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Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499359


Carbonized elastomer-based composites (CECs) possess a number of attractive features in terms of thermomechanical and electromechanical performance, durability in aggressive media and facile net-shape formability, but their relatively low ductility and strength limit their suitability for structural engineering applications. Prospective applications such as structural elements of micro-electro-mechanical systems MEMS can be envisaged since smaller principal dimensions reduce the susceptibility of components to residual stress accumulation during carbonization and to brittle fracture in general. We report the results of in situ in-SEM study of microdeformation and fracture behavior of CECs based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) elastomeric matrices filled with carbon and silicon carbide. Nanostructured carbon composite materials were manufactured via compounding of elastomeric substance with carbon and SiC fillers using mixing rolling mill, vulcanization, and low-temperature carbonization. Double-edge notched tensile (DENT) specimens of vulcanized and carbonized elastomeric composites were subjected to in situ tensile testing in the chamber of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) Tescan Vega 3 using a Deben microtest 1 kN tensile stage. The series of acquired SEM images were analyzed by means of digital image correlation (DIC) using Ncorr open-source software to map the spatial distribution of strain. These maps were correlated with finite element modeling (FEM) simulations to refine the values of elastic moduli. Moreover, the elastic moduli were derived from unloading curve nanoindentation hardness measurements carried out using a NanoScan-4D tester and interpreted using the Oliver-Pharr method. Carbonization causes a significant increase of elastic moduli from 0.86 ± 0.07 GPa to 14.12 ± 1.20 GPa for the composite with graphite and carbon black fillers. Nanoindentation measurements yield somewhat lower values, namely, 0.25 ± 0.02 GPa and 9.83 ± 1.10 GPa before and after carbonization, respectively. The analysis of fractography images suggests that crack initiation, growth and propagation may occur both at the notch stress concentrator or relatively far from the notch. Possible causes of such response are discussed, namely, (1) residual stresses introduced by processing; (2) shape and size of fillers; and (3) the emanation and accumulation of gases in composites during carbonization.

Elastômeros/química , Nanocompostos/química , Carbono/química , Compostos Inorgânicos de Carbono/química , Simulação por Computador , Módulo de Elasticidade , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Compostos de Silício/química , Estresse Mecânico , Resistência à Tração
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198175


Thermally stable composites obtained by the low-temperature carbonization of an elastomeric matrix filled with hard dispersed silicon carbide particles were obtained and investigated. Evolution of the microstructure and of mechanical and thermal characteristics of composites during thermal degradation and carbonization processes in a wide range of filling from 0 to 450 parts per hundred rubber was studied. For highly filled composites, the compressive strength values were found to be more than 200 MPa; Young's modulus was more than 15 GPa. The thermal conductivity coefficient of composites was up to 1.6 W/(m·K), and this magnitude varied slightly in the temperature range of 25-300 °C. Coupled with the high thermal stability of the composites, the observed properties make it possible to consider using such composites as strained friction units instead of reinforced polymers.

Materials (Basel) ; 13(15)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756415


Since obtaining a highly oriented structure based on a large-scale commercial ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is considered very difficult due to its high molecular weight and melting index, modifying the structure of these cheap commercial UHMWPE brands into a supra-molecular structure with fiber-forming properties by adding a small amount of polyethylene wax (PE-wax) will provide the possibility to obtain highly oriented UHMWPE products with enhanced mechanical and tribological properties. In this work, highly oriented UHMWPE/PE-wax films were prepared. The PE-wax affected the UHMWPE as an intermolecular lubricant. The obtained lamellar structure of the UHMWPE/PE-wax composites had a better processability. The UHMWPE and UHMWPE/PE-wax structures for the xerogels and the films were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The PE-wax presence enhanced the mechanical properties of the UHMWPE/PE-wax films to a high degree. The highest average value of the tensile strength was 1320 MPa (an increase of 78%) obtained by adding a PE-wax content of 1.0 wt.%, and the highest average value of the Young's modulus was 56.8 GPa (an increase of 71%) obtained by adding a PE-wax content of 2.0 wt.%. The addition of the PE-wax increased the work of fracture values of the UHMWPE/PE-wax films up to 233%. The formation of the cavities was observed in the virgin UHMWPE films more than in the UHMWPE/PE-wax films, and the whitening of the oriented films was related to the crystallization process more than to the cavitation phenomenon. The coefficient of friction of the oriented UHMWPE/PE-wax films improved by 33% in comparison with the isotropic UHMWPE, and by 7% in comparison with the oriented virgin UHMWPE films.

Materials (Basel) ; 13(13)2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640623


A hybrid implant with a structure mimicking that of natural bone was developed. Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V prepared with three-dimensional (3D)-printing technology was used to simulate the cortical-bone layer. The mismatch in the mechanical properties of bone and titanium alloy was solved by creating special perforations in the titanium's surface. Porous ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with high osteogenous properties was used to simulate the cancellous-bone tissue. A method for creating a porous UHMWPE structure inside the titanium reinforcement is proposed. The porous UHMWPE was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to confirm that the pores that formed were open, interconnected, and between 50 and 850 µm in size. Mechanical-compression tests done on the obtained UHMWPE/titanium-hybrid-implant samples showed that their mechanical properties simulated those of natural bone.