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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2022886, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112399

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported to have a higher risk of thrombosis and major bleeding complications compared with patients without concomitant CKD. The use of anticoagulation therapy is challenging, as many anticoagulant medications are excreted by the kidney. Large-scale data are needed to clarify the impact of CKD for anticoagulant treatment strategies and clinical outcomes of patients with VTE. Objective: To compare clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and 12-month outcomes among patients with VTE and concomitant moderate to severe CKD (stages 3-5) vs patients with VTE and mild to no CKD (stages 1-2) in a contemporary international registry. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field-Venous Thromboembolism (GARFIELD-VTE) study is a prospective noninterventional investigation of real-world treatment practices. A total of 10 684 patients from 415 sites in 28 countries were enrolled in the GARFIELD-VTE between May 2014 and January 2017. This cohort study included 8979 patients (6924 patients with mild to no CKD and 2055 patients with moderate to severe CKD) who had objectively confirmed VTE within 30 days before entry in the registry. Chronic kidney disease stages were defined by estimated glomerular filtration rates. Data were extracted from the study database on December 8, 2018, and analyzed between May 1, 2019, and July 30, 2020. Exposure: Moderate to severe CKD vs mild to no CKD. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, recurrent VTE, and major bleeding. Event rates and 95% CIs were calculated and expressed per 100 person-years. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression models and adjusted for relevant confounding variables. All-cause mortality was considered a competing risk for other clinical outcomes in the estimation of cumulative incidences. Results: Of the 10 684 patients with objectively confirmed VTE, serum creatinine data were available for 8979 patients (84.0%). Of those, 4432 patients (49.4%) were female and 5912 patients (65.8%) were White; 6924 patients (77.1%; median age, 57 years; interquartile range [IQR], 44-69 years) were classified as having mild to no CKD, and 2055 patients (22.9%; median age, 70 years; IQR, 59-78 years) were classified as having moderate to severe CKD. Calculations using the equation from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study indicated that, among the 6924 patients with mild to no CKD, 2991 patients had stage 1 CKD, and 3933 patients had stage 2 CKD; among the 2055 patients with moderate to severe CKD, 1650 patients had stage 3 CKD, 190 patients had stage 4 CKD, and 215 patients had stage 5 CKD. The distribution of VTE presentation was comparable between groups. In total, 1171 patients (57.0%) with moderate to severe CKD and 4079 patients (58.9%) with mild to no CKD presented with deep vein thrombosis alone, 547 patients (26.6%) with moderate to severe CKD and 1723 patients (24.9%) with mild to no CKD presented with pulmonary embolism alone, and 337 patients (16.4%) with moderate to severe CKD and 1122 patients (16.2%) with mild to no CKD presented with both pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Compared with patients with mild to no CKD, patients with moderate to severe CKD were more likely to be female (3259 women [47.1%] vs 1173 women [57.1%]) and older than 65 years (2313 patients [33.4%] vs 1278 patients [62.2%]). At baseline, the receipt of parenteral therapy alone was comparable between the 2 groups (355 patients [17.3%] with moderate to severe CKD vs 1253 patients [18.1%] with mild to no CKD). Patients with moderate to severe CKD compared with those with mild to no CKD were less likely to be receiving direct oral anticoagulant therapy, either alone (557 patients [27.1%] vs 2139 patients [30.9%]) or in combination with parenteral therapy (319 patients [15.5%] vs 1239 patients [17.9%]). Patients with moderate to severe CKD had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.21-1.73), major bleeding (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03-1.90), and recurrent VTE (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.77) than patients with mild to no CKD. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of patients with VTE, the presence of moderate to severe CKD was associated with increases in the risk of death, VTE recurrence, and major bleeding compared with the presence of mild to no CKD.

2.
Europace ; 22(11): 1635-1644, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879969

RESUMO

AIMS: Prediction models for outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) are used to guide treatment. While regression models have been the analytic standard for prediction modelling, machine learning (ML) has been promoted as a potentially superior methodology. We compared the performance of ML and regression models in predicting outcomes in AF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) and Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD-AF) are population-based registries that include 74 792 AF patients. Models were generated from potential predictors using stepwise logistic regression (STEP), random forests (RF), gradient boosting (GB), and two neural networks (NNs). Discriminatory power was highest for death [STEP area under the curve (AUC) = 0.80 in ORBIT-AF, 0.75 in GARFIELD-AF] and lowest for stroke in all models (STEP AUC = 0.67 in ORBIT-AF, 0.66 in GARFIELD-AF). The discriminatory power of the ML models was similar or lower than the STEP models for most outcomes. The GB model had a higher AUC than STEP for death in GARFIELD-AF (0.76 vs. 0.75), but only nominally, and both performed similarly in ORBIT-AF. The multilayer NN had the lowest discriminatory power for all outcomes. The calibration of the STEP modelswere more aligned with the observed events for all outcomes. In the cross-registry models, the discriminatory power of the ML models was similar or lower than the STEP for most cases. CONCLUSION: When developed from two large, community-based AF registries, ML techniques did not improve prediction modelling of death, major bleeding, or stroke.

3.
Future Cardiol ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696663

RESUMO

The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF) examined real-world practice in a total of 57,149 (5069 retrospective, 52,080 prospective) patients with newly diagnosed AF at risk of stroke/systemic embolism, enrolled at over 1000 centers in 35 countries. It aimed to capture data on AF burden, patients' clinical profile, patterns of clinical practice and antithrombotic management, focusing on stroke/systemic embolism prevention, uptake of new oral anticoagulants, impact on death and bleeding. GARFIELD-AF set new standards for quality of data collection and analysis. A total of 36 peer-reviewed articles were already published and 73 abstracts presented at international congresses, covering treatment strategies, geographical variations in baseline risk and therapies, adverse outcomes and common comorbidities such as heart failure. A risk prediction tool as well as innovative observational studies and artificial intelligence methodologies are currently being developed by GARFIELD-AF researchers. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01090362 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

4.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(2): 267-277, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583306

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD)-VTE (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02155491) is a prospective, observational study of 10,684 patients with objectively diagnosed VTE from 415 sites in 28 countries. We compared baseline characteristics, VTE treatment patterns, and 1-year outcomes (mortality, recurrent VTE and major bleeding) in 1075 patients with active cancer, 674 patients with a history of cancer, and 8935 patients without cancer. Patients with active cancer and history of cancer were older than cancer-free patients, with median ages of 64.8, 68.9, and 58.4 years, respectively. The most common sites of active cancer were lung (14.5%), colorectal (11.0%), breast (10.6%), and gynaecological (10.3%). Active cancer patients had a higher incidence of upper limb and vena cava thrombosis than cancer-free patients (9.0% vs 4.8% and 5.1% vs 1.4%, respectively), and were more likely to receive parenteral anticoagulation as monotherapy than cancer-free patients (57.8% vs 12.1%), and less likely to receive DOACs (14.2% vs 50.6%). Rates of death, recurrent VTE, and major bleeding were higher in active cancer patients than in cancer-free patients, with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 14.2 (12.1-16.6), 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 3.8 (2.9-5.0), respectively. VTE was the second most common cause of death in patients with active cancer or history of cancer. In patients with VTE, those with active cancer are at higher risk of death, recurrence, and major bleeding than those without cancer.

5.
Oncologist ; 25(7): e1091-e1097, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fundamental Research in Oncology and Thrombosis (FRONTLINE) is a global survey of physicians' perceptions and practice in the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present survey, FRONTLINE 2, follows the original FRONTLINE survey (published in The Oncologist in 2003) and provides insights into how physicians perceive risk of VTE in cancer and approach its prophylaxis and treatment. RESULTS: Between November 2015 and February 2016, 5,233 respondents participated, representing cancer physicians and surgeons. Most believed that less than one in five patients with any cancer might be at risk of VTE, with a slightly higher risk in patients with brain, pancreatic, and lung tumors. The most frequently reported reasons for giving prophylaxis were prior history of VTE (74.6%), abnormal platelet count (62.0%), and obesity (59.5%). In surgical and medical cancer patients, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was the most popular prophylactic measure, used by 74.2% and 80.6%, respectively. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) were given in less than one fifth of cases. In surgical patients, prophylaxis was usually provided for 1 month postoperatively. Following a diagnosis of VTE, patients initially received treatment with LMWH and were maintained long term on OACs, primarily warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban. Most surgical and medical cancer patients underwent treatment of VTE for 3-6 months. CONCLUSION: Compared with the original FRONTLINE survey, FRONTLINE 2 reveals some differences in the management of VTE in patients with cancer. Newer anticoagulants such as fondaparinux, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban are being incorporated into the contemporary management of VTE in patients with cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This globally conducted survey of more than 5,000 cancer clinicians revealed a number of insights into the perceived risk for venous thromboembolism as well as contemporary approaches to its prevention and treatment. Although guidelines have consistently recommended anticoagulant medications for prevention and treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis, clinicians report substantial variation in their practice.

6.
Thromb Res ; 191: 103-112, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Randomized controlled trials have shown that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are a safe and effective alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, there are limited post-marketing data describing the effectiveness and safety of the DOACs in the community setting. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of DOACs and VKAs on 12-month outcomes in a real-world VTE patient population. METHODS: The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD)-VTE is an observational study designed to document real-world treatment practices. This intention-to-treat analysis included 7987 VTE patients initiated on either DOACs (N = 4791) or VKAs (N = 3196) with or without pre-treatment with parenteral anticoagulants. Treatment groups were balanced according to baseline characteristics, using overlapping propensity score weights. RESULTS: After adjustment for baseline characteristics, all-cause mortality was significantly lower with DOAC than with VKAs (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.95. Patients receiving VKAs were more likely than those receiving DOACs to die of complications of VTE (4.7% vs 2.7%) or from bleeding (4.2% vs. 1.3%). There was no significant difference in recurrent VTE (HR: 0.91, 95% CI 0.71-1.18), major bleeding (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.69-1.54), or overall bleeding (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.81-1.14) with DOACs or VKAs. CONCLUSIONS: n this real-world analysis of VTE treatment, DOACs were associated with reduced all-cause mortality compared with VKAs, and similar rates of recurrent VTE and bleeding.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e200107, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101311

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke should receive oral anticoagulants (OAC). However, approximately 1 in 8 patients in the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field (GARFIELD-AF) registry are treated with antiplatelet (AP) drugs in addition to OAC, with or without documented vascular disease or other indications for AP therapy. Objective: To investigate baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients who were prescribed OAC plus AP therapy vs OAC alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of the GARFIELD-AF registry, an international, multicenter, observational study of adults aged 18 years and older with recently diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and at least 1 risk factor for stroke enrolled between March 2010 and August 2016. Data were extracted for analysis in October 2017 and analyzed from April 2018 to June 2019. Exposure: Participants received either OAC plus AP or OAC alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical outcomes were measured over 3 and 12 months. Outcomes were adjusted for 40 covariates, including baseline conditions and medications. Results: A total of 24 436 patients (13 438 [55.0%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 71 [64-78] years) were analyzed. Among eligible patients, those receiving OAC plus AP therapy had a greater prevalence of cardiovascular indications for AP, including acute coronary syndromes (22.0% vs 4.3%), coronary artery disease (39.1% vs 9.8%), and carotid occlusive disease (4.8% vs 2.0%). Over 1 year, patients treated with OAC plus AP had significantly higher incidence rates of stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.01-2.20) and any bleeding event (aHR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.17-1.70) than those treated with OAC alone. These patients did not show evidence of reduced all-cause mortality (aHR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.98-1.51). Risk of acute coronary syndrome was not reduced in patients taking OAC plus AP compared with OAC alone (aHR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.70-1.94). Patients treated with OAC plus AP also had higher rates of all clinical outcomes than those treated with OAC alone over the short term (3 months). Conclusions and Relevance: This study challenges the practice of coprescribing OAC plus AP unless there is a clear indication for adding AP to OAC therapy in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 496-520, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide updated recommendations about prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. METHODS: PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs published from August 1, 2014, through December 4, 2018. ASCO convened an Expert Panel to review the evidence and revise previous recommendations as needed. RESULTS: The systematic review included 35 publications on VTE prophylaxis and treatment and 18 publications on VTE risk assessment. Two RCTs of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of VTE in patients with cancer reported that edoxaban and rivaroxaban are effective but are linked with a higher risk of bleeding compared with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients with GI and potentially genitourinary cancers. Two additional RCTs reported on DOACs for thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients with cancer at increased risk of VTE. RECOMMENDATIONS: Changes to previous recommendations: Clinicians may offer thromboprophylaxis with apixaban, rivaroxaban, or LMWH to selected high-risk outpatients with cancer; rivaroxaban and edoxaban have been added as options for VTE treatment; patients with brain metastases are now addressed in the VTE treatment section; and the recommendation regarding long-term postoperative LMWH has been expanded. Re-affirmed recommendations: Most hospitalized patients with cancer and an acute medical condition require thromboprophylaxis throughout hospitalization. Thromboprophylaxis is not routinely recommended for all outpatients with cancer. Patients undergoing major cancer surgery should receive prophylaxis starting before surgery and continuing for at least 7 to 10 days. Patients with cancer should be periodically assessed for VTE risk, and oncology professionals should provide patient education about the signs and symptoms of VTE.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/supportive-care-guidelines.

9.
Europace ; 22(2): 195-204, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747004

RESUMO

AIMS: Guidelines do not recommend to take pattern of atrial fibrillation (AF) into account for the indication of anticoagulation (AC). We assessed AF pattern and the risk of cardiovascular events during 2-years of follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: We categorized AF as paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent in 29 181 patients enrolled (2010-15) in the Global Anticoagulant Registry In the FIELD of AF (GARFIELD-AF). We used multivariable Cox regression to assess the risks of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and death across patterns of AF, and whether this changed with AC on outcomes. Atrial fibrillation pattern was paroxysmal in 14 344 (49.2%), persistent in 8064 (27.6%), and permanent 6773 (23.2%) patients. Median CHA2DS2-VASc, GARFIELD-AF, and HAS-BLED scores assessing the risk of stroke/SE and/or bleeding were similar across AF patterns, but the risk of death, as assessed by the GARFIELD-AF risk calculator, was higher in non-paroxysmal than in paroxysmal AF patterns. During 2-year follow-up, after adjustment, non-paroxysmal AF patterns were associated with significantly higher rates of all-cause death, stroke/SE, and new/worsening congestive heart failure (CHF) than paroxysmal AF in non-anticoagulated patients only. In anticoagulated patients, a significantly higher risk of death but not of stroke/SE and new/worsening CHF persisted in non-paroxysmal compared with paroxysmal AF patterns. CONCLUSION: In non-anticoagulated patients, non-paroxysmal AF patterns were associated with higher risks of stroke/SE, new/worsening HF and death than paroxysmal AF. In anticoagulated patients, the risk of stroke/SE and new/worsening HF was similar across all AF patterns. Thus AF pattern is no longer prognostic for stroke/SE when patients are treated with anticoagulants. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01090362.

10.
Int J Stroke ; 15(3): 308-317, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not always possible to verify whether a patient complaining of symptoms consistent with transient ischemic attack has had an actual cerebrovascular event. RESEARCH QUESTION: To characterize the risk of cardiovascular events associated with a history of stroke/transient ischemic attack in patients with atrial fibrillation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with a history of stroke/transient ischemic attack among 52,014 patients enrolled prospectively in GARFIELD-AF registry. The diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack was not protocol defined but based on physicians' assessment. Patients' one-year risk of death, stroke/systemic embolism, and major bleeding was assessed by multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: At enrollment, 5617 (10.9%) patients were reported to have a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack were older and had a greater burden of diabetes, moderate-to-severe kidney disease, and atherothrombosis and higher median CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores than those without history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. After adjustment, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack was associated with significantly higher risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-1.42), cardiovascular death (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48), non-cardiovascular death (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.68), and stroke/systemic embolism (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.80-2.63) than patients without history of stroke/transient ischemic attack. In patients with a prior stroke alone higher risk was observed for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.50), non-cardiovascular death (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.77), and stroke/systemic embolism (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.83-2.86). No significantly elevated risk of adverse events was seen for patients with history of transient ischemic attack alone. INTERPRETATION: A history of prior stroke or transient ischemic attack is a strong independent risk factor for mortality and stroke/systemic embolism. This excess risk is mainly attributed to a history of stroke (with or without transient ischemic attack), whereas history of transient ischemic attack is a weaker predictor. Clinical trial registration: NCT01090362.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most clinical risk stratification models are based on measurement at a single time-point rather than serial measurements. Artificial intelligence (AI) is able to predict one-dimensional outcomes from multi-dimensional datasets. Using data from GARFIELD-AF registry, a new AI model was developed for predicting clinical outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients up to 1 year based on sequential measures of PT-INR within 30 days of enrolment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with newly diagnosed AF who were treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and had at least 3 measurements of PT-INR taken over the first 30 days after prescription were analyzed. The AI model was constructed with multilayer neural network including long short-term memory (LSTM) and one-dimensional convolution layers. The neural network was trained using PT-INR measurements within days 0-30 after starting treatment and clinical outcomes over days 31-365 in a derivation cohort (cohorts 1-3; n = 3185). Accuracy of the AI model at predicting major bleed, stroke/SE, and death was assessed in a validation cohort (cohorts 4-5; n = 1523). The model's c-statistic for predicting major bleed, stroke/SE, and all-cause death was 0.75, 0.70, and 0.61, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using serial PT-INR values collected within 1 month after starting VKA, the new AI model performed better than time in therapeutic range (TTR) at predicting clinical outcomes occurring up to 12 months thereafter. Serial PT-INR values contain important information that can be analyzed by computer to help predict adverse clinical outcomes.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e033283, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To externally validate the accuracy of the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF) model against existing risk scores for stroke and major bleeding risk in patients with non-valvular AF in a population-based cohort. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish nationwide registries. PARTICIPANTS: 90 693 patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular AF were included between 2010 and 2016, with follow-up censored at 1 year. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: External validation was performed using discrimination and calibration plots. C-statistics were compared with CHA2DS2VASc score for ischaemic stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and HAS-BLED score for major bleeding/haemorrhagic stroke outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 90 693 included, 51 180 patients received oral anticoagulants (OAC). Overall median age (Q1, Q3) were 75 (66-83) years and 48 486 (53.5%) were male. At 1-year follow-up, a total of 2094 (2.3%) strokes/SE, 2642 (2.9%) major bleedings and 10 915 (12.0%) deaths occurred. The GARFIELD-AF model was well calibrated with the predicted risk for stroke/SE and major bleeding. The discriminatory value of GARFIELD-AF risk model was superior to CHA2DS2VASc for predicting stroke in the overall cohort (C-index: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.70 to 0.72 vs C-index: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.68, p<0.001) as well as in low-risk patients (C-index: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.69 vs C-index: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.61, p=0.007). The GARFIELD-AF model was comparable to HAS-BLED in predicting the risk of major bleeding in patients on OAC therapy (C-index: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.66 vs C-index: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.65, p=0.60). CONCLUSION: In a nationwide Danish cohort with non-valvular AF, the GARFIELD-AF model adequately predicted the risk of ischaemic stroke/SE and major bleeding. Our external validation confirms that the GARFIELD-AF model was superior to CHA2DS2VASc in predicting stroke/SE and comparable with HAS-BLED for predicting major bleeding.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 40(27): 2184-2186, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505614
14.
Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 1675-1685, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370075

RESUMO

Isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT) represents up to half of all lower limb DVT. This study investigated treatment patterns and outcomes in 2,145 patients with IDDVT in comparison with those with proximal DVT (PDVT; n = 3,846) and pulmonary embolism (PE; n = 4,097) enrolled in the GARFIELD-VTE registry. IDDVT patients were more likely to have recently undergone surgery (14.6%) or experienced leg trauma (13.2%) than PDVT patients (11.0 and 8.7%, respectively) and PE patients (12.7 and 4.5%, respectively). Compared with IDDVT, patients with PDVT or PE were more likely to have active cancer (7.2% vs. 9.9% and 10.3%). However, influence of provoking factors on risk of recurrence in IDDVT remains controversial. Nearly all patients (IDDVT, PDVT, and PE) were given anticoagulant therapy. In IDDVT, PDVT, and PE groups the proportion of patients receiving anticoagulant therapy was 61.4, 73.9, and 81.1% at 6 months and 45.8, 54.7, and 61.9% at 12 months. Over 12 months, the incidence of all-cause mortality, cancer, and recurrence was significantly lower in IDDVT patients than PDVT patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.77]; sub-HR [sHR], 0.60 [95% CI, 0.39-0.93]; and sHR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.60-0.97]). Likewise, risk of death and incident cancer was significantly (both p < 0.05) lower in patients with IDDVT compared with PE. This study reveals a global trend that most IDDVT patients as well as those with PDVT and PE are given anticoagulant therapy, in many cases for at least 12 months.


Assuntos
Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
16.
Am J Med ; 132(12): 1431-1440.e7, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with atrial fibrillation have concomitant coronary artery disease with or without acute coronary syndromes and are in need of additional antithrombotic therapy. There are few data on the long-term clinical outcome of atrial fibrillation patients with a history of acute coronary syndrome. This is a 2-year study of atrial fibrillation patients with or without a history of acute coronary syndromes. METHODS: Adults with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation and ≥1 investigator-defined stroke risk factor were enrolled in GARFIELD-AF between March 2010 and September 2015. The association between prior acute coronary syndromes and long-term outcomes was determined using a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for baseline risk factors, oral anticoagulation (OAC) ± antiplatelet (AP) therapy, and usual care. RESULTS: Of 39,679 patients, 10.5% had a history of acute coronary syndromes. At 2-year follow-up, patients with prior acute coronary syndromes had higher adjusted risks of stroke/systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.78), major bleeding (HR 1.30; 95% CI, 0.95 -1.79), all-cause mortality (HR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.21 -1.49), cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.85; 95% CI, 1.51-2.26), and new acute coronary syndromes (HR 3.42; 95% CI, 2.62-4.45). Comparing antithrombotic therapy in the acute coronary syndromes vs no acute coronary syndromes groups, most patients received OAC ± AP: 60.8% vs 66.1%, but AP therapy was more likely in the acute coronary syndromes group (68.1% vs 32.9%), either alone (34.9% vs 20.8%) or with OAC (33.2% vs 12.1%). Overall, 17.8% in the acute coronary syndromes group received dual AP therapy with (5.3%) or without OAC (12.5%). Among patients with moderate/high risk for stroke/systemic embolism, fewer in the acute coronary syndromes group received OAC with or without AP therapy (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age 75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke, TIA, or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category [CHA2DS2-VASc] 2: 52.1% vs 64.6%; CHA2DS2-VASc ≥3: 62.0% vs 70.7%), and the majority with a Hypertension (uncontrolled systolic blood pressure >160 mm Hg), Abnormal renal or liver function, previous Stroke, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile international normalized ratios, Elderly, and concomitant Drugs or alcohol excess (HAS-BLED) score ≥3 were on AP therapy (83.8% vs 65.5%). CONCLUSIONS: In GARFIELD-AF, previous acute coronary syndromes are associated with worse 2-year outcomes and a greater likelihood of under-treatment with OAC, while two-thirds of patients receive AP therapy. Major bleeding was more common with previous acute coronary syndromes, even after adjusting for all risk factors.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(10): 1694-1706, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parenteral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have constituted the cornerstone of venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment. Meanwhile, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) provide physicians with an alternative. The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD)-VTE observes real-world treatment practices. OBJECTIVES: Describe initial anticoagulation (AC) treatment patterns in VTE patients who received parenteral AC, VKAs, and/or DOACs within ±30 days of diagnosis. METHODS: VTE patients were categorized into parenteral AC only, parenteral AC with transition to VKA, VKA only, parenteral AC with transition to DOAC, and DOAC only. RESULTS: A total of 9647 patients were initiated on AC treatment alone. 4781 (49.6%) patients received DOACs ± parenteral ACs; 3187 (33.0%), VKA ± parenteral ACs; and 1679 (17.4%) parenteral ACs alone. Rivaroxaban was the most frequently used DOAC (79.4%). DOACs were more frequently used in North America/Australia (58.1%), Europe (52.2%), and Asia (47.6%) than in Latin America (29.7%) and the Middle East/South Africa (32.5%). In patients with suspected VTE, most received parenteral AC monotherapy (67.7%). Patients with deep vein thrombosis were more likely to receive DOACs alone than those with pulmonary embolism with or without deep vein thrombosis (36.2% vs 25.9%). Active cancer patients received parenteral AC alone (58.9%), with 25.5% receiving DOAC ± parenteral AC and 12.8% parenteral AC and VKA. A total of 46.5% of pregnant patients received parenteral AC monotherapy, 34.0% were treated with VKA ± parenteral AC, and 19.5% received a DOAC (± parenteral AC). CONCLUSION: AC treatment patterns vary by patient population, geographic region and site of VTE. Guidelines for AC therapy are not always adhered to.

18.
Thromb J ; 17: 7, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169831

RESUMO

Background: Real-world data on non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are essential in determining whether evidence from randomised controlled clinical trials translate into meaningful clinical benefits for patients in everyday practice. RIVER (RIVaroxaban Evaluation in Real life setting) is an ongoing international, prospective registry of patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and at least one investigator-determined risk factor for stroke who received rivaroxaban as an initial treatment for the prevention of thromboembolic stroke. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of the RIVER registry and baseline characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed NVAF who received rivaroxaban as an initial treatment. Methods and results: Between January 2014 and June 2017, RIVER investigators recruited 5072 patients at 309 centres in 17 countries. The aim was to enroll consecutive patients at sites where rivaroxaban was already routinely prescribed for stroke prevention. Each patient is being followed up prospectively for a minimum of 2-years. The registry will capture data on the rate and nature of all thromboembolic events (stroke / systemic embolism), bleeding complications, all-cause mortality and other major cardiovascular events as they occur. Data quality is assured through a combination of remote electronic monitoring and onsite monitoring (including source data verification in 10% of cases). Patients were mostly enrolled by cardiologists (n = 3776, 74.6%), by internal medicine specialists 14.2% (n = 718) and by primary care/general practice physicians 8.2% (n = 417). The mean (SD) age of the population was 69.5 (11.0) years, 44.3% were women. Mean (SD) CHADS2 score was 1.9 (1.2) and CHA2DS2-VASc scores was 3.2 (1.6). Almost all patients (98.5%) were prescribed with once daily dose of rivaroxaban, most commonly 20 mg (76.5%) and 15 mg (20.0%) as their initial treatment; 17.9% of patients received concomitant antiplatelet therapy. Most patients enrolled in RIVER met the recommended threshold for AC therapy (86.6% for 2012 ESC Guidelines, and 79.8% of patients according to 2016 ESC Guidelines). Conclusions: The RIVER prospective registry will expand our knowledge of how rivaroxaban is prescribed in everyday practice and whether evidence from clinical trials can be translated to the broader cross-section of patients in the real world. Trial registration: Unique identifier: NCT02444221. Registerd 14 May 2015; Retrospectively Registered.

19.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(8): 1365-1372, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183844

RESUMO

Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is less common than lower extremity DVT (LEDVT) and consequently less well characterized. This study compared clinical characteristics and 1-year outcomes between 438 UEDVT patients and 7,602 LEDVT patients recruited in the GARFIELD-VTE registry. UEDVT patients were significantly more likely to have a central venous catheter than those with LEDVT (11.5% vs. 0.5%; p < 0.0001), and had a higher rate of active cancer (16.2%) or recent hospitalization (19.4%) compared with LEDVT patients (8.7% and 11.2%, respectively). Nearly all patients with UEDVT and LEDVT were initiated on anticoagulant therapy, which was a direct oral anticoagulant in one-third individuals in both groups. At 3, 6, and 12 months, the proportion of UEDVT and LEDVT patients who were receiving anticoagulant therapy was 82.6 and 87.4%, 66.0 and 72.6%, and 45.7 and 54.6%, respectively. In the UEDVT and LEDVT groups, VTE recurrence rate was 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-6.7) and 5.5 (95% CI, 4.9-6.1) per 100 person-years, respectively; major bleed was noted in 1.3 (95% CI, 0.6-3.2) and 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3-1.9) per 100 person-years and all-cause mortality in 9.7 (95% CI, 7.1-13.4) and 6.7 (95% CI, 6.1-7.3) per 100 person-years, respectively. Hence, risk of recurrence was similar in the two groups whereas all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the UEDVT group than the LEDVT group (p = 0.0338). This latter finding was likely due to the high prevalence of cancer in the UEDVT group.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Trombose Venosa/fisiopatologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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