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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434417

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) may coexist and influence each other. However, characteristics, anticoagulant treatment, and outcomes of contemporary AF patients with concurrent HF are ill-defined. This study analyses characteristics, treatment, and 2 year outcomes in newly diagnosed Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF) patients with vs. without HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: GARFIELD-AF is the world's largest observational AF patient study. At enrolment, 11 758 of 52 072 patients (22.6%) had HF; 76.3% were New York Heart Association class II-III. Patients with HF had comparable demographics, blood pressure, and heart rate but more likely had permanent (15.6% vs. 11.9%) or persistent AF (18.9% vs. 13.8%), acute coronary syndromes (16.7% vs. 8.9%), vascular disease (40.8% vs. 20.2%), and moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease (14.6% vs. 9.0%) than those without. Anticoagulant prescription was similar between the two groups. At 2 year follow-up, patients with HF showed a greater risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR), 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91-2.21; P < 0.0001], cardiovascular mortality (HR, 2.91; 95% CI, 2.58-3.29; P < 0.0001), acute coronary syndromes (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52; P = 0.03), and stroke/systemic embolism (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.43; P = 0.0044). Major bleeding rate was comparable (adjusted HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.84-1.18; P = 0.968). Among patients without HF at baseline, incidence of new HF was low [0.69 (95% CI, 0.63-0.75) per 100 person-years], whereas propensity to develop worsening HF was higher in those with HF [1.62 (95% CI, 1.45-1.80) per 100 person-years]. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AF and HF have a high risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and stroke/systemic embolism and may develop worsening HF.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2022886, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112399

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported to have a higher risk of thrombosis and major bleeding complications compared with patients without concomitant CKD. The use of anticoagulation therapy is challenging, as many anticoagulant medications are excreted by the kidney. Large-scale data are needed to clarify the impact of CKD for anticoagulant treatment strategies and clinical outcomes of patients with VTE. Objective: To compare clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and 12-month outcomes among patients with VTE and concomitant moderate to severe CKD (stages 3-5) vs patients with VTE and mild to no CKD (stages 1-2) in a contemporary international registry. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field-Venous Thromboembolism (GARFIELD-VTE) study is a prospective noninterventional investigation of real-world treatment practices. A total of 10 684 patients from 415 sites in 28 countries were enrolled in the GARFIELD-VTE between May 2014 and January 2017. This cohort study included 8979 patients (6924 patients with mild to no CKD and 2055 patients with moderate to severe CKD) who had objectively confirmed VTE within 30 days before entry in the registry. Chronic kidney disease stages were defined by estimated glomerular filtration rates. Data were extracted from the study database on December 8, 2018, and analyzed between May 1, 2019, and July 30, 2020. Exposure: Moderate to severe CKD vs mild to no CKD. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, recurrent VTE, and major bleeding. Event rates and 95% CIs were calculated and expressed per 100 person-years. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression models and adjusted for relevant confounding variables. All-cause mortality was considered a competing risk for other clinical outcomes in the estimation of cumulative incidences. Results: Of the 10 684 patients with objectively confirmed VTE, serum creatinine data were available for 8979 patients (84.0%). Of those, 4432 patients (49.4%) were female and 5912 patients (65.8%) were White; 6924 patients (77.1%; median age, 57 years; interquartile range [IQR], 44-69 years) were classified as having mild to no CKD, and 2055 patients (22.9%; median age, 70 years; IQR, 59-78 years) were classified as having moderate to severe CKD. Calculations using the equation from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study indicated that, among the 6924 patients with mild to no CKD, 2991 patients had stage 1 CKD, and 3933 patients had stage 2 CKD; among the 2055 patients with moderate to severe CKD, 1650 patients had stage 3 CKD, 190 patients had stage 4 CKD, and 215 patients had stage 5 CKD. The distribution of VTE presentation was comparable between groups. In total, 1171 patients (57.0%) with moderate to severe CKD and 4079 patients (58.9%) with mild to no CKD presented with deep vein thrombosis alone, 547 patients (26.6%) with moderate to severe CKD and 1723 patients (24.9%) with mild to no CKD presented with pulmonary embolism alone, and 337 patients (16.4%) with moderate to severe CKD and 1122 patients (16.2%) with mild to no CKD presented with both pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Compared with patients with mild to no CKD, patients with moderate to severe CKD were more likely to be female (3259 women [47.1%] vs 1173 women [57.1%]) and older than 65 years (2313 patients [33.4%] vs 1278 patients [62.2%]). At baseline, the receipt of parenteral therapy alone was comparable between the 2 groups (355 patients [17.3%] with moderate to severe CKD vs 1253 patients [18.1%] with mild to no CKD). Patients with moderate to severe CKD compared with those with mild to no CKD were less likely to be receiving direct oral anticoagulant therapy, either alone (557 patients [27.1%] vs 2139 patients [30.9%]) or in combination with parenteral therapy (319 patients [15.5%] vs 1239 patients [17.9%]). Patients with moderate to severe CKD had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.21-1.73), major bleeding (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03-1.90), and recurrent VTE (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.77) than patients with mild to no CKD. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of patients with VTE, the presence of moderate to severe CKD was associated with increases in the risk of death, VTE recurrence, and major bleeding compared with the presence of mild to no CKD.

3.
Europace ; 22(11): 1635-1644, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879969

RESUMO

AIMS: Prediction models for outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) are used to guide treatment. While regression models have been the analytic standard for prediction modelling, machine learning (ML) has been promoted as a potentially superior methodology. We compared the performance of ML and regression models in predicting outcomes in AF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) and Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD-AF) are population-based registries that include 74 792 AF patients. Models were generated from potential predictors using stepwise logistic regression (STEP), random forests (RF), gradient boosting (GB), and two neural networks (NNs). Discriminatory power was highest for death [STEP area under the curve (AUC) = 0.80 in ORBIT-AF, 0.75 in GARFIELD-AF] and lowest for stroke in all models (STEP AUC = 0.67 in ORBIT-AF, 0.66 in GARFIELD-AF). The discriminatory power of the ML models was similar or lower than the STEP models for most outcomes. The GB model had a higher AUC than STEP for death in GARFIELD-AF (0.76 vs. 0.75), but only nominally, and both performed similarly in ORBIT-AF. The multilayer NN had the lowest discriminatory power for all outcomes. The calibration of the STEP modelswere more aligned with the observed events for all outcomes. In the cross-registry models, the discriminatory power of the ML models was similar or lower than the STEP for most cases. CONCLUSION: When developed from two large, community-based AF registries, ML techniques did not improve prediction modelling of death, major bleeding, or stroke.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1425-1436, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recommended doses for direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) to prevent stroke and systemic embolism (SE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are described in specific regulatory authority approvals. OBJECTIVES: The impact of DOAC dosing, according to the recommended guidance on all-cause mortality, stroke/SE, and major bleeding, was assessed at 2-year follow-up in patients with newly diagnosed AF. METHODS: Of a total of 34,926 patients enrolled (2013 to 2016) in the prospective GARFIELD-AF (Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-AF), 10,426 patients received a DOAC. RESULTS: The majority of patients (72.9%) received recommended dosing, 23.2% were underdosed, and 3.8% were overdosed. Nonrecommended dosing (underdosage and overdosage combined) compared with recommended dosing was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 1.48); HR: 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.50) for underdosing, and HR: 1.19 (95% CI: 0.83 to 1.71) for overdosing. The excess deaths were cardiovascular including heart failure and myocardial infarction. The risks of stroke/SE and major bleeding were not significantly different irrespective of the level of dosing, although underdosed patients had a significantly lower risk of bleeding. A nonsignificant trend to higher risks of stroke/SE (HR: 1.51; 95% CI: 0.79 to 2.91) and major bleeding (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.59 to 2.78) was observed in patients with overdosing. CONCLUSIONS: In GARFIELD-AF, most patients received the recommended DOAC doses according to country-specific guidelines. Prescription of nonrecommended doses was associated with an increased risk of death, mostly cardiovascular death, compared with patients on recommended doses, after adjusting for baseline factors. (Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field-AF [GARFIELD-AF]; NCT01090362).

5.
Future Cardiol ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696663

RESUMO

The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF) examined real-world practice in a total of 57,149 (5069 retrospective, 52,080 prospective) patients with newly diagnosed AF at risk of stroke/systemic embolism, enrolled at over 1000 centers in 35 countries. It aimed to capture data on AF burden, patients' clinical profile, patterns of clinical practice and antithrombotic management, focusing on stroke/systemic embolism prevention, uptake of new oral anticoagulants, impact on death and bleeding. GARFIELD-AF set new standards for quality of data collection and analysis. A total of 36 peer-reviewed articles were already published and 73 abstracts presented at international congresses, covering treatment strategies, geographical variations in baseline risk and therapies, adverse outcomes and common comorbidities such as heart failure. A risk prediction tool as well as innovative observational studies and artificial intelligence methodologies are currently being developed by GARFIELD-AF researchers. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01090362 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

6.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(2): 267-277, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583306

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD)-VTE (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02155491) is a prospective, observational study of 10,684 patients with objectively diagnosed VTE from 415 sites in 28 countries. We compared baseline characteristics, VTE treatment patterns, and 1-year outcomes (mortality, recurrent VTE and major bleeding) in 1075 patients with active cancer, 674 patients with a history of cancer, and 8935 patients without cancer. Patients with active cancer and history of cancer were older than cancer-free patients, with median ages of 64.8, 68.9, and 58.4 years, respectively. The most common sites of active cancer were lung (14.5%), colorectal (11.0%), breast (10.6%), and gynaecological (10.3%). Active cancer patients had a higher incidence of upper limb and vena cava thrombosis than cancer-free patients (9.0% vs 4.8% and 5.1% vs 1.4%, respectively), and were more likely to receive parenteral anticoagulation as monotherapy than cancer-free patients (57.8% vs 12.1%), and less likely to receive DOACs (14.2% vs 50.6%). Rates of death, recurrent VTE, and major bleeding were higher in active cancer patients than in cancer-free patients, with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 14.2 (12.1-16.6), 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 3.8 (2.9-5.0), respectively. VTE was the second most common cause of death in patients with active cancer or history of cancer. In patients with VTE, those with active cancer are at higher risk of death, recurrence, and major bleeding than those without cancer.

7.
TH Open ; 4(2): e107-e112, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462111

RESUMO

Introduction In the CASSINI study, rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis significantly reduced primary venous thromboembolism (VTE) endpoints during the intervention period, but several thromboembolic events designated as secondary efficacy endpoints were not included in the primary analysis. This study was aimed to evaluate the full impact of rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis on all prespecified thromboembolic endpoints occurring on study. Methods CASSINI was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in adult ambulatory patients with cancer at risk for VTE (Khorana score ≥2). Patients were screened at baseline for deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and randomized if none was found. The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of lower extremity proximal DVT, symptomatic upper extremity, or lower extremity distal DVT, any pulmonary embolism, and VTE-related death. This analysis evaluated all prespecified thromboembolic endpoints occurring on study to determine the full benefit of rivaroxaban prophylaxis. All endpoints were independently adjudicated. Results Total thromboembolic events occurred in fewer patients randomized to rivaroxaban during the full study period (29/420 [6.9%] and 49/421 [11.6%] patients in rivaroxaban and placebo groups, respectively [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.90; p = 0.01]; number needed to treat [NNT] = 21). Similarly, fewer patients randomized to rivaroxaban experienced thromboembolism during the intervention period (13/420 [3.1%] patients) versus placebo (38/421 [9.0%] patients; HR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.18-0.62; p < 0.001; NNT = 17). Conclusion Our findings confirm the substantial benefit of rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis when considering all prespecified thromboembolic events, even after excluding baseline screen-detected DVT. The low NNT, coupled with prior data demonstrating a high number needed to harm, should assist clinicians in determining the risk/benefit of thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients with cancer.

8.
Oncologist ; 25(7): e1091-e1097, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fundamental Research in Oncology and Thrombosis (FRONTLINE) is a global survey of physicians' perceptions and practice in the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present survey, FRONTLINE 2, follows the original FRONTLINE survey (published in The Oncologist in 2003) and provides insights into how physicians perceive risk of VTE in cancer and approach its prophylaxis and treatment. RESULTS: Between November 2015 and February 2016, 5,233 respondents participated, representing cancer physicians and surgeons. Most believed that less than one in five patients with any cancer might be at risk of VTE, with a slightly higher risk in patients with brain, pancreatic, and lung tumors. The most frequently reported reasons for giving prophylaxis were prior history of VTE (74.6%), abnormal platelet count (62.0%), and obesity (59.5%). In surgical and medical cancer patients, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was the most popular prophylactic measure, used by 74.2% and 80.6%, respectively. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) were given in less than one fifth of cases. In surgical patients, prophylaxis was usually provided for 1 month postoperatively. Following a diagnosis of VTE, patients initially received treatment with LMWH and were maintained long term on OACs, primarily warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban. Most surgical and medical cancer patients underwent treatment of VTE for 3-6 months. CONCLUSION: Compared with the original FRONTLINE survey, FRONTLINE 2 reveals some differences in the management of VTE in patients with cancer. Newer anticoagulants such as fondaparinux, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban are being incorporated into the contemporary management of VTE in patients with cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This globally conducted survey of more than 5,000 cancer clinicians revealed a number of insights into the perceived risk for venous thromboembolism as well as contemporary approaches to its prevention and treatment. Although guidelines have consistently recommended anticoagulant medications for prevention and treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis, clinicians report substantial variation in their practice.

9.
Thromb Res ; 191: 103-112, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Randomized controlled trials have shown that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are a safe and effective alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, there are limited post-marketing data describing the effectiveness and safety of the DOACs in the community setting. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of DOACs and VKAs on 12-month outcomes in a real-world VTE patient population. METHODS: The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD (GARFIELD)-VTE is an observational study designed to document real-world treatment practices. This intention-to-treat analysis included 7987 VTE patients initiated on either DOACs (N = 4791) or VKAs (N = 3196) with or without pre-treatment with parenteral anticoagulants. Treatment groups were balanced according to baseline characteristics, using overlapping propensity score weights. RESULTS: After adjustment for baseline characteristics, all-cause mortality was significantly lower with DOAC than with VKAs (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.95. Patients receiving VKAs were more likely than those receiving DOACs to die of complications of VTE (4.7% vs 2.7%) or from bleeding (4.2% vs. 1.3%). There was no significant difference in recurrent VTE (HR: 0.91, 95% CI 0.71-1.18), major bleeding (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.69-1.54), or overall bleeding (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.81-1.14) with DOACs or VKAs. CONCLUSIONS: n this real-world analysis of VTE treatment, DOACs were associated with reduced all-cause mortality compared with VKAs, and similar rates of recurrent VTE and bleeding.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e200107, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101311

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke should receive oral anticoagulants (OAC). However, approximately 1 in 8 patients in the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field (GARFIELD-AF) registry are treated with antiplatelet (AP) drugs in addition to OAC, with or without documented vascular disease or other indications for AP therapy. Objective: To investigate baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients who were prescribed OAC plus AP therapy vs OAC alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of the GARFIELD-AF registry, an international, multicenter, observational study of adults aged 18 years and older with recently diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and at least 1 risk factor for stroke enrolled between March 2010 and August 2016. Data were extracted for analysis in October 2017 and analyzed from April 2018 to June 2019. Exposure: Participants received either OAC plus AP or OAC alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical outcomes were measured over 3 and 12 months. Outcomes were adjusted for 40 covariates, including baseline conditions and medications. Results: A total of 24 436 patients (13 438 [55.0%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 71 [64-78] years) were analyzed. Among eligible patients, those receiving OAC plus AP therapy had a greater prevalence of cardiovascular indications for AP, including acute coronary syndromes (22.0% vs 4.3%), coronary artery disease (39.1% vs 9.8%), and carotid occlusive disease (4.8% vs 2.0%). Over 1 year, patients treated with OAC plus AP had significantly higher incidence rates of stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.01-2.20) and any bleeding event (aHR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.17-1.70) than those treated with OAC alone. These patients did not show evidence of reduced all-cause mortality (aHR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.98-1.51). Risk of acute coronary syndrome was not reduced in patients taking OAC plus AP compared with OAC alone (aHR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.70-1.94). Patients treated with OAC plus AP also had higher rates of all clinical outcomes than those treated with OAC alone over the short term (3 months). Conclusions and Relevance: This study challenges the practice of coprescribing OAC plus AP unless there is a clear indication for adding AP to OAC therapy in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
11.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(4): 905-915, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Anticoagulation Therapy in Selected Cancer Patients at Risk of Recurrence of Venous Thromboembolism (SELECT-D) trial demonstrated reduction in recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) but increased bleeding with rivaroxaban compared with dalteparin for treatment of acute VTE in cancer patients, at 6 months. Uncertainty remains around optimal duration of anticoagulation. OBJECTIVES: To assess VTE recurrence and bleeding, with anticoagulation or not, beyond 6 months. PATIENTS/METHODS: In SELECT-D, after 6 months of trial treatment for VTE, patients with active cancer and residual deep vein thrombosis (RDVT) or index pulmonary embolism (PE) were eligible for randomization to a further 6 months of rivaroxaban or placebo. Patients with no RDVT stopped anticoagulation. Primary outcome was VTE recurrence at 12 months. The second randomization closed prematurely because of low recruitment when 92 of the planned 300 patients were recruited. RESULTS: Ninety-two of 136 eligible patients were randomized to rivaroxaban or placebo. The cumulative VTE recurrence after 6 months from the second randomization was 14% with placebo and 4% with rivaroxaban (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-1.58). The major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding rates were 0% and 0% with placebo; and 5% (95% CI, 1-18) and 4% (95% CI, 1-17) with rivaroxaban. In an exploratory analysis, 7 (15%) of 46 placebo patients with RDVT or an index PE experienced recurrent VTE compared to none in the 35 patients in the RDVT-negative cohort (P = .03). CONCLUSION: The SELECT-D trial was underpowered to detect a statistically significant reduction in recurrent VTE with extended anticoagulation. The absence of RDVT and/or index PE, defined a population at low risk of recurrence.

12.
Europace ; 22(2): 195-204, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747004

RESUMO

AIMS: Guidelines do not recommend to take pattern of atrial fibrillation (AF) into account for the indication of anticoagulation (AC). We assessed AF pattern and the risk of cardiovascular events during 2-years of follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: We categorized AF as paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent in 29 181 patients enrolled (2010-15) in the Global Anticoagulant Registry In the FIELD of AF (GARFIELD-AF). We used multivariable Cox regression to assess the risks of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and death across patterns of AF, and whether this changed with AC on outcomes. Atrial fibrillation pattern was paroxysmal in 14 344 (49.2%), persistent in 8064 (27.6%), and permanent 6773 (23.2%) patients. Median CHA2DS2-VASc, GARFIELD-AF, and HAS-BLED scores assessing the risk of stroke/SE and/or bleeding were similar across AF patterns, but the risk of death, as assessed by the GARFIELD-AF risk calculator, was higher in non-paroxysmal than in paroxysmal AF patterns. During 2-year follow-up, after adjustment, non-paroxysmal AF patterns were associated with significantly higher rates of all-cause death, stroke/SE, and new/worsening congestive heart failure (CHF) than paroxysmal AF in non-anticoagulated patients only. In anticoagulated patients, a significantly higher risk of death but not of stroke/SE and new/worsening CHF persisted in non-paroxysmal compared with paroxysmal AF patterns. CONCLUSION: In non-anticoagulated patients, non-paroxysmal AF patterns were associated with higher risks of stroke/SE, new/worsening HF and death than paroxysmal AF. In anticoagulated patients, the risk of stroke/SE and new/worsening HF was similar across all AF patterns. Thus AF pattern is no longer prognostic for stroke/SE when patients are treated with anticoagulants. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01090362.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 496-520, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide updated recommendations about prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. METHODS: PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs published from August 1, 2014, through December 4, 2018. ASCO convened an Expert Panel to review the evidence and revise previous recommendations as needed. RESULTS: The systematic review included 35 publications on VTE prophylaxis and treatment and 18 publications on VTE risk assessment. Two RCTs of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of VTE in patients with cancer reported that edoxaban and rivaroxaban are effective but are linked with a higher risk of bleeding compared with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients with GI and potentially genitourinary cancers. Two additional RCTs reported on DOACs for thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients with cancer at increased risk of VTE. RECOMMENDATIONS: Changes to previous recommendations: Clinicians may offer thromboprophylaxis with apixaban, rivaroxaban, or LMWH to selected high-risk outpatients with cancer; rivaroxaban and edoxaban have been added as options for VTE treatment; patients with brain metastases are now addressed in the VTE treatment section; and the recommendation regarding long-term postoperative LMWH has been expanded. Re-affirmed recommendations: Most hospitalized patients with cancer and an acute medical condition require thromboprophylaxis throughout hospitalization. Thromboprophylaxis is not routinely recommended for all outpatients with cancer. Patients undergoing major cancer surgery should receive prophylaxis starting before surgery and continuing for at least 7 to 10 days. Patients with cancer should be periodically assessed for VTE risk, and oncology professionals should provide patient education about the signs and symptoms of VTE.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/supportive-care-guidelines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
14.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 6(5): 301-309, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821482

RESUMO

AIMS: Most clinical risk stratification models are based on measurement at a single time-point rather than serial measurements. Artificial intelligence (AI) is able to predict one-dimensional outcomes from multi-dimensional datasets. Using data from Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field (GARFIELD)-AF registry, a new AI model was developed for predicting clinical outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients up to 1 year based on sequential measures of prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) within 30 days of enrolment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with newly diagnosed AF who were treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and had at least three measurements of PT-INR taken over the first 30 days after prescription were analysed. The AI model was constructed with multilayer neural network including long short-term memory and one-dimensional convolution layers. The neural network was trained using PT-INR measurements within days 0-30 after starting treatment and clinical outcomes over days 31-365 in a derivation cohort (cohorts 1-3; n = 3185). Accuracy of the AI model at predicting major bleed, stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and death was assessed in a validation cohort (cohorts 4-5; n = 1523). The model's c-statistic for predicting major bleed, stroke/SE, and all-cause death was 0.75, 0.70, and 0.61, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using serial PT-INR values collected within 1 month after starting VKA, the new AI model performed better than time in therapeutic range at predicting clinical outcomes occurring up to 12 months thereafter. Serial PT-INR values contain important information that can be analysed by computer to help predict adverse clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Assistida por Computador , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Redes Neurais de Computação , Tempo de Protrombina , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Stroke ; 15(3): 308-317, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not always possible to verify whether a patient complaining of symptoms consistent with transient ischemic attack has had an actual cerebrovascular event. RESEARCH QUESTION: To characterize the risk of cardiovascular events associated with a history of stroke/transient ischemic attack in patients with atrial fibrillation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with a history of stroke/transient ischemic attack among 52,014 patients enrolled prospectively in GARFIELD-AF registry. The diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack was not protocol defined but based on physicians' assessment. Patients' one-year risk of death, stroke/systemic embolism, and major bleeding was assessed by multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: At enrollment, 5617 (10.9%) patients were reported to have a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack were older and had a greater burden of diabetes, moderate-to-severe kidney disease, and atherothrombosis and higher median CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores than those without history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. After adjustment, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack was associated with significantly higher risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-1.42), cardiovascular death (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48), non-cardiovascular death (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.68), and stroke/systemic embolism (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.80-2.63) than patients without history of stroke/transient ischemic attack. In patients with a prior stroke alone higher risk was observed for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.50), non-cardiovascular death (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.77), and stroke/systemic embolism (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.83-2.86). No significantly elevated risk of adverse events was seen for patients with history of transient ischemic attack alone. INTERPRETATION: A history of prior stroke or transient ischemic attack is a strong independent risk factor for mortality and stroke/systemic embolism. This excess risk is mainly attributed to a history of stroke (with or without transient ischemic attack), whereas history of transient ischemic attack is a weaker predictor. Clinical trial registration: NCT01090362.

16.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e033283, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To externally validate the accuracy of the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF) model against existing risk scores for stroke and major bleeding risk in patients with non-valvular AF in a population-based cohort. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish nationwide registries. PARTICIPANTS: 90 693 patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular AF were included between 2010 and 2016, with follow-up censored at 1 year. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: External validation was performed using discrimination and calibration plots. C-statistics were compared with CHA2DS2VASc score for ischaemic stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and HAS-BLED score for major bleeding/haemorrhagic stroke outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 90 693 included, 51 180 patients received oral anticoagulants (OAC). Overall median age (Q1, Q3) were 75 (66-83) years and 48 486 (53.5%) were male. At 1-year follow-up, a total of 2094 (2.3%) strokes/SE, 2642 (2.9%) major bleedings and 10 915 (12.0%) deaths occurred. The GARFIELD-AF model was well calibrated with the predicted risk for stroke/SE and major bleeding. The discriminatory value of GARFIELD-AF risk model was superior to CHA2DS2VASc for predicting stroke in the overall cohort (C-index: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.70 to 0.72 vs C-index: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.68, p<0.001) as well as in low-risk patients (C-index: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.69 vs C-index: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.61, p=0.007). The GARFIELD-AF model was comparable to HAS-BLED in predicting the risk of major bleeding in patients on OAC therapy (C-index: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.66 vs C-index: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.65, p=0.60). CONCLUSION: In a nationwide Danish cohort with non-valvular AF, the GARFIELD-AF model adequately predicted the risk of ischaemic stroke/SE and major bleeding. Our external validation confirms that the GARFIELD-AF model was superior to CHA2DS2VASc in predicting stroke/SE and comparable with HAS-BLED for predicting major bleeding.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Hemorragia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
17.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(10): e566-e581, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492632

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer. These patients are at a high risk of VTE recurrence and bleeding during anticoagulant therapy. The International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer is an independent academic working group aimed at establishing a global consensus for the treatment and prophylaxis of VTE in patients with cancer. The International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer last updated its evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in 2016 with a free, web-based mobile phone application, which was subsequently endorsed by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. The 2019 International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer clinical practice guidelines, which are based on a systematic review of the literature published up to December, 2018, are presented along with a Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation scale methods, with the support of the French National Cancer Institute. These guidelines were reviewed by an expanded international advisory committee and endorsed by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Results from head-to-head clinical trials that compared direct oral anticoagulant with low-molecular-weight heparin are also summarised, along with new evidence for the treatment and prophylaxis of VTE in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Fondaparinux/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Filtros de Veia Cava , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
19.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(10): 1675-1685, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370075

RESUMO

Isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT) represents up to half of all lower limb DVT. This study investigated treatment patterns and outcomes in 2,145 patients with IDDVT in comparison with those with proximal DVT (PDVT; n = 3,846) and pulmonary embolism (PE; n = 4,097) enrolled in the GARFIELD-VTE registry. IDDVT patients were more likely to have recently undergone surgery (14.6%) or experienced leg trauma (13.2%) than PDVT patients (11.0 and 8.7%, respectively) and PE patients (12.7 and 4.5%, respectively). Compared with IDDVT, patients with PDVT or PE were more likely to have active cancer (7.2% vs. 9.9% and 10.3%). However, influence of provoking factors on risk of recurrence in IDDVT remains controversial. Nearly all patients (IDDVT, PDVT, and PE) were given anticoagulant therapy. In IDDVT, PDVT, and PE groups the proportion of patients receiving anticoagulant therapy was 61.4, 73.9, and 81.1% at 6 months and 45.8, 54.7, and 61.9% at 12 months. Over 12 months, the incidence of all-cause mortality, cancer, and recurrence was significantly lower in IDDVT patients than PDVT patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.77]; sub-HR [sHR], 0.60 [95% CI, 0.39-0.93]; and sHR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.60-0.97]). Likewise, risk of death and incident cancer was significantly (both p < 0.05) lower in patients with IDDVT compared with PE. This study reveals a global trend that most IDDVT patients as well as those with PDVT and PE are given anticoagulant therapy, in many cases for at least 12 months.


Assuntos
Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412, Aug., 2019. tabela, grafico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem
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