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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232434, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153465

RESUMO

Abstract Many pathogenic strains have acquired multidrug-resistant patterns in recent a year, which poses a major public health concern. The growing need for effective antimicrobial agents as novel therapies against multidrug-resistant pathogens has drawn scientist attention toward nanotechnology. Silver nanoparticles are considered capable of killing multidrug-resistant isolates due to their oligo-dynamic effect on microorganisms. In this research study NPs were synthesized using the gram-positive bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus and its activity against selected pathogenic strains. Lactobacillus bulgaricus pure cultures were isolated from raw milk and grown in "De Man, Rogasa, and Sharp" broth for synthesis of nanoparticles. Lactobacillus bulgaricus culture was centrifuged and Cell- free supernatant of it was employed with aqueous silvery ions and evaluated their antibacterial activities against bacterial strains i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi using agar well diffusion assay. Antibiotic profiling against selected pathogenic strains were also conducted using disc diffusion method. The synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles were monitored primarily by the conversion of the pale-yellow color of the mixture into a dark-brown color and via ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy respectively. The result showed that that AgNPs with size (30.65-100 nm) obtained from Lactobacillus bulgaricus were found to exhibit antibacterial activities against selected bacterial strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that Lactobacillus bulgaricus has great potential for the production of AgNPs with antibacterial activities and highly effective in comparison to tested antibiotics.


Resumo Muitas cepas patogênicas adquiriram padrões multirresistentes nos últimos anos, o que representa um grande problema de saúde pública. A crescente necessidade de agentes antimicrobianos eficazes como novas terapias contra patógenos multirresistentes atraiu a atenção dos cientistas para a nanotecnologia. As nanopartículas de prata são consideradas capazes de matar isolados multirresistentes por causa de seu efeito oligodinâmico em microrganismos. Neste estudo de pesquisa, as NPs foram sintetizadas usando a bactéria Gram-positiva Lactobacillus bulgaricus e sua atividade contra cepas patogênicas selecionadas. Culturas puras de Lactobacillus bulgaricus foram isoladas do leite cru e cultivadas em caldo "De Man, Rogasa e Sharp" para síntese de nanopartículas. A cultura de Lactobacillus bulgaricus foi centrifugada, e o sobrenadante livre de células foi empregado com íons prateados aquosos, avaliando-se suas atividades antibacterianas contra cepas bacterianas, isto é, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis e Salmonella typhi usando ensaio de difusão em poço de ágar. O perfil de antibióticos contra cepas patogênicas selecionadas também foi conduzido usando o método de difusão em disco. A síntese e a caracterização das nanopartículas de prata foram monitoradas principalmente pela conversão da cor amarelo-pálida da mistura em uma cor marrom-escura e por espectroscopia de absorção visível e ultravioleta e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, respectivamente. O resultado mostrou que AgNPs com tamanho de 30,65-100 nm, obtidas de Lactobacillus bulgaricus, exibiram atividades antibacterianas contra cepas bacterianas selecionadas. Tomados em conjunto, esses achados sugerem que o Lactobacillus bulgaricus tem um grande potencial para a produção de AgNPs com atividades antibacterianas e altamente eficazes em comparação aos antibióticos testados.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950512

RESUMO

Streptomyces have been reported as a remarkable source for bioactive secondary metabolites with complex structural and functional diversity. In this study, 35 isolates of genus Streptomyces were purified from rhizospheric and marine soils collected from previously unexplored habitats and screened for antimicrobial activities. One of these isolates, G1, when tested in vitro, was found highly active against wide range of microbes including Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and different fungal pathogens. It was identified as mesophilic, alkaliphilic, and moderately halotolerant as it showed optimum growth at temperature 30 °C, pH 8.0 in casein-starch-peptone-yeast extract-malt extract medium supplemented with 5% NaCl. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated 100% identity of this isolate to Streptomyces fimbriatus. Moreover, maximum antimicrobial activity was achieved in starch nitrate medium supplemented with 1% glycerol as carbon and 0.03% soy meal as nitrogen source. The antimicrobial compounds produced by this isolate were extracted in methanol. Bioassay-guided fractionation through thin layer chromatography of methanolic extract resulted in the separation of a most active fraction with an Rf value of 0.46. This active fraction was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analysis and found similar to streptothricin D like antibiotic with m/z 758.42.

3.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1915615, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877031

RESUMO

A high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens has been reported in adult and pediatric populations of Pakistan. However, data describing the effect of MDR microbes on the gut microbiota is scarce. We designed a cross-sectional pediatric study to investigate the effect of MDR microbes' infection on the gut microbiome and its resistome of children using high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS). A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary health care hospital in Peshawar Pakistan, between 5 September 2019 to 15 February 2020. Pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis (n = 200) were enrolled. All the enrolled pediatric patients underwent initial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) screening using the disk diffusion method. Children with MDR infections were identified and selected for gut microbiome and its resistome profiling using NGS. Out of 200 enrolled pediatric patients, 80 (40%) were found infected with MDR diarrheagenic Enterobacteriaceae consisting of 50 (62.5%) infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli while 30 (37.5%) by MDR Enterobacter specie. A total of 63 and 17 antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) conferring resistance to 7 and 5 classes of antibiotics were identified in the resistomes of MDR diarrheagenic Enterobacteriaceae infected and healthy children, respectively. NGS-based gut microbial profiling of MDR Enterobacter spp., ESBL producing E. coli infected pediatric patients and healthy controls revealed the predominance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, respectively. An increased abundance of several pathogenic gram-negative bacteria namely E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Salmonella enterica was observed in the gut microbiota of children infected with MDR bacterial infections than that of the healthy controls. This work indicates that children with MDR infections have reduced microbial diversity and enriched ARGs than healthy controls. The emergence of MDR bacterial strains and their association with gut dysbiosis needs immediate attention to regulate antibiotics usage in Pakistani children.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ajuga bracteosa is a traditional herb used against various diseases. OBJECTIVE: Current research aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic and hepato-protective effect of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (ABAgNPs) using Ajuga bracteosa aqueous extract (ABaqu). METHODS: In vitro anti-diabetic and cytotoxic effects were carried out via α- glucosidase inhibition, brine shrimp lethality, and protein kinase inhibition assays. For in vivo screening of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of both ABAgNPs and ABaqu in alloxan-induced and CCl4-induced Swiss albino mice were used. Liver and kidney functional markers, hematology, and histopathological studies were carried out after 14 days of administration. RESULTS: In vivo antidiabetic and anti-cancerous effects showed valuable anti-hyperglycemic and hepato-protective potential when mice were treated with ABaqu and ABAgNPs. A significant reduction in the blood glucose level was recorded when ABaqu and ABAgNPs were administrated orally compared to Glibenclamide treated group. Significant reduction in ALT, AST, ALP, urea, uric acid, and creatinine was recorded in ABaqu and ABAgNPs treated diabetic mice. The hepato-protective findings indicated that ALT, ALP, AST were elevated in CCl4-induced mice while declined in both ABAgNPs and ABaqu treated CCl4-induced mice. Histopathological examination revealed that ABAgNPs have hepato-protective activity. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that ABAgNPs and ABaqu possessed strong anti-diabetic and hepato-protective phytoconstituents which could be used in the prevention of diseases.

5.
Bioorg Chem ; 110: 104816, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799180

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis being one of the six major tropical diseases that affects nearly 0.7-1.3 million people annually, has so far limited and high toxic therapeutic options. Herein, we report the synthesis, in silico, and in vitro evaluations of novel coumarin-incorporated isatin hydrazones (Spf-1 - Spf-10) as highly potent and safe antileishmanial agents. Molecular docking was initially carried out to decipher the binding confirmation of lead molecules towards the active cavity of the target protein (Leishmanolysin gp63) of Leishmania tropica. Among all the docked compounds, only Spf-6, Spf-8, and Spf-10 showed high binding affinities due to a pattern of strong conventional hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic π-interactions. The molecular dynamics simulations showed the stable pattern of such bonding and structure-based confirmation with a time scale of 50 ns towards the top compound (Spf-10) and protein. These analyses affirmed the high stability of the system. Three out of ten compounds evaluated for their antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica promastigotes and amastigotes were found to be active at micromolar concentrations (IC50 range 0.1-4.13 µmol/L), and most importantly, they were also found to be highly biocompatible when screened for their toxicity in human erythrocytes.

6.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802711

RESUMO

In this paper, we aimed to characterize the fecal microbiome and its resistomes of healthy and diseased subjects infected with multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli using next-generation sequencing (NGS). After initial screening, 26 stools samples belonging to healthy (n = 13) and diseased subjects (n = 13) were selected and subjected to NGS. A total of 23 and 42 antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) conferring resistance to 6 and 9 classes of antibiotics were identified in the resistomes of healthy and diseased subjects, respectively. Bacteroidetes were found to be the major phylum in both healthy and diseased subjects; however, Proteobacteria was predominantly present in the diseased subjects only. Microbial dysbiosis and predominance of various ARGs in the resistome of diseased subjects reflect the excessive usage of antibiotics in Pakistan and warrants immediate attention to regulate the use of various antimicrobials.

7.
Trials ; 22(1): 127, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to measure the efficacy of ionic-iodine polymer complex [1] for clinical and radiological improvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial will be closed label, randomized and placebo-controlled with a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio and superiority framework. PARTICIPANTS: All PCR confirmed COVID-19 adult patients including non-pregnant females, with mild to moderate disease, will be enrolled from Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan). Patients with any pre-existing chronic illness will be excluded from the study. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this multi-armed study ionic-iodine polymer complex with 200 mg of elemental iodine will be given using three formulations to evaluate efficacy. Patients will be receiving either encapsulated iodine complex of 200 mg (arm A), iodine complex syrup form 40 ml (arm B), iodine complex throat spray of 2 puffs (arm C) or empty capsule (arm D) as placebo; all three times a day. All the 4 arms will be receiving standard care as per version 3.0 of the clinical management guidelines for COVID-19 established by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes will be viral clearance with radiological and clinical improvement. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and HRCT chest scans will be done on the admission day and then after every fourth day for 12 days or till the symptoms are resolved. RT-PCR will only be shown as positive or negative while HRCT chest scoring will be done depending on the area and severity of lung involvement [2]. Time taken for the alleviation of symptoms will be calculated by the number of days the patient remained symptomatic. 30-day mortality will be considered as a secondary outcome. RANDOMISATION: Stratification for initial COVID-19 status (or days from initial symptoms as a proxy), age groups, gender, baseline severity of symptoms and co-morbidities will be used to ensure that the study arms remain balanced in size for the 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio. Randomization will be done using the lottery method. As patients are being admitted at different times, they will be recruited after obtaining their voluntary written informed consent following all standard protocols of the infection, control and disinfection. BLINDING (MASKING): This is a quadruple (participants, care providers, investigators and outcomes assessors) blinded study where only the study's Primary Investigator will have information about the arms and their interventions. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 200 patients will be randomized into four groups with three experimental and one placebo arm. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version Number is 2.3 and it is approved from IRB Shaikh Zayed Hospital with ID SZMC/IRB/Internal0056/2020 on July 14th, 2020. The recruitment is in progress. It was started on July 30, 2020, and the estimated end date for the trial is August 15, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial has been retrospectively registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04473261 dated July 16, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Iodo/administração & dosagem , Polímeros/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , /mortalidade , Cápsulas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sprays Orais , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 9, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407706

RESUMO

This article presents evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) for the provision of healthcare services to address sexuality for people living with epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Currently, a lack of EB-specific research limits these services to sexual health assessment and intervention strategies designed for the general population. Due to the unique challenges of EB, a rare skin-fragility condition causing blistering responses to minor skin trauma and other systemic and secondary complications, condition-specific strategies are needed to support people with EB in achieving valued sexual lifestyles. This CPG represents the work of an international panel comprised of thirteen members including a medical doctor, nurses, psychologists, a social worker, an occupational therapist, and patient population involvement members living with EB. It describes the development of EB-specific recommendations for two primary domains of assessment and intervention related to sexuality: psychosocial and mechanical. Following a rigorous evidence-based guideline development process, this CPG establishes the first internationally actionable clinical practice recommendations for sexuality-related assessment and intervention for this population. Future research priorities are identified. Supplemental materials included provide additional support to clinicians in developing the necessary understanding and skills to promote equity and efficacy in this care domain.

9.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-16, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427586

RESUMO

Synthesis and characterization of novel copper complexes of metronidazole benzoate (MTZ Benz), metronidazole (MTZ) in the presence of another ligand; dichloroacetic acid (DCA) were compared and reported in the present work. Different bacterial and fungus strains were ascertained to evaluate the biological potency of the synthesized complexes, that is, Escherichia coli, Bordetella bronceptica, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Baccilus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Agar diffusion method was employed to investigate in vitro antibacterial activities of the synthesized metal complexes and the tested parent ligands. α-Amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition studies of the synthesized complexes were also carried out. The antibacterial potential and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition studies of complexes were further investigated by molecular docking studies, which supported the experimental results. Significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities were shown by the synthesized complexes. S-1 and S-5 were found to be most inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase having IC50 42.50, 44.80 and 4.52 µg/mL, 4.80 µg/mL, respectively. The newly synthesized copper complexes showed overall better biological activities compared to each parent ligands used. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(23)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261021

RESUMO

The evolution of intelligent manufacturing has had a profound and lasting effect on the future of global manufacturing. Industry 4.0 based smart factories merge physical and cyber technologies, making the involved technologies more intricate and accurate; improving the performance, quality, controllability, management, and transparency of manufacturing processes in the era of the internet-of-things (IoT). Advanced low-cost sensor technologies are essential for gathering data and utilizing it for effective performance by manufacturing companies and supply chains. Different types of low power/low cost sensors allow for greatly expanded data collection on different devices across the manufacturing processes. While a lot of research has been carried out with a focus on analyzing the performance, processes, and implementation of smart factories, most firms still lack in-depth insight into the difference between traditional and smart factory systems, as well as the wide set of different sensor technologies associated with Industry 4.0. This paper identifies the different available sensor technologies of Industry 4.0, and identifies the differences between traditional and smart factories. In addition, this paper reviews existing research that has been done on the smart factory; and therefore provides a broad overview of the extant literature on smart factories, summarizes the variations between traditional and smart factories, outlines different types of sensors used in a smart factory, and creates an agenda for future research that encompasses the vigorous evolution of Industry 4.0 based smart factories.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257574

RESUMO

With ∼36,000 described species, Agaricomycetes are among the most successful groups of Fungi. Agaricomycetes display great diversity in fruiting body forms and nutritional modes. Most have pileate-stipitate fruiting bodies (with a cap and stalk), but the group also contains crust-like resupinate fungi, polypores, coral fungi, and gasteroid forms (e.g., puffballs and stinkhorns). Some Agaricomycetes enter into ectomycorrhizal symbioses with plants, while others are decayers (saprotrophs) or pathogens. We constructed a megaphylogeny of 8,400 species and used it to test the following five hypotheses regarding the evolution of morphological and ecological traits in Agaricomycetes and their impact on diversification: 1) resupinate forms are plesiomorphic, 2) pileate-stipitate forms promote diversification, 3) the evolution of gasteroid forms is irreversible, 4) the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis promotes diversification, and 5) the evolution of ECM symbiosis is irreversible. The ancestor of Agaricomycetes was a saprotroph with a resupinate fruiting body. There have been 462 transitions in the examined morphologies, including 123 origins of gasteroid forms. Reversals of gasteroid forms are highly unlikely but cannot be rejected. Pileate-stipitate forms are correlated with elevated diversification rates, suggesting that this morphological trait is a key to the success of Agaricomycetes. ECM symbioses have evolved 36 times in Agaricomycetes, with several transformations to parasitism. Across the entire 8,400-species phylogeny, diversification rates of ectomycorrhizal lineages are no greater than those of saprotrophic lineages. However, some ECM lineages have elevated diversification rates compared to their non-ECM sister clades, suggesting that the evolution of symbioses may act as a key innovation at local phylogenetic scales.

12.
IMA Fungus ; 11(1): 23, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292867

RESUMO

Due to their submerged and cryptic lifestyle, the vast majority of fungal species are difficult to observe and describe morphologically, and many remain known to science only from sequences detected in environmental samples. The lack of practices to delimit and name most fungal species is a staggering limitation to communication and interpretation of ecology and evolution in kingdom Fungi. Here, we use environmental sequence data as taxonomical evidence and combine phylogenetic and ecological data to generate and test species hypotheses in the class Archaeorhizomycetes (Taphrinomycotina, Ascomycota). Based on environmental amplicon sequencing from a well-studied Swedish pine forest podzol soil, we generate 68 distinct species hypotheses of Archaeorhizomycetes, of which two correspond to the only described species in the class. Nine of the species hypotheses represent 78% of the sequenced Archaeorhizomycetes community, and are supported by long read data that form the backbone for delimiting species hypothesis based on phylogenetic branch lengths.Soil fungal communities are shaped by environmental filtering and competitive exclusion so that closely related species are less likely to co-occur in a niche if adaptive traits are evolutionarily conserved. In soil profiles, distinct vertical horizons represent a testable niche dimension, and we found significantly differential distribution across samples for a well-supported pair of sister species hypotheses. Based on the combination of phylogenetic and ecological evidence, we identify two novel species for which we provide molecular diagnostics and propose names. While environmental sequences cannot be automatically translated to species, they can be used to generate phylogenetically distinct species hypotheses that can be further tested using sequences as ecological evidence. We conclude that in the case of abundantly and frequently observed species, environmental sequences can support species recognition in the absences of physical specimens, while rare taxa remain uncaptured at our sampling and sequencing intensity.

13.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183168

RESUMO

Recent years have witnessed advancement in cancer research that has led to the development of improved cytotoxic therapies with reduced side effects. Methotrexate (MTX) is a commonly used anticancer drug having robust activity, but with serious side effects. Several derivatives of MTX have been reported by modification at different sites to reduce its side effects and enhance efficacy. The current work describes the development of active MTX Schiff base derivatives by treating MTX with several aldehydes viz 2-chlorobenzaldehyde, 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, 5-chloro-2-hydroxybenz-aldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehyde, 2-thiocarboxyaldehyde, trans-2-pentenal and glutaraldehyde. Newly synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their anticancer potential against human malignant glioma U87 (MG-U87) cell lines at different concentrations of 200 µM, 100 µM, 50 µM, 25 µM, 12.5 µm, 6.25 µm and 0 µM. MTX derivatives with 2-Chlorobenzaldehyde (IC50 ∼100 µM), 2-Thiocarboxyaldehyde (IC50 <200 µM) and 2- Pentenal (IC50 ∼250 µM) showed much better activity at 100 µM compared to 400 µM concentration of MTX. Molecular docking studies were performed that showed a good correlation with the results obtained from in vitro experiments. The excellent agreement between molecular modeling and growth inhibition assay shows that the binding mode hypothesis is justly close to the experimentally biological values, therefore, may prove helpful for further lead optimization and clinical trials. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

14.
Chemosphere ; : 128728, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143883

RESUMO

Industrial discharge of chromium (Cr) into environment puts serious threat on living beings due to its potent toxicity. Phytostabilization, a type of in-situ phytoremediation is aimed to immobilize and stabilize the toxic elements in soil using root system of metal resistant potential plants. To evaluate the phytostabilization potential of two grass species Brachiaria mutica and Leptochloa fusca, a pot study was conducted using soil spiked with different concentrations of Cr (control, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1). Three plants were sown in each pot with three replications and arranged following completely randomized design. After three months of growth, the plants were harvested and above and below ground plant's parts were analyzed for various growth and physiological parameters. Data revealed that plant biomass, chlorophylls and carotenoids reduced substantially with increasing Cr concentration. Antioxidant enzymatic activity increased significantly in L. fusca as compared to B. mutica with increasing Cr levels (up to 50 mg kg-1), then reduced at maximum Cr level (100 mg kg-1) in both grasses. Leptochloa fusca performed better with maximum root Cr accumulation 93.7 µg plant-1, shoot Cr accumulation 24.7 µg plant-1, root bioconcentration factor (BCF) 2.0, shoot BCF 0.08, shoot TF 0.06 and MTI 87%. While B. mutica showed maximum root Cr accumulation 18.4 µg plant-1, shoot Cr accumulation 7.6 µg plant-1, shoot BCF 0.03, root BCF 1.28, shoot TF 0.04, and MTI 56%. These results showed that L. fusca possessed good potential with better Cr bioaccumulation, MTI, BCF and antioxidant activities compared to B. mutica. Hence L. fusca can be used as good phytostabilizing agent for the soils contaminated with lower to moderate levels of Cr.

15.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20217364

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDNo definitive treatment exists for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Honey and Nigella sativa (HNS) have established antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, we investigated efficacy of HNS against COVID-19. wide METHODSWe conducted a multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial at 4 centers in Pakistan. RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 adults showing moderate or severe disease were enrolled in the study. Patients presenting with multi-organ failure, ventilator support, and chronic diseases (except diabetes mellitus and hypertension) were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned in 1:1 ratio to receive either honey (1 gm/Kg/day) and Nigella sativa seeds (80 mg/Kg/day) or placebo up-to 13 days along with standard care. The outcomes included symptom alleviation, viral clearance, and a 30-day mortality in intention-to-treat population. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04347382. RESULTSThree hundred and thirteen patients - 210 moderate and 103 severe - underwent randomization from April 30 to July 29, 2020. Among these, 107 were assigned to HNS whereas 103 to placebo for moderate cases. For severe cases, 50 were given HNS and 53 were given placebos. HNS resulted in [~]50% reduction in time taken to alleviate symptoms as compared to placebo (Moderate (4 versus 7 days), Hazard Ratio [HR]: 6.11; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 4.23-8.84, P<0.0001 and severe (6 versus 13 days) HR: 4.04; 95% CI, 2.46-6.64, P<0.0001). HNS also cleared the virus 4 days earlier than placebo group in moderate (6 versus 10 days, HR: 5.53; 95% CI: 3.76-8.14, P<0.0001) and severe cases (8.5 versus 12 days, HR: 4.32; 95% CI: 2.62-7.13, P<0.0001). HNS further led to a better clinical score on day 6 with normal activity resumption in 63.6% versus 10.9% among moderate cases (OR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.03-0.13, P<0.0001) and hospital discharge in 50% versus 2.8% in severe cases (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.09, P<0.0001). In severe cases, mortality rate was four-fold lower in HNS group than placebo (4% versus 18.87%, OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.02-0.92, P=0.029). No HNS-related adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONHNS significantly improved symptoms, viral clearance and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Thus, HNS represents an affordable over the counter therapy and can either be used alone or in combination with other treatments to achieve potentiating effects against COVID-19. FUNDINGFunded by Smile Welfare Organization, Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex, and Services Institute of Medical Sciences.

16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079299

RESUMO

The demand for skin-whitening creams (SWCs) has increased rapidly worldwide due to sharp rise in product advertisements in the media and the growing awareness. Metals are present either as impurities or added intentionally in creams and may have toxic effects on users. The present study was carried out to determine the content of metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) in fifteen skin-whitening creams marketed at local shops in Islamabad, Pakistan. The concentrations of metals were analyzed by inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after digestion with a mixture of HNO3, HCl, and H2O2. The skin-whitening creams were found to have metal concentrations in parts per million (ppm) in the following range: Hg (1.0-18,210 ppm), Co (0.1992-1.9931 ppm), Cr (1.0453-2.7455 ppm), Cu (0.6987-0.1997 ppm), Fe (8.8868-28.6213 ppm), Ni (0.7487-1.5958 ppm), Pb (0.2997-4.7287 ppm), and Zn (7819.2-39,696.7 ppm). As and Cd were not detected in any of the fifteen skin-whitening creams. Only one cream (L'Oréal Paris White Perfect) was found in safe limits defined by the Food and Drug Administration for cosmetics. In order to elucidate the mechanism of lower production of melanin in presence of heavy metals, a molecular docking study was carried out by using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) software. A good correlation was observed between experimental findings and molecular docking studies.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4327651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083466

RESUMO

Frostbite is caused due to extreme vulnerability to cold, resulting in damage of deeper and superficial tissues alike. In this study, we report the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties of aqueous methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (Cs.Cr) against contact frostbite. Thirty rats were divided into five groups including three treatment groups with increasing doses of Cs.Cr, a standard drug group receiving acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and a metal bar-induced frostbite group. Frostbite injury was induced by a 3 × 3.5 cm metal bar frozen up to -79°C on shaved skin for continuous 3 minutes. Wounded area percentages were recorded to measure the healing rate in response to Cs.Cr administration. Haematological parameters and malondialdehyde content were also noted. On treatment with Cs.Cr, the healing rate is drastically increased and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Results were compared with frostbite and ASA (standard drug group). These results indicate that Cs.Cr possesses excellent wound-healing properties against frostbite injury and can prove to be a prospective compound in such conditions.

18.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 1078155220963212, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086907

RESUMO

Breast cancer patients use numerous medications, which include cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, hormonal agents and supportive medication, so they are more vulnerable to potential adverse drug interactions. This study aimed to evaluate frequency, severity, clinical importance and risk factors responsible for the Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in a cohort of patients suffering from breast cancer. Data was obtained from 150 patients in the oncology ward (both inpatient and outpatient) with a confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer and currently receiving standard breast cancer-directed treatment. The data was recorded into a pre-designed form specifically made for this study through individual patient interviews and by reviewing the detailed medical chart records of the patients. DDIs were identified by using drug interaction software such as Medscape mobile application and Micromedex version 2.The results of this study showed that all patients were female. The mean numbers of drugs that patients used were 7. Potential drug interactions were identified in 92% of the patients. When drug groups were overviewed, 32% of interactions were between anti neoplastic drugs, 62.9% interactions were between the anti neoplastic agent and supportive care drugs and 5% of them were between anti-cancer drugs and drugs used to treat comorbidities. Major DDIs were found in 62.2% of patients, 25.3% of DDIs were moderate and 12.4% were minor. The number of drugs, comorbid diseases, and selection of chemo protocols were the risk factors for drug interactions. Most of the DDIs found in breast cancer therapy may have adverse consequences on patient health and therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, health care professionals should review the medication regimen of patients with breast cancer before starting any chemotherapy treatment.

19.
Life Sci ; 260: 118421, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926920

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel virus, namely COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, developed from Wuhan, (Hubei territory of China) used its viral spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) for the entrance into a host cell by binding with ACE-2 receptor and cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Data revealed that the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 affected more than 24,854,140 people with 838,924 deaths worldwide. Until now, no licensed immunization or drugs are present for the medication of SARS-CoV-2. The present review aims to investigate the latest developments and discuss the candidate antibodies in different vaccine categories to develop a reliable and efficient vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in a short time duration. Besides, the review focus on the present challenges and future directions, structure, and mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 for a better understanding. Based on data, we revealed that most of the vaccines are focus on targeting the spike protein (S) of COVID-19 to neutralized viral infection and develop long-lasting immunity. Up to phase-1 clinical trials, some vaccines showed the specific antigen-receptor T-cell response, elicit the humoral and immune response, displayed tight binding with human-leukocytes-antigen (HLA), and recognized specific antibodies to provoke long-lasting immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5217-5226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801687

RESUMO

Aim: Chronic use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is commonly associated with gastric irritation and gastric ulceration. Therefore, the aim of study was to develop a novel oral drug delivery system with minimum gastric effects and improved dissolution rate for aceclofenac (ACF), a model BCS class-II drug. Methods: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were formulated to increase the solubility and ultimately the oral bioavailability of ACF. Oleic acid was used as an oil phase, Tween 80 (T80) and Kolliphor EL (KEL) were used as surfactants, whereas, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and propylene glycol (PG) were employed as co-surfactants. Optimized formulations (F1, F2, F3 and F4) were analyzed for droplet size, poly dispersity index (PDI), cell viability studies, in vitro dissolution in both simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, ex vivo permeation studies and thermodynamic stability. Results: The optimized formulations showed mean droplet sizes in the range of 111.3 ± 3.2 nm and 470.9 ± 12.52 nm, PDI from 244.6 nm to 389.4 ± 6.51 and zeta-potential from -33 ± 4.86 mV to -38.5 ± 5.15 mV. Cell viability studies support the safety profile of all formulations for oral administration. The in vitro dissolution studies and ex vivo permeation analysis revealed significantly improved drug release ranging from 95.68 ± 0.02% to 98.15 ± 0.71% when compared with control. The thermodynamic stability studies confirmed that all formulations remain active and stable for a longer period. Conclusion: In conclusion, development of oral SEDDS might be a promising tool to improve the dissolution of BCS class-II drugs along with significantly reduced exposure to gastric mucosa.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/análogos & derivados , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Diclofenaco/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Excipientes/química , Humanos , Masculino , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polissorbatos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Tensoativos/química
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