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1.
Nefrologia ; 40(2): 133-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113511

RESUMO

The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rapidly increasing with a projection of becoming the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. Aggravatingly, CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume up to 3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, however, the onset and progression of CKD is often preventable. In 2020, the World Kidney Day campaign highlights the importance of preventive interventions - be it primary, secondary or tertiary. This complementing article focuses on outlining and analyzing measures that can be implemented in every country to promote and advance CKD prevention. Primary prevention of kidney disease should focus on the modification of risk factors and addressing structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tracts, as well as exposure to environmental risk factors and nephrotoxins. In persons with pre-existing kidney disease, secondary prevention, including blood pressure optimization and glycemic control, should be the main goal of education and clinical interventions. In patients with advanced CKD, management of co-morbidities such as uremia and cardiovascular disease is a highly recommended preventative intervention to avoid or delay dialysis or kidney transplantation. Political efforts are needed to proliferate the preventive approach. While national policies and strategies for non-communicable diseases might be present in a country, specific policies directed toward education and awareness about CKD screening, management and treatment are often lacking. Hence, there is an urgent need to increase the awareness of the importance of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals and policy makers.

3.
JAMA ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219359

RESUMO

Importance: Bromodomain and extraterminal proteins are epigenetic regulators of gene transcription. Apabetalone is a selective bromodomain and extraterminal protein inhibitor targeting bromodomain 2 and is hypothesized to have potentially favorable effects on pathways related to atherothrombosis. Pooled phase 2 data suggest favorable effects on clinical outcomes. Objective: To test whether apabetalone significantly reduces major adverse cardiovascular events. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, conducted at 190 sites in 13 countries. Patients with an acute coronary syndrome in the preceding 7 to 90 days, type 2 diabetes, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were eligible for enrollment, which started November 11, 2015, and ended July 4, 2018, with end of follow-up on July 3, 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive apabetalone, 100 mg orally twice daily (n = 1215), or matching placebo (n = 1210) in addition to standard care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of time to the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or stroke. Results: Among 2425 patients who were randomized (mean age, 62 years; 618 women [25.6%]), 2320 (95.7%) had full ascertainment of the primary outcome. During a median follow-up of 26.5 months, 274 primary end points occurred: 125 (10.3%) in apabetalone-treated patients and 149 (12.4%) in placebo-treated patients (hazard ratio, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.65-1.04]; P = .11). More patients allocated to apabetalone than placebo discontinued study drug (114 [9.4%] vs 69 [5.7%]) for reasons including elevations of liver enzyme levels (35 [2.9%] vs 11 [0.9%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with recent acute coronary syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, the selective bromodomain and extraterminal protein inhibitor apabetalone added to standard therapy did not significantly reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02586155.

4.
J Ren Nutr ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147285

RESUMO

Potassium-rich foods might provide many health benefits even to people who have declining renal function. The barrier to obtaining these health benefits has long been the concern over hyperkalemia. There are new and novel treatment options available which may enable patients with chronic kidney disease to obtain the health benefits of eating a diet that contains foods such as fruits and vegetables which are high in potassium while reducing the risk of hyperkalemia. We conclude by emphasizing the need for clinical trials with patients on hemodialysis to directly compare the current standard of care, including a potassium-restricted diet, to a potassium-liberalized diet with a potassium binder. The outcome measures would be serum potassium (<5.3 mmol/L), assessments of acidosis, blood pressure, constipation, glycemic control, overhydration, and azotemia, all of which might change in a favorable direction with vegetarian diets as well as quality of life and satisfaction.

6.
Nephron ; 144(4): 161-168, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160613

RESUMO

The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rapidly increasing with a projection of becoming the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. Aggravatingly, CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume up to 3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, however, the onset and progression of CKD is often preventable. In 2020, the World Kidney Day campaign highlights the importance of preventive interventions - be it primary, secondary or tertiary. This complementing article focuses on outlining and analyzing measures that can be implemented in every country to promote and advance CKD prevention. Primary prevention of kidney disease should focus on the modification of risk factors and addressing structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tracts, as well as exposure to environmental risk factors and nephrotoxins. In persons with pre-existing kidney disease, secondary prevention, including blood pressure optimization and glycemic control, should be the main goal of education and clinical interventions. In patients with advanced CKD, management of co-morbidities such as uremia and cardiovascular disease is a highly recommended preventative intervention to avoid or delay dialysis or kidney transplantation. Political efforts are needed to proliferate the preventive approach. While national policies and strategies for non-communicable diseases might be present in a country, specific policies directed toward education and awareness about CKD screening, management and treatment are often lacking. Hence, there is an urgent need to increase the awareness of the importance of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals and policy makers.

7.
Am J Nephrol ; : 1-8, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160623

RESUMO

The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rapidly increasing with a projection of becoming the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. Aggravatingly, CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume up to 3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, however, the onset and progression of CKD is often preventable. In 2020, the World Kidney Day campaign highlights the importance of preventive interventions - be it primary, secondary or tertiary. This complementing article focuses on outlining and analyzing measures that can be implemented in every country to promote and advance CKD prevention. Primary prevention of kidney disease should focus on the modification of risk factors and addressing structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tracts, as well as exposure to environmental risk factors and nephrotoxins. In persons with pre-existing kidney disease, secondary prevention, including blood pressure optimization and glycemic control, should be the main goal of education and clinical interventions. In patients with advanced CKD, management of co-morbidities such as uremia and cardiovascular disease is a highly recommended preventative intervention to avoid or delay dialysis or kidney transplantation. Political efforts are needed to proliferate the preventive approach. While national policies and strategies for non-communicable diseases might be present in a country, specific policies directed toward education and awareness about CKD screening, management and treatment are often lacking. Hence, there is an urgent need to increase the awareness of the importance of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals and policy makers.

8.
Blood Purif ; : 1-8, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160626

RESUMO

The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rapidly increasing with a projection of becoming the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. Aggravatingly, CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume up to 3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, however, the onset and progression of CKD is often preventable. In 2020, the World Kidney Day campaign highlights the importance of preventive interventions - be it primary, secondary or tertiary. This complementing article focuses on outlining and analyzing measures that can be implemented in every country to promote and advance CKD prevention. Primary prevention of kidney disease should focus on the modification of risk factors and addressing structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tracts, as well as exposure to environmental risk factors and nephrotoxins. In persons with pre-existing kidney disease, secondary prevention, including blood pressure optimization and glycemic control, should be the main goal of education and clinical interventions. In patients with advanced CKD, management of co-morbidities such as uremia and cardiovascular disease is a highly recommended preventative intervention to avoid or delay dialysis or kidney transplantation. Political efforts are needed to proliferate the preventive approach. While national policies and strategies for non-communicable diseases might be present in a country, specific policies directed toward education and awareness about CKD screening, management and treatment are often lacking. Hence, there is an urgent need to increase the awareness of the importance of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals and policy makers.

9.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 14(2): 69-80, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165591

RESUMO

The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rapidly increasing with a projection of becoming the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. Aggravatingly, CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume up to 3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, however, the onset and progression of CKD is often preventable. In 2020, the World Kidney Day campaign highlights the importance of preventive interventions - be it primary, secondary, or tertiary. This complementing article focuses on outlining and analyzing measures that can be implemented in every country to promote and advance CKD prevention. Primary prevention of kidney disease should focus on the modification of risk factors and addressing structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tracts, as well as exposure to environmental risk factors and nephrotoxins. In persons with pre-existing kidney disease, secondary prevention; including blood pressure optimization and glycemic control, should be the main goal of education and clinical interventions. In patients with advanced CKD, management of co-morbidities such as uremia and cardiovascular disease is a highly recommended preventative intervention to avoid or delay dialysis or kidney transplantation. Political efforts are needed to proliferate the preventive approach. While national policies and strategies for non-communicable diseases might be present in a country, specific policies directed toward education and awareness about CKD screening, management and treatment are often lacking. Hence, there is an urgent need to increase the awareness of the importance of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals and policy makers.

10.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 118(2): e148, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199054

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rapidly becoming the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. Crucially, the onset and progression of CKD is often preventable. The World Kidney Day 2020 campaign highlights the importance of preventive interventions on CKD. Primary prevention should focus on risks modification as well as reduced exposure to environmental risk factors and nephrotoxins. Blood pressure optimization and glycemic control should be one of the main interventions in persons with pre-existing kidney disease. Management of co-morbidities such as uremia and cardiovascular disease is highly recommended to avoid or delay dialysis or kidney transplantation. Globally, specific policies directed toward education and awareness about CKD screening, management and treatment are often lacking. Hence, there is an urgent need to increase the awareness of the importance of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals and policy makers around the world.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134730

RESUMO

Background The optimal timing of treatment with vitamin D therapy for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), vitamin D insufficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a pressing question in nephrology with economic and patient outcome implications. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of earlier vitamin D treatment in CKD patients not on dialysis with vitamin D insufficiency and SHPT. Design A cost-effectiveness analysis based on a Markov model of CKD progression was developed from the Medicare perspective. The model follows a hypothetical cohort of 1000 Stage 3 or 4 CKD patients over a 5-year time horizon. The intervention was vitamin D therapy initiated in CKD stages 3 or 4 through CKD stage 5/end-stage renal disease (ESRD) versus initiation in CKD stage 5/ESRD only. The outcomes of interest were cardiovascular (CV) events averted, fractures averted, time in CKD stage 5/ESRD, mortality, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs associated with clinical events and CKD stage. Results Vitamin D treatment in CKD stages 3 and 4 was a dominant strategy when compared to waiting to treat until CKD stage 5/ESRD. Total cost savings associated with treatment during CKD stages 3 and 4, compared to waiting until CKD stage 5/ESRD, was estimated to be $19.9 million. The model estimated that early treatment results in 159 averted CV events, 5 averted fractures, 269 fewer patient-years in CKD stage 5, 41 fewer deaths, and 191 additional QALYs. Conclusions Initiating vitamin D therapy in CKD stages 3 or 4 appears to be cost-effective, largely driven by the annual costs of care by CKD stage, CV event costs, and risks of hypercalcemia. Further research demonstrating causal relationships between vitamin D therapy and patient outcomes is needed to inform decision making regarding vitamin D therapy timing.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are traditionally known as moderators of allergic reactions; however, they have now emerged as one of the principal immune-regulating cells as well as predictors of vascular disease and mortality in the general population. Although eosinophilia has been demonstrated in hemodialysis (HD) patients, associations of eosinophil count (EOC) and its changes with mortality in HD patients are still unknown. METHODS: In 107 506 incident HD patients treated by a large dialysis organization during 2007-11, we examined the relationships of baseline and time-varying EOC and its changes (ΔEOC) over the first 3 months with all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards models with three levels of hierarchical adjustment. RESULTS: Baseline median EOC was 231 (interquartile range 155-339) cells/µL and eosinophilia (>350 cells/µL) was observed in 23.4% of patients. There was a gradual increase in EOC over time after HD initiation with a median ΔEOC of 5.1 (IQR -53-199) cells/µL, which did not parallel the changes in white blood cell count. In fully adjusted models, mortality risk was highest in subjects with lower baseline and time-varying EOC (<100 cells/µL) and was also slightly higher in patients with higher levels (≥550 cells/µL), resulting in a reverse J-shaped relationship. The relationship of ΔEOC with all-cause mortality risk was also a reverse J-shape where both an increase and decrease exhibited a higher mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: Both lower and higher EOCs and changes in EOC over the first 3 months after HD initiation were associated with higher all-cause mortality in incident HD patients.

14.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 16(3): 129-130, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005966
15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(2): 231-242, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between income level and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults with normal baseline kidney function. PATIENT AND METHODS: We studied the association between income level categorized into deciles and incident CKD in a national cohort comprised of 7,405,715 adults who underwent National Health Insurance Service health examinations during January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2015, with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Incident CKD was defined as de novo development of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (model 1) or ≥25% decline in eGFR from baseline values accompanied by eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (model 2). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, there were 122,032 of 7,405,715 (1.65%) and 55,779 of 7,405,715 (0.75%) incident CKD events based on model 1 and 2 definitions, respectively. Compared with income levels in the sixth decile, there was an inverse association between lower income level and higher risk for CKD up to the fourth decile, above which no additional reduction (model 1) or slightly higher risk for CKD (model 2) was observed at higher income levels. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios from the lowest to fourth deciles were 1.30 (95% CI, 1.26-1.33), 1.16 (95% CI, 1.13-1.19), 1.07 (95% CI, 1.05-1.10), and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.09) in model 1 and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.27-1.37), 1.18 (95% CI, 1.14-1.22), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.04-1.13), and 1.05 (95% CI, 1.01-1.09) in model 2, respectively. These associations persisted across various subgroups of age, sex, and comorbidity status. CONCLUSION: In this large nationwide cohort, lower income levels were associated with higher risk for incident CKD.

16.
Clin Nephrol ; 93(3): 111-122, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017699

RESUMO

The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rapidly increasing with a projection of becoming the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. Aggravatingly, CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume up to 3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, however, the onset and progression of CKD is often preventable. In 2020, the World Kidney Day campaign highlights the importance of preventive interventions - be it primary, secondary or tertiary. This complementing article focuses on outlining and analyzing measures that can be implemented in every country to promote and advance CKD prevention. Primary prevention of kidney disease should focus on the modification of risk factors and addressing structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tracts, as well as exposure to environmental risk factors and nephrotoxins. In persons with pre-existing kidney disease, secondary prevention, including blood pressure optimization and glycemic control, should be the main goal of education and clinical interventions. In patients with advanced CKD, management of co-morbidities such as uremia and cardiovascular disease is a highly recommended preventative intervention to avoid or delay dialysis or kidney transplantation. Political efforts are needed to proliferate the preventive approach. While national policies and strategies for non-communicable diseases might be present in a country, specific policies directed toward education and awareness about CKD screening, management, and treatment are often lacking. Hence, there is an urgent need to increase the awareness of the importance of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals, and policy makers.

18.
J Ren Care ; 46(1): 4-12, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052938

RESUMO

The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing with a projection of becoming the fifth leading cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume up to 3% of the entire annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, however, both the onset and progression of CKD is potentially preventable. In 2020, the World Kidney Day campaign highlights the importance of preventive interventions-be it primary, i.e. to prevent de novo CKD, or secondary or tertiary, i.e. prevention of worsening early CKD or progression of more advanced CKD to end-stage kidney disease, respectively. Primary prevention should focus on the modification of CKD risk factors and address the structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tracts, and exposure to environmental risk factors and nephrotoxins. In persons with pre-existing kidney disease, secondary prevention, including blood pressure optimization, glycemic control and avoiding high-protein high-sodium diet should be the main goal of education and clinical interventions. In patients with moderate to advanced CKD, the management of comorbidities such as uremia and cardiovascular disease along with low-protein diet are among the recommended preventative interventions to avoid or delay dialysis or kidney transplantation. Whereas national policies and strategies for noncommunicable diseases may exist in a country, specific policies directed toward education and awareness about CKD screening, prevention and treatment are often lacking. There is an urgent need to increase awareness for preventive measures throughout populations, professionals and policy makers.

20.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 35(5): 851-860, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) is associated with a slower progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in pre-dialysis patients. However, little is known about the associated mortality risks after transitioning to dialysis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 0-21 year-old incident dialysis patients from the United States Renal Data System starting dialysis between 1995 and 2016. We examined the association of CAKUT vs. non-CAKUT with all-cause mortality, using Cox regression adjusted for case mix variables. We also examined the mortality risk associated with 14 non-CAKUT vs. CAKUT ESRD etiologies and under stratification by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: Among 25,761 patients, the median (interquartile range) age was 17 (11-19) years, and 4780 (19%) had CAKUT. CAKUT was associated with lower mortality, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 0.72 (95%CI, 0.64-0.81) (reference: non-CAKUT). In age-stratified analyses, CAKUT vs. non-CAKUT aHRs (95%CI) were 0.66 (0.54-0.80), 0.56 (0.39-0.80), 0.66 (0.50-0.86), and 0.97 (0.80-1.18) among patients < 6, 6-< 13, 13-< 18, and ≥ 18 years at dialysis initiation, respectively. Among non-CAKUT ESRD etiologies, the risk of mortality associated with primary glomerulonephritis (aHR, 0.93; 95%CI 0.80-1.09) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (aHR, 0.89; 95%CI, 0.75-1.04) were comparable or slightly lower compared to CAKUT, whereas most other primary causes were associated with higher mortality risk. While the CAKUT group had lower mortality risk compared to the non-CAKUT group patients with eGFR ≥5 mL/min/1.73m2, CAKUT was associated with higher mortality in patients with eGFR < 5 mL/min/1.73 m2. CONCLUSIONS: CAKUT is associated with lower mortality among children < 18 years old, but showed comparable mortality with non-CAKUT among patients ≥ 18 years old. ESRD etiology should be considered in risk assessment for children initiating dialysis.

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