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2.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(2): 1318, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to predict in vivo lung mass density for patients with interstitial lung disease using different gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT) algorithms based on measurements from lung ultrasound surface wave elastography (LUSWE) and pulmonary function testing (PFT). METHODS: Age and weight of study subjects (57 patients with interstitial lung disease and 20 healthy subjects), surface wave speeds at three vibration frequencies (100, 150, and 200 Hz) from LUSWE, and predicted forced expiratory volume (FEV1% pre) and ratio of forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1%/FVC%) from PFT were used as inputs while lung mass densities based on the Hounsfield Unit from high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were used as labels to train the regressor in three GBDT algorithms, XGBoost, CatBoost, and LightGBM. 80% (20%) of the dataset was used for training (testing). RESULTS: The results showed that predictions using XGBoost regressor obtained an accuracy of 0.98 in the test dataset. CONCLUSION: The obtained results suggest that XGBoost regressor based on the measurements from LUSWE and PFT may be able to noninvasively assess lung mass density in vivo for patients with pulmonary disease.

3.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(2): 30-34, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527808

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is one of the most dreaded complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Preventive podiatry is most efficient way of minimising DFU. The main aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and foot care practices among patients living with T2DM concerning the DFU. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a rural-area of Haryana, India between January to March 2019 amongst 416 people living with T2DM after using multistage random sampling. A pre-tested, structured survey instrument prepared from the recommendation of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons and the Diabetes UK was used after Hindi translation as per standard protocol. The knowledge and practices were classified as good, satisfactory and poor if the total score was between 8-11, 6-7 and <6. Results: 14.2% had a previous history of DFU. The prevalence of good, satisfactory and poor knowledge was 63.5%, 12.5% and 24.0%. Further, 46.7%, 32.7% and 20.6% respondents depicted good, satisfactory and poor practices regarding foot care. On multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, younger age group, higher education, Per capita family income in INR, Blood glucose levels, HbA1c Levels, physical activity and previous history of DFU emerged as significant predictors of good foot-care knowledge and practices. Conclusion: There is an evident gap between foot-care knowledge and practices that should be addressed through comprehensive behaviour change strategies. Comprehensive risk-assessments for diabetes associated complications needs to be piloted at community level to assess the feasibility.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pé Diabético , Podiatria , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Pé Diabético/epidemiologia , Pé Diabético/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(1(A)): 2-3, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484507
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(1(A)): 168-169, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484549

RESUMO

This communication describes a framework to help plan and implement glucose lowering strategies in hospitalized patients. Termed the SECURE model, it utilizes six clinical characteristics to decide intensity of insulin therapy. The SECURE rubric is more comprehensive than the conventional gluco-centric approach promoted by routinely used algorithms. SECURE promotes good clinical sense and pragmatic care in the critical care setting.

6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(1(A)): 170-171, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484550

RESUMO

The authors propose "Barocrinology", a novel terminology in medical literature, to comprehensively describe the rapidly expanding field of obesity medicine. This new term highlights the need to appreciate the role of endocrine physiology in the evolution of obesity, insights into its complications and changes in the hormonal milieu following weight loss therapies, including bariatric surgery. This term would not only reduce the stigma associated with obesity in affected individuals but also give them a better appreciation of its biological origin rather than self-criticism. This paper also undermines the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach needed in this field for achieving practical and sustainable goals, individualized to each person.

7.
Diabetes Ther ; 2021 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491112

RESUMO

Diabetes remission is a concept that is marked by ample attention, but lack of unanimity. This opinion piece explores existing definitions of diabetes remission and proposes a contemporary and comprehensive framework to help define this clinical state. Type 2 diabetes remission is defined as a healthy clinical state characterized by achievement of HBA1c below the targeted level, maintained for at least 6 months, with or without continued use of lifestyle modification and/or metformin, provided that this is not due to complications, comorbid conditions or concomitant therapy.Diabetes Remission: Infographic.

8.
Diabetes Ther ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This Delphi study aims to provide evidence-based expert opinion on the usage and current position of gliclazide in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management in India. METHODS: The single interaction modified Delphi-based methodology was used to collect opinions on gliclazide usage and its position in diabetes management from 338 endocrinologists/diabetologists who have had clinical experience with gliclazide. Participants, using a 9-point scale, were asked to rate eight statements comprising a total of 52 items on the related topics. RESULTS: The Delphi consensus suggests that in drug-naïve patients with T2DM, intolerant to metformin or in whom metformin is contraindicated, dual therapy of gliclazide/gliclazide-modified release (MR) should be considered along with a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor if glycated hemoglobin A1c level is greater than 7.5% and with insulin if the A1c level is greater than 9%. If the patients are inadequately controlled with metformin (A1c greater than 6.5% after 3 months of therapy), gliclazide/gliclazide-MR shall be added on to the treatment regimen to achieve greater and sustained reductions in A1c levels. However, it was not preferred over other antidiabetic classes in such clinical settings except alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGI). Early addition of gliclazide/gliclazide-MR shall be preferred over the up-titration of metformin beyond half-maximal dose for effective management of T2DM. Gliclazide/gliclazide-MR can be used safely in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. It can be used in older patients with T2DM as it does not have active metabolites and has a low risk of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSION: The expert panel proposed consideration of monotherapy or dual therapy of gliclazide as an ideal choice in patients with T2DM because of its efficacy, long-term glycemic control, favorable renal outcomes, cardiovascular safety, and an optimal safety profile.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim was to assess acetabular fracture outcomes of percutaneous fixation (PF) with or without minimally invasive surgery (MIS). METHODS: Between July 2011 and October 2016, acetabular fractures fixed with PF with or without MIS were included. Data collected are demographics, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, time to surgery, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, fracture characteristics, surgical techniques, fracture reduction, secondary osteoarthritis (OA), revision surgery, patient survival and complications. RESULTS: Of 26 patients with a mean age of 56 years (19-86) (22 males and 4 females), 11 were < 50 years age (U50) and 15 were > 50 years (A50). Most common pattern was anterior column with posterior hemi-transverse. Three out of 11 U50 were minimally displaced and had PF only; the rest had MIS and PF. All had good fracture reduction, but 2 had secondary OA at follow-up but no further surgery. Eight out of 26 had secondary OA but only 3 needed surgery. Three (A50 with PF) with fair/poor reduction (deemed unfit for open reduction) had secondary OA but no further intervention. Three more (A50 with MIS + PF) had secondary OA treated with primary total hip replacement (THR). Complications were as follows: one foot drop recovered after immediate repositioning of screw, one cardiac event and one pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSION: Fracture mal-reduction predicts secondary OA, but good fracture reduction does not prevent secondary OA. MIS and PF in elderly are useful even with suboptimal reduction as it sets the bed for a non-complex THR. Despite MIS surgery, medical complications are potentially significant.

10.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-12, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319626

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic. According to international guidelines, the management protocol of T2DM includes lowering of blood glucose, along with preventing disease-related complications and maintaining optimal quality of life. Further, the guidelines recommend the use of a patient-centric approaches for the management of T2DM; however, Asian population is underrepresented in landmark cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs). There are several guidelines available today for the diagnosis and management of T2DM, and hence there is much confusion among practitioners about which guidelines to follow. A group of thirty international clinical experts comprising of endocrinologists, diabetologists and cardiologist from South Asia, Middle East and Africa met at New Delhi, India on February 8 and 9, 2020 and developed an international expert opinion statements via a structured modified Delphi method on the glucodynamic properties of OADs and the glucocratic treatment approach for the management of T2DM. In this modified Delphi consensus report, we document the glucodynamic properties of Modern SUs in terms of glucoconfidence, glucosafety, and gluconomics. According to glucodynamics theory, an ideal antidiabetic drug should be efficacious, safe, and affordable. Modern SUs as a class of OADs that have demonstrated optimal glucodynamics in terms of glucoconfidence, glucosafety, and gluconomics. Hence, modern SUs are most suitable second line drug after metformin for developing countries. Based on the current evidence, we recommend a glucocratic approach for the treatment of T2DM, where an individualized treatment plan with phenotype, lifestyle, environmental, social, and cultural factors should be considered for persons with T2DM in the South Asian, Middle Eastern and African regions.

11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 55-62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly evolving, thereby posing a profound challenge to the global healthcare system. Cardiometabolic disorders are associated with poor clinical outcomes in persons with COVID-19. Healthcare challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic are linked to resource constraints including shortage of Personal Protective Equipment's (PPE), laboratory tests and medication. In this context, a group of clinical experts discussed the endocrine and cardiology vigilance required in times of COVID-19. Further, the group proposed certain resource husbandry recommendations to be followed during the pandemic to overcome the constraints. METHOD: The clinical experts discussed and provided their inputs virtually. The expert panel included clinical experts comprising endocrinologists, Consultant Physicians and cardiologists from India. The panel thoroughly reviewed existing literature on the subject and proposed expert opinion. RESULTS: The expert panel put forward clinical practice-based opinion for the management of cardiometabolic conditions including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. As these conditions are associated with poor clinical outcomes, the expert panel recommends that these persons be extra-cautious and take necessary precautions during the ongoing pandemic. Further, experts also provided appropriate, affordable, available and accessible solution to the resource constraint situations in times of COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The clinical expert opinion put forward in this article will serve as a reference for clinicians treating diabetes and cardiovascular disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(2): 465-485, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367983

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a global health concern associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Inadequate control of diabetes leads to chronic complications and higher mortality rates, which emphasizes the importance of achieving glycemic targets. Although glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is the gold standard for measuring glycemic control, it has several limitations. Therefore, in recent years, along with the emergence of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology, glycemic control modalities have moved beyond HbA1c. They encompass modern glucometrics, such as glycemic variability (GV) and time-in-range (TIR). The key advantage of these newer metrics over HbA1c is that they allow personalized diabetes management with person-centric glycemic control. Basal insulin analogues, especially second-generation basal insulins with properties such as longer duration of action and low risk of hypoglycemia, have demonstrated clinical benefits by reducing GV and improving TIR. Therefore, for more effective and accurate diabetes management, the development of an integrated approach with second-generation basal insulin and glucometrics involving GV and TIR is the need of the hour. With this objective, a multinational group of endocrinologists and diabetologists reviewed the existing recommendations on TIR, provided their clinical insights into the individualization of TIR targets, and elucidated on the role of the second-generation basal insulin analogues in addressing TIR.

14.
Minerva Endocrinol ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331741

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MS), a conglomeration of several conditions including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and dyslipidemia is reaching epidemic proportions. Anemia is caused by iron deficiency or dysregulation of iron homeostasis, leading to tissue hypoxia. Coexistence of anemia and MS or its components has been reported in the literature. The term "rubrometabolic syndrome" acts as a unifying entity linking the importance of blood in health and anemia in MS; it justifies two principles-redness of blood and low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation in MSaffects iron metabolism leading to anemia. Tissue hypoxia that results from the anemic condition seems to be a major causative factor for the exacerbation of several microvascular and macrovascular components of T2DM, which include diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular complications. In obesity, anemia leads to malabsorption of micronutrients and can complicate the management of the condition by bariatric surgery. Anemia interferes with the diagnosis and management of T2DM, obesity, dyslipidemia, or hypertension due to its effect on pathological tests as well as medications. Since anemia in MS is multifaceted, the management of anemia is challenging as overcorrection of anemia with erythropoietin-stimulating agents can cause detrimental effects. These limitations necessitate availability of an effective and safe therapy that can maintain and elevate the hemoglobin levels along with maintaining the physiological balance of other systems. This review discusses the physiological links between anemia and MS along with diagnosis and management strategies in patients with coexistence of anemia and MS.

15.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(11): 2070-2071, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341864

RESUMO

Psychiatry and Endocrinology share a deep rooted, multifaceted bidirectional relationship. Both have seen a surge in cases due to change in lifestyle. Time has come where these two rapidly growing fields interact and exchange knowledge leading to emergence of Psychocrinology. This communication describes the rationale behind using the term psychocrinology, and provides an overview of it's vast spectrum.

16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(10): 1860-1861, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159771

RESUMO

This opinion piece discusses the concept of social insulin resistance, and helps create a comprehensive biopsychosocial model of insulin resistance. Social insulin resistance is defined as a negative attitude, present in some social groups, directed towards avoidance or rejection of insulin therapy. The various aspects of social insulin resistance are described in detail. This important construct has both clinical and public health relevance, and will help plan strategies to improve the acceptance and usage of insulin in diabetes care.

17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(10): 1862-1863, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159772

RESUMO

This review focuses on transgender medicine, and its importance in South Asia. It describes the various facets of transgender medicine that are relevant to primary health care providers. The authors call for greater sensitivity towards the needs of the transgender community, so that they can receive quality care at the primary level.

18.
Diabetes Ther ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169346

RESUMO

The prevalence of diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is growing rapidly, and a steadily increasing number of adults are estimated to be living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin therapy is the treatment of choice in patients who present with severe hyperglycaemia and in most of those who do not achieve target goals on oral hypoglycaemic agents. Initiating treatment with the appropriate type of insulin based on the meal patterns and lifestyle of the individual patient is a strategy that is more likely than others to improve glycaemic control and adherence. African cuisine typically has a high carbohydrate load. Given these predominantly carbohydrate-rich food habits, it is essential to modify this dietary pattern whilst at the same time ensuring that insulin therapy is initiated, titrated and maintained in a timely manner, as needed to suit the patient's habits. To date, there are no published clinical guidelines to guide practitioners and patients on tailoring insulin to match the high carbohydrate content in African cuisine. To address this gap, we have reviewed current insulin therapy practices and propose a patient-centric guide to insulin therapy based on African cuisine. A literature search was conducted for studies published in English up to November 2019 that focused on the choice of insulin and its dosing in relation to African foods. All articles extracted were reviewed by an expert group. The recommendation of the expert group was that basal-bolus and premix insulin regimens are best suited to manage post-meal glycaemia in African cuisine. The timing and constituents of the meal, portion sizes, glycaemic load and glycaemic index of meals should be considered when choosing the type of insulin and insulin regimen. Assessment of individual preferences and comorbidities should be prioritised and form an integral part of diabetes management.

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