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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16: 205, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27492552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective was to estimate the disease burden attributable to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in two referral hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: Through a prospective cohort study conducted in Jinja and Mulago hospitals in Uganda from March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, hypertension-related cases were analyzed. Maternal near miss cases were defined according to the WHO criteria. Maternal deaths were also analyzed. The maternal near miss incidence ratio, the case-specific severe maternal outcome ratio, the case-specific maternal mortality ratio and the case-fatality ratio were computed. RESULTS: Of 403 women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, 218 (54.1 %) had severe preeclampsia, 172 (42.7 %) had eclampsia, and 13 had chronic hypertension or Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes or low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. The case-specific maternal near miss incidence ratios was 8.60 per 1,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, 3.06 per 1,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 5.11 per 1,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-specific severe maternal outcome ratio was 9.37 per 1,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, and was 3.25 per 1,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 5.61 per 1,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-specific maternal mortality ratio was 780 per 100,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, and was 1940 per 100,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 501 per 100,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-fatality ratio was 5.1 % overall (for all hypertensive disorders), but was 8 times higher for eclampsia compared to severe preeclampsia. Cyanosis, abnormal respiration, oliguria, circulatory collapse, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum lactate were significantly associated with severe maternal outcomes. CONCLUSION: There is high morbidity attributable to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Since some of the complications associated with morbidity can be recognized early, it is possible to prevent severe morbidity through early intervention with delivery, antihypertensive therapy and prophylactic magnesium sulphate treatment. The findings highlight the feasibility of implementing a facility-based surveillance system for severe maternal morbidity due to hypertensive disorders.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/mortalidade , Mortalidade Materna , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Morbidade , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16: 24, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal near misses occur more often than maternal deaths and could enable more comprehensive analysis of risk factors, short-term outcomes and prognostic factors of complications during pregnancy and childbirth. The study determined the incidence, determinants and prognostic factors of severe maternal outcomes (near miss or maternal death) in two referral hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, where cases of severe pregnancy and childbirth complications were included. The clinical conditions included abortion-related complications, obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, obstructed labour, infection and pregnancy-specific complications such as febrile illness, anemia and premature rupture of membranes. Near miss cases were defined according to the WHO criteria. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify prognostic factors for severe maternal outcomes. RESULTS: Of 3100 women with severe obstetric complications, 130 (4.2%) were maternal deaths and 695 (22.7%) were near miss cases. Severe pre-eclampsia was the commonest morbidity (incidence ratio (IR) 7.0%, case-fatality rate (CFR) 2.3%), followed by postpartum haemorrhage (IR 6.7%, CFR 7.2%). Uterine rupture (IR 5.5%) caused the highest CFR (17.9%), followed by eclampsia (IR 0.4%, CFR 17.8%). The three groups (maternal deaths, near misses and non-life-threatening obstetric complications) differed significantly regarding gravidity and education level. The commonest diagnostic criteria for maternal near miss were admission to the high dependency unit (HDU) or to the intensive care unit (ICU). Thrombocytopenia, circulatory collapse, referral to a more specialized unit, intubation unrelated to anaesthesia, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were predictive of maternal death (p < 0.05). Gravidity (ARR 1.4, 95% C1 1.0-1.2); elevated serum lactate levels (ARR 4.5, 95% CI 2.3-8.7); intubation for conditions unrelated to general anaesthesia (ARR 2.6 (95% CI 1.2-5.7), cardiovascular collapse (ARR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-9.5); transfusion of 4 or more units of blood (ARR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1); being an emergency referral (ARR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.6); and need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ARR 6.1, 95% CI 3.2-11.7), were prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of near misses is a useful tool in the investigation of severe maternal morbidity. The prognostic factors for maternal death, if instituted, might save many women with obstetric complications.


Assuntos
Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Morte Materna/etiologia , Mortalidade Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Ruptura Uterina/etiologia , Ruptura Uterina/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 624, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26518174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elective caesarean sections (ECS) have been implicated in increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. The primary objective was to assess the incidence and determinants of neonatal morbidity after elective caesarean section deliveries. The secondary objective was to describe the maternal morbidity associated with elective caesarean section. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of women admitted for ECS, as well as their newborns, conducted at Mulago hospital from March 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014. These were followed from the time of the operation until 6 weeks after hospitalization following the caesarean delivery. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and review of medical records for demographic characteristics, obstetric history, current pregnancy complications and pregnancy outcomes up to hospital discharge. Study outcomes were maternal and neonatal morbidity. The data was analyzed using Stata version 12. RESULTS: There were 25,846 deliveries during the study period, of which 20,083 (77.7%) were vaginal deliveries or assisted deliveries, and 5763 (22.3%) were caesarean sections. Of the caesarean sections, 920 (15.9%) were ECS. The commonest maternal morbidity was hemorrhage (17.2%). A birth weight less than 2500 g (aRR 11.0 [95% CI 8.1-17.2]) or more than 4000 g (aRR 12.2 [95% CI 10.6-23.2]), delivery at gestation age less than or equal to 38 weeks (aRR 1.62 [95% 1.20-2.10]), multigravidity (aRR 1.70 [95% CI 1.20-2.90]) and using general anaesthesia (aRR 2.43 [95% CI 1.20-5.90]) were associated with risk of neonatal morbidity. The commonest neonatal morbidity is respiratory distress especially if delivery occurs at a gestation age of 37 weeks or lower, if the birth weight is less than 2500 g or more than 4000 g, and if general anesthesia is used. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that at Mulago Hospital, ECS is associated with significant neonatal and maternal morbidity. We recommend that elective caesarean sections be performed after 39 weeks of gestation, and preferably avoid using general anaesthesia.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 15: 190, 2015 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25943551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Client satisfaction is a common outcome measure for quality of care and goal for quality improvement in healthcare. We assessed women's perceptions of the structure, process and outcome of intrapartum care in Mulago hospital, specifically, labor ward duty shift handovers. METHODS: Data was collected through 40 in-depth interviews conducted on two occasions: during the time of hospitalization and within 4-6 months after childbirth. Participants were women who delivered at the hospital, of whom some had life-threatening obstetric complications. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. RESULTS: Maternity duty handovers were associated with patient dissatisfaction, particularly the process of hand-over, the decision-making that follows handovers and failure of communication of information to patients and their caretakers. Consequently, duty handovers were perceived inadequate. They were described as gaps in the continuity of care, and contributed to poor quality of care, birth trauma and mothers' dissatisfaction with the childbirth experience. CONCLUSION: The handover process and practices should be standardized using protocols and checklists. Health workers need training on handover practices, team work and communication skills (so as to improve patient-health provider and provider-provider interaction.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Trabalho de Parto , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Tomada de Decisões , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda
5.
BMC Pediatr ; 15: 44, 2015 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25928880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal near miss cases occur more often than neonatal deaths and could enable a more comprehensive analysis of risk factors, short-term outcomes and prognostic factors in neonates born to mothers with severe obstetric complications. The objective was to assess the incidence, presentation and perinatal outcomes of severe obstetric morbidity in two referral hospitals in Central Uganda. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, in which all newborns from cases of severe pregnancy and childbirth complications were eligible for inclusion. The obstetric conditions included obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, obstructed labour, chorioamnionitis and pregnancy-specific complications such as malaria, anemia and premature rupture of membranes. Still births, neonatal deaths and neonatal near miss cases (defined using criteria that employed clinical features, presence of organ-system dysfunction and management provided to the newborns were compiled). Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for perinatal death. RESULTS: Of the 3100 mothers, 192 (6.2%) had abortion complications. Of the remainder, there were 2142 (73.1%) deliveries, from whom the fetal outcomes were 257 (12.0%) still births, 369 (17.2%) neonatal deaths, 786 (36.7%) neonatal near misses and 730 (34.1%) were newborns with no or minimal life threatening complications. Of the 235 babies admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the main reasons for admission were prematurity for 64 (26.8%), birth asphyxia for 59 (23.7%), and grunting respiration for 26 (11.1%). Of the 235 babies, 38 (16.2%) died in the neonatal period, and of these, 16 died in the first 24 hours after admission. Ruptured uterus caused the highest case-specific mortality of 76.8%, and led to 16.9% of all newborn deaths. Across the four groups, there were significant differences in mean birth weight, p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Antepartum hemorrhage, ruptured uterus, severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, and the syndrome of Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets (HELLP syndrome), led to statistically significant attributable risk of newborn deaths (still birth or neonatal deaths). Development of severe maternal outcomes, the mothers having been referred, and gravidity of 5 or more were significantly associated with newborn deaths.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
Reprod Health ; 12: 23, 2015 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25884387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe obstetric complications have potential negative impact on the family and household of the survivors, with potential negative effects during (and in the aftermath of) the traumatic obstetric events. The objective was to gain deeper understanding of how severe obstetric complications are perceived by male partners, and their impact on the livelihoods of the family and community. METHODS: Data was collected through 25 in-depth narrative interviews with male partners of women with severe obstetric morbidity. The interviews occurred 4-12 months after the traumatic childbirth events. To gain a deeper understanding of the meanings and spouses attach to the experiences, we employed the notions of social capital and resilience. RESULTS: Male partners' perceptions and experiences were mostly characterized by losses, dreams and dilemmas, disempowerment and alienation, seclusion and self isolation or reliance on the social networks. During the aftermath of the events, there was disruption of the livelihoods of the partners and the whole family. CONCLUSION: While a maternal near miss obstetric event might appear as a positive outcome for the survivors, partners and caregivers of women who experience severe obstetric morbidity are deeply affected by the experiences of this life-threatening episode.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Cônjuges/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 12: 60, 2014 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25300499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved knowledge of obstetric danger signs, birth preparedness practices, and readiness for emergency complications are among the strategies aimed at both enhancing utilization of maternal health services and increasing access to skilled care during childbirth, particularly for women with obstetric complications. It is unclear whether knowledge of danger signs translates into improved birth preparedness and complication readiness. The objective was to assess the association between knowledge of danger signs and birth preparedness among women admitted with pregnancy complications. METHODS: The study included 810 women admitted in the antepartum period to Mulago hospital, Uganda. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, pregnancy complications, knowledge of danger signs, and birth preparedness/complication readiness (BPCR). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between knowledge of danger signs and birth preparedness. RESULTS: Only about 1 in 3 women were able to mention at least three of the five basic components of BPCR, and could be regarded as 'knowledgeable on BPCR'. One in every 4 women could not mention any of the five components. Women with history of obstetric problems during the previous pregnancy were more likely to be knowledgeable on danger signs when compared to those who had no complications in prior pregnancy. Women who were knowledgeable on danger signs were four times more likely to be knowledgeable on BPCR as compared to those who were not knowledgeable. CONCLUSIONS: Though awareness about danger signs was low, knowledge of danger signs was associated with knowledge of birth preparedness. More emphasis should be given to emergency/complication readiness during antenatal care sessions. There is a need to strengthen existing policy interventions to address birth preparedness and complication readiness for obstetric emergencies.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitalização , Complicações na Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 127(2): 201-5, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25270824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for early neonatal death among newborns with severe perinatal morbidity. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed of 341 newborns with severe perinatal morbidity admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Mulago Hospital, Uganda. All newborns were followed up for 7 days or until time of death. Information surrounding the mother's obstetric history and pregnancy, the birth, and the neonatal history was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and by review of relevant records. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with early neonatal death. RESULTS: A total of 37 (10.9%) neonates died within 7 days, giving an incidence of early neonatal death of 109 deaths per 1000 live births (3 per 100 person-days). In multivariate analysis, respiratory distress (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 31.29; 95% CI, 4.17-234.20; P=0.001) and inadequate fetal heart monitoring during labor (aRR 6.0; 95% CI 1.40-25.67; P=0.016) were significantly associated with an increased risk of early neonatal death. CONCLUSION: Approximately one in 10 neonates with severe perinatal morbidity died within 7 days of birth. Respiratory distress and poor monitoring of labor were risk factors for early neonatal death.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 127(3): 265-8, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25087177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To gain an understanding of how obstetric complications affect the lives and livelihoods of survivors. METHODS: A phenomenological study was conducted between April and August 2013 at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Data were collected through in-depth interviews among 36 women admitted with obstetric near miss. The interviews investigated perceptions, lived experiences, and meanings attached to such experiences by survivors. More specifically, the questions explored: self-rated health; anticipated social, sexual, and reproductive health challenges; and mitigating factors. RESULTS: The identified themes were prior expectations, vulnerability, body and social capital, and resilience. Women were found to approach childbirth with predetermined expectations that influenced their pregnancy and childbirth experience. Fatalism, expectations, and social insecurity markedly contributed to vulnerability. Resilience factors included ability to institute adaptations and to harness body and social capital. CONCLUSION: Vulnerabilities and their determinants were found to be inter-related. Individuals' social capital fluctuates over the acute crisis, necessitating multiple adaptations and coping strategies to reduce vulnerability or increase resilience. Although social and body capital may be mobilized to mitigate the effects of the obstetric crisis, they can either worsen vulnerability or increase resilience.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Percepção , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
10.
Reprod Health ; 11: 31, 2014 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24758354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is a major public health challenge in Uganda. Whereas uterine rupture remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, there is limited research into what happens to women who survive such severe obstetric complications. Understanding their experiences might delineate strategies to support survivors. METHODS: This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to explore lived experiences of women who developed uterine rupture following obstructed labor. In-depth interviews initially conducted during their hospitalization were repeated 3-6 months after the childbirth event to explore their health and meanings they attached to the traumatic events and their outcomes. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The resultant themes included barriers to access healthcare, multiple "losses" and enduring physical, psychosocial and economic consequences. Many women who develop uterine rupture fail to access critical care needed due to failure to recognise danger signs of obstructed labor, late decision making for accessing care, geographical barriers to health facilities, late or failure to diagnose obstructed labor at health facilities, and failure to promptly perform caesarean section. Secondly, the sequel of uterine rupture includes several losses (loss of lives, loss of fertility, loss of body image, poor quality of life and disrupted marital relationships). Thirdly, uterine rupture has grim economic consequences for the survivors (with financial loss and loss of income during and after the calamitous events). CONCLUSION: Uterine rupture is associated with poor quality of care due to factors that operate at personal, household, family, community and society levels, and results in dire physical, psychosocial and financial consequences for survivors. There is need to improve access to and provision of emergency obstetric care in order to prevent uterine rupture consequent to obstructed labor. There is also critical need to provide counselling and support to survivors to enable them cope with physical, social, psychological and economic consequences.


Assuntos
Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Ruptura Uterina/psicologia , Adulto , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/terapia , Gravidez , Uganda , Ruptura Uterina/terapia
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 14: 54, 2014 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24479421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of appropriate interventions to increase male involvement in pregnancy and childbirth is vital to strategies for improving health outcomes of women with obstetric complications. The objective was to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences of male involvement in their partners' healthcare during pregnancy and childbirth. The findings might inform interventions for increasing men's involvement in reproductive health issues. METHODS: We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with men who came to the hospital to attend to their spouses/partners admitted to Mulago National Referral Hospital. All the spouses/partners had developed severe obstetric complications and were admitted in the high dependency unit. We sought to obtain detailed descriptions of men's experiences, their perception of an ideal "father" and the challenges in achieving this ideal status. We also assessed perceived strategies for increasing male participation in their partners' healthcare during pregnancy and childbirth. Data was analyzed by content analysis. RESULTS: The identified themes were: Men have different descriptions of their relationships; responsibility was an obligation; ideal fathers provide support to mothers during childbirth; the health system limits male involvement in childbirth; men have no clear roles during childbirth, and exclusion and alienation in the hospital environment. The men described qualities of the ideal father as one who was available, easily reached, accessible and considerate. Most men were willing to learn about their expected roles during childbirth and were eager to support their partners/wives/spouses during this time. However, they identified personal, relationship, family and community factors as barriers to their involvement. They found the health system unwelcoming, intimidating and unsupportive. Suggestions to improve men's involvement include creating more awareness for fathers, male-targeted antenatal education and support, and changing provider attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: This study generates information on perceived roles, expectations, experiences and challenges faced by men who wish to be involved in maternal health issues, particularly during pregnancy and childbirth. There is discord between the policy and practice on male involvement in pregnancy and childbirth. Health system factors that are critical to promoting male involvement in women's health issues during pregnancy and childbirth need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homens/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Papel (figurativo) , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Percepção , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 7(6): 436-47, 2013 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23771287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-risk sexual behaviors such as multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, acquisition of sexually transmitted infection (STIs), and non-use of contraceptives persist in HIV patients undergoing care. We conducted a systematic review of studies conducted in the era of increased access to HAART (2000-2010) to assess whether wide-scale use of HAART was associated with high-risk behavior among HAART-using patients. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a comprehensive search of databases (AIDSLINE, National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINHAL and EMBASE) from January 2002 to January 2010, reviewed conference proceedings and journals, and contacted the researchers involved. We analyzed the association of high-risk behaviors (non-disclosure of sero-status to sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, unprotected sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, non-use of contraceptives and acquisition of STIs) with using HAART. Information from eligible studies was abstracted using a standardized checklist. Fourteen English-language studies met the selection criteria of having high-risk behavior as an outcome in patients using HAART in sub-Saharan Africa. RESULTS: Of the 92 eligible articles screened, 14 met the criteria for inclusion as primary articles, 10 showed that HAART is not associated with increased high-risk behavior, two showed increase in acquisition of STIs among HAART-using patients, (which was inconsistent with other measures of high-risk behavior), and two studies showed short-term increase in high-risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Persistence of high-risk behavior in HAART-using patients suggests that more effort needs to be incorporated in HIV care to reduce such behavior to reduce HIV transmission to uninfected populations.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e57028, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23468905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The HIV/AIDS epidemic has evolved with an increasing burden in older adults. We assessed for knowledge about aging and HIV/AIDS, among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 301 clinicians complemented by 9 key-informant interviews between May and October 2011. Data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression for potential determinants of clinician knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults, estimating their adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Stata 11.2 software. RESULTS: Two-hundred and sixty-two questionnaires (87.7%) were returned. Respondents had a median age of 30 years (IQR 27-34) and 57.8% were general medical doctors. The mean knowledge score was 49% (range 8.8%-79.4%). Questions related to co-morbidities in HIV/AIDS (non-AIDS related cancers and systemic diseases) and chronic antiretroviral treatment toxicities (metabolic disorders) accounted for significantly lower scores (mean, 41.7%, 95% CI: 39.3%-44%) compared to HIV/AIDS epidemiology and prevention (mean, 65.7%, 95% CI: 63.7%-67.7%). Determinants of clinician knowledge in the multivariable analysis included (category, aOR, 95% CI): clinician age (30-39 years; 3.28∶1.65-9.75), number of persons with HIV/AIDS seen in the past year (less than 50; 0.34∶0.14-0.86) and clinical profession (clinical nurse practitioner; 0.31∶0.11-0.83). Having diploma level education had a marginal association with lower knowledge about HIV and aging (p = 0.09). CONCLUSION: Our study identified gaps and determinants of knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. Clinicians in low and middle income countries could benefit from targeted training in chronic care for older adults with HIV/AIDS and long-term complications of antiretroviral treatment.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Envelhecimento , Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Educação Médica Continuada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
14.
Glob Public Health ; 7(10): 1095-108, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22813066

RESUMO

Public health initiatives to 'test and treat' HIV-infected persons require understanding HIV care seeking. A study of 101 HIV-infected women receiving anti-retroviral medications in Kampala, Uganda, examined barriers to HIV care. Participants entered HIV/AIDS care late, despite knowing their risk and having sought care for symptoms. Over half of the participants (51%) reported delays of up to 5 years from when they suspected they were infected to seeking an HIV test. Some women reported that they did not perceive a need to be tested because they 'knew' they had HIV due to their partner's death from AIDS. Once tested, delays in entering HIV specific care ranged from less than 6 months to over 5 years. The most common reason reported for entering HIV care was the occurrence of serious or persistent symptoms. Late presentation for HIV care in this cohort is due to the inability of the medical system to link women to appropriate care. Women 'slip through the cracks' of this system, despite their care seeking behaviours. The inability to provide linkage to care is a challenge at the health system level that threatens the success of 'test and treat' protocols.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Política de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
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