METHODS: Data was collected through 40 in-depth interviews conducted on two occasions: during the time of hospitalization and within 4-6 months after childbirth. Participants were women who delivered at the hospital, of whom some had life-threatening obstetric complications. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. RESULTS: Maternity duty handovers were associated with patient dissatisfaction, particularly the process of hand-over, the decision-making that follows handovers and failure of communication of information to patients and their caretakers. Consequently, duty handovers were perceived inadequate. They were described as gaps in the continuity of care, and contributed to poor quality of care, birth trauma and mothers' dissatisfaction with the childbirth experience. CONCLUSION: The handover process and practices should be standardized using protocols and checklists. Health workers need training on handover practices, team work and communication skills (so as to improve patient-health provider and provider-provider interaction.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Trabalho de Parto , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Tomada de Decisões , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda
19.
Hum Reprod ; 30(7): 1573-9, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25979373

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Does laboratory testing after syndromic screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reduce the rate of intrauterine contraception (IUC) removal among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Additional laboratory testing after syndromic screening for STIs did not affect the likelihood that a woman would remove an IUC immediately or within 1 year of IUC use or the frequency of post-insertion unscheduled clinic visits. In low-risk WLHA, the incidence rate of IUC removal is low with or without laboratory testing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fear of infectious morbidity remains an obstacle to uptake of IUC by WLHA. The value of laboratory testing after syndromic screening for STI before the insertion of IUC remains uncertain. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We enrolled WLHA from 2 September to 6 December 2013 and followed them up to 31 December 2014. After syndromic screening, 703 women free of STIs were randomized to either additional laboratory screening or no additional screening for STI before IUC insertion. The randomization sequence was generated by an independent statistician and randomization numbers placed in opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. All women randomized had an IUC inserted and in all 672 participants completed the 1-year follow-up. The study staff who followed up the participants were blinded to the study allocation groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were used to compare the incidence rates of IUC removal, unscheduled clinic attendance and IUC continuation between the two groups. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Women eligible to participate were 18-49 years old at study entry, in a relationship with a male partner, wanted to avoid pregnancy for at least 1 year and were undergoing HIV/AIDS care at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire and up to four follow-up questionnaires until discontinuation of IUC, loss to follow-up or end of study observation after 12 months. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The rate of IUC removal was 8.8% (29/331) in the no additional screening group and 8.0% (27/341) in the additional laboratory screening group [IRR 1.1 (95% CI 0.63-1.93)]. Unscheduled clinic attendances were similar in the two groups at 1 year of IUC insertion: 13.6% (45/331) in the no additional screening group and 12.3% (42/241) in the additional laboratory screening group. During the 1-year follow-up, only five women, three from the no additional screening group and two from the additional laboratory screening group, developed pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), as defined by established diagnostic criteria. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We were not able to carry out STI risk assessment directly from the men thus women with high-risk partners could have been included in the study and this may be responsible for the lack of a demonstrable effect of additional laboratory screening on incidence rates of IUC removals and unscheduled clinic attendance. The diagnosis of PID was based on clinical signs and symptoms; therefore, subclinical PID could have been missed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Among WLHA, the incidence rate of IUC removal is low and IUC continuation high. Syndromic screening for STIs could be sufficient in indentifying WLHA who are suitable for IUC use. However, our findings are only generalizable to women in HIV/AIDS care who have access to good follow-up. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The study was supported by Medical Education for Equitable Services to all Ugandans, a Medical Education Partnership Initiative grant number 5R24TW008886 from the office of Global AIDS Coordinator and the US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration and National Institutes of Health. Additional funding was from the Swedish International Development Agency, Swedish Research Council (SIDA/VR). The authors have no competing interests to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This trial was registered at Pan African Clinical Trial, Registry. PACTR 201308000561212.


Assuntos
Remoção de Dispositivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/efeitos adversos , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/epidemiologia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/etiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Pediatr ; 15: 44, 2015 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25928880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal near miss cases occur more often than neonatal deaths and could enable a more comprehensive analysis of risk factors, short-term outcomes and prognostic factors in neonates born to mothers with severe obstetric complications. The objective was to assess the incidence, presentation and perinatal outcomes of severe obstetric morbidity in two referral hospitals in Central Uganda. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, in which all newborns from cases of severe pregnancy and childbirth complications were eligible for inclusion. The obstetric conditions included obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, obstructed labour, chorioamnionitis and pregnancy-specific complications such as malaria, anemia and premature rupture of membranes. Still births, neonatal deaths and neonatal near miss cases (defined using criteria that employed clinical features, presence of organ-system dysfunction and management provided to the newborns were compiled). Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for perinatal death. RESULTS: Of the 3100 mothers, 192 (6.2%) had abortion complications. Of the remainder, there were 2142 (73.1%) deliveries, from whom the fetal outcomes were 257 (12.0%) still births, 369 (17.2%) neonatal deaths, 786 (36.7%) neonatal near misses and 730 (34.1%) were newborns with no or minimal life threatening complications. Of the 235 babies admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the main reasons for admission were prematurity for 64 (26.8%), birth asphyxia for 59 (23.7%), and grunting respiration for 26 (11.1%). Of the 235 babies, 38 (16.2%) died in the neonatal period, and of these, 16 died in the first 24 hours after admission. Ruptured uterus caused the highest case-specific mortality of 76.8%, and led to 16.9% of all newborn deaths. Across the four groups, there were significant differences in mean birth weight, p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Antepartum hemorrhage, ruptured uterus, severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, and the syndrome of Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets (HELLP syndrome), led to statistically significant attributable risk of newborn deaths (still birth or neonatal deaths). Development of severe maternal outcomes, the mothers having been referred, and gravidity of 5 or more were significantly associated with newborn deaths.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...