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1.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 52, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life is recognized as a key outcome in chronic disease management, including kidney disease. With no national healthcare coverage for hemodialysis, Ugandan patients struggle to pay for their care, driving families and communities into poverty. Studies in developed countries show that patients on hemodialysis may prioritize quality of life over survival time, but there is a dearth of information on this in developing countries. We therefore measured the quality of life (QOL) and associated factors in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in a major tertiary care hospital in Uganda. METHODS: Baseline QOL measurement in a longitudinal cohort study was undertaken using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form Ver 1.3. Patients were recruited from the adult nephrology unit if aged > 18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤ 15mls/min/1,73m2. Clinical, demographic and micro-financial information was collected to determine factors associated with QOL scores. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty-four patients (364) were recruited, of whom 124 were on hemodialysis (HD) and 240 on non-hemodialysis (non-HD) management. Overall, 94.3% of participants scored less than 50 (maximum 100). Mean QOL scores were low across all three principal domains: physical health (HD: 33.14, non-HD: 34.23), mental health (HD: 38.01, non-HD: 38.02), and kidney disease (HD: 35.16, non-HD: 34.00). No statistically significant difference was found between the overall quality of life scores of the two management groups. Breadwinner status (p < 0.001), source of income (p0.026) and hemodialysis management type (p0.032) were the only factors significantly associated with QOL scores, and this was observed in the physical health and kidney disease principal domains only. No factors were significantly associated with scores for the mental health principal domain and/or overall QOL score. CONCLUSION: The quality of life of Ugandan patients with ESRD has been found to be lower across all three domains of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form than reported anywhere in the world, with no difference observed between the non-HD and HD management groups. Interventions targeting all domains of QOL are needed among patients with ESRD in Uganda and, potentially, in other resource limited settings.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 666, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High rates of unintended adolescent pregnancy are a significant health problem in Uganda. To improve access to family planning (FP) services, community-based Village Health Teams (VHTs) are widely employed in Uganda to deliver education and services. However, evaluations of FP programs suggest that mainly older, married women use VHT FP services. METHODS: To better understand youth reluctance to use VHTs, we collected quantitative FP and contraceptive-seeking behavior data from a survey of 250 youths aged 15-25 in randomly selected households in Nakaseke District, which we triangulated with data from 3 focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 15). RESULTS: Most respondents received FP services from the formal health sector, not VHTs. Only half had talked to a VHT, but 65% knew that VHTs provide free FP services, and most (82%) felt comfortable talking to VHTs about FP. The main reasons for discomfort were fear that VHTs would violate privacy (mentioned by 60% of those not comfortable), that VHTs would talk to parents (33%), shyness (mentioned by 42% of those ≤18), and fear of being judged (14%). Concern about side effects was the most common reason for not using FP methods. Survey respondents said having VHTs of the same sex was important, particularly those in the youngest age group (OR = 4.45; 95%CI: 1.24, 16.00) and those who were unmarried (OR = 5.02; 95%CI: 2.42, 10.39). However, FGD participants (who were older than survey respondents on average) often preferred older VHTs of the opposite sex, whom they viewed as more professional and trustworthy. Respondents said the primary deciding factors for using VHTs were whether privacy would be respected, the proximity of care, and the respectfulness of care. CONCLUSIONS: VHTs are a known source of FP services but not widely used by youth due to privacy and quality of care concerns. VHT messaging and training should increase focus on ensuring privacy, protecting confidentiality, providing respectful care, and addressing concerns about contraceptive side effects. Preferences for VHTs of similar age and sex may be more important for younger adolescents than older youths for whom quality concerns predominate.

3.
Trials ; 22(1): 213, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COPD is a leading cause of death globally, with the majority of morbidity and mortality occurring in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. While tobacco-smoke exposure is the most important risk factor for COPD in high-income settings, household air pollution from biomass smoke combustion is a leading risk factor for COPD in LMICs. Despite the high burden of biomass smoke-related COPD, few studies have evaluated the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in this context. Currently recommended inhaler-based therapy for COPD is neither available nor affordable in most resource-limited settings. Low-dose theophylline is an oral, once-a-day therapy, long used in high-income countries (HICs), which has been proposed for the management of COPD in LMICs in the absence of inhaled steroids and/or bronchodilators. The Low-dose Theophylline for the Management of Biomass-Associated COPD (LODOT-BCOPD) trial investigates the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of low-dose theophylline for the management of biomass-related COPD in a low-income setting. METHODS: LODOT-BCOPD is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of low-dose theophylline in improving respiratory symptoms in 110 participants with moderate to severe COPD in Central Uganda. The inclusion criteria are as follows: (1) age 40 to 80 years, (2) full-time resident of the study area, (3) daily biomass exposure, (4) post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC below the 5th percentile of the Global Lung Initiative mixed ethnic reference population, and (5) GOLD Grade B-D COPD. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive once daily low-dose theophylline (200 mg ER, Unicontin-E) or placebo for 52 weeks. All participants will receive education about self-management of COPD and rescue salbutamol inhalers. We will measure health status using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and quality of life using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) at baseline and every 6 months. In addition, we will assess household air pollution levels, serum inflammatory biomarkers (fibrinogen, hs-CRP), and theophylline levels at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The primary outcome is change in SGRQ score at 12 months. Lastly, we will assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention by calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the EQ-5D. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov  NCT03984188 . Registered on June 12, 2019 TRIAL ACRONYM: Low-dose Theophylline for the Management of Biomass-Associated COPD (LODOT-BCOPD).

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of kidney function have uncovered hundreds of loci, primarily in populations of European ancestry. We have undertaken the first continental African GWAS of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function used to define chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHOD: We conducted GWAS of eGFR in 3288 East Africans from the Uganda General Population Cohort (GPC) and replicated in 8224 African Americans from the Women's Health Initiative. Loci attaining genome-wide significant evidence for association (p < 5x10-8) were followed up with Bayesian fine-mapping to localise potential causal variants. The predictive power of a genetic risk score (GRS) constructed from previously reported trans-ancestry eGFR lead SNPs was evaluated in the Uganda GPC. FINDINGS: We identified and validated two eGFR loci. At the GATM locus, the association signal (lead SNP rs2433603, p = 1.0x10-8) in the Uganda GPC GWAS was distinct from previously reported signals at this locus. At the HBB locus, the association signal (lead SNP rs141845179, p = 3.0x10-8) has been previously reported. The lead SNP at the HBB locus accounted for 88% of the posterior probability of causality after fine-mapping, but did not colocalise with kidney expression quantitative trait loci. The trans-ancestry GRS of eGFR was not significantly predictive into the Ugandan population. INTERPRETATION: In the first GWAS of eGFR in continental Africa, we validated two previously reported loci at GATM and HBB. At the GATM locus, the association signal was distinct from that previously reported. These results demonstrate the value of performing GWAS in continental Africans, providing a rich genomic resource to larger consortia for further discovery and fine-mapping. The study emphasizes that additional large-scale efforts in Africa are warranted to gain further insight into the genetic architecture of CKD.

5.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767392

RESUMO

Hypertension is diagnosed and treated based on blood pressure (BP) readings obtained in the clinic setting. Positive HIV status is associated with a higher prevalence of abnormal diurnal BP patterns, diagnosed with ambulatory BP monitoring rather than the conventional method of BP measurement. Little is known about ambulatory BP profiles in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in low-income countries, especially within sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we compared 24-h ambulatory BP profiles of 140 HIV-positive individuals vs. profiles in 166 HIV negative individuals living in rural Uganda. HIV was well-controlled, with all HIV seropositive participants reporting use of anti-retroviral therapy, and ~123 (88%) having undetectable viral load. Most participants reported ART use duration of less than 10 years. Compared to HIV negative participants, HIV positive participants had lower median 24-h systolic BP (110.4 mmHg (IQR: 105.7, 118.7) vs 117.7 mmHg (IQR: 110.8, 129.8), p < 0.001), and 24-h diastolic BP (69.2 mmHg (IQR: 65.0, 74.9) vs. 71.9 mmHg (IQR: 67.2, 78.1), p = 0.004). Adjusted results showed greater percentage systolic nocturnal dipping among PLHIV compared to HIV negative individuals (difference = 2.70 (IQR: 0.94, 4.47), p < 0.05). Results of the adjusted Poisson regression suggested lower prevalence of 24-h and night hypertension among HIV positives compared to HIV negative, but were not statistically significant. Our data suggest that continuous 24-h BP measurements are lower in PLHIV on ART compared to HIV negative individuals.

6.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 12, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598392

RESUMO

Introduction: The association between HIV status and hypertension is not well described within sub-Saharan Africa. We examined prevalence and risk factors for hypertension among HIV positive and negative individuals living in a rural district of Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in two concurrent cohorts of 600 HIV negative and 721 HIV seropositive individuals aged ≥35 years. Results: Of the 721 HIV positive participants, 59.8% were women and the median age was 44.3 years, while for HIV negative individuals, 55% were women and the median age was 47.8 years. Over 90% of HIV positive individuals were on antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/≥90 mmHg) was 33.5% in HIV negative individuals and 23.9% in HIV positive individuals. Age (adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) and BMI (adjusted OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.12) were associated with higher odds of hypertension. Having HIV was associated with lower odds of hypertension (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.88), lower systolic blood pressure (-5.1 mmHg, 95% CI: -7.4 to -2.4) and lower diastolic blood pressure (-4.0 mmHg, 95% CI: -5.6 to -2.5). We did not observe differences in the odds of hypertension by CD4 count, viral load or ART among HIV positive individuals in this sample. Conclusions: Hypertension was prevalent in one third of HIV negative individuals and in one fourth of HIV positive patients. While access to health information among individuals attending HIV clinics may explain observed differences, more research is needed to understand plausible biological and social mechanisms that could explain lower blood pressure among people living with HIV in Uganda.

7.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2769-2777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173289

RESUMO

Background: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) account for >90% of deaths and illness episodes related to COPD; however, this condition is commonly underdiagnosed in these settings. Case-finding instruments for COPD may improve diagnosis and identify individuals that need treatment, but few have been validated in resource-limited settings. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Uganda to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a respiratory symptom, exposure and functional questionnaire in combination with peak expiratory flow for COPD diagnosis using post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC z-score below the 5th percentile as the gold standard. We included locally relevant exposure questions and statistical learning techniques to identify the most important risk factors for COPD. We used 80% of the data to develop the case-finding instrument and validated it in the remaining 20%. We evaluated for calibration and discrimination using standard approaches. The final score, COLA (COPD in LMICs Assessment), included seven questions, age and pre-bronchodilator peak expiratory flow. Results: We analyzed data from 1,173 participants (average age 47 years, 46.9% male, 4.5% with COPD) with acceptable and reproducible spirometry. The seven questions yielded a cross-validated area-under-the-curve [AUC] of 0.68 (95% CI 0.61-0.75) with higher scores conferring greater odds of COPD. The inclusion of peak expiratory flow and age improved prediction in a validation sample (AUC=0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.88) with a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The final instrument (COLA) included seven questions, age and pre-bronchodilator peak expiratory flow. Conclusion: COLA predicted COPD in urban and rural settings in Uganda has high calibration and discrimination, and could serve as a simple, low-cost screening tool in resource-limited settings.

8.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 440, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection affects multiple organs and the kidney is a common target making renal disease, one of the recognized complications. Microalbuminuria represents an early, important marker of kidney damage in several populations including HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve patients. Early detection of microalbuminuria is critical to slowing down progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in HIV-infected patients, however, the burden of microalbuminuria in HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve patients in Uganda is unclear. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mulago Immune suppression syndrome (ISS) clinic among adult HIV - infected ART naïve outpatients. Data on patient demographics, medical history was collected. Physical examination was performed to assess body mass index (BMI) and hypertension. A single spot morning urine sample from each participant was analysed for microalbuminuria using spectrophotometry and colorimetry. Microalbuminuria was defined by a urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) 30-299 mg/g and macroalbuminuria by a UACR > 300 mg/g. To assess the factors associated with microalbuminuria, chi-square, Fisher's exact test, quantile regression and logistic regression were used. RESULTS: A total of 185 adult participants were consecutively enrolled with median age and CD4+ counts of 33(IQR = 28-40) years and 428 (IQR = 145-689) cells/µL respectively. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 18.9% (95% CI, 14-25%). None of the participants had macroalbuminuria. CD4+ count <350cells/µL was associated with increased risk of microalbuminuria (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.59), P value = 0.001). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, alcohol intake were not found to be significantly associated with microalbuminuria. CONCLUSION: Microalbuminuria was highly prevalent in adult HIV - infected ART naive patients especially those with low CD4+ count. There is need to study the effect of ART on microalbuminuria in adult HIV - infected patients.

9.
Health Educ Res ; 35(4): 258-269, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702133

RESUMO

More than 90% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries; however, few studies have examined the illness experiences of individuals living with and providing treatment for COPD in these settings. This study characterizes illness representations for COPD in Nakaseke, Uganda from the perspectives of health care providers, village health teams and community members (CMs) with COPD. We conducted 40 in-depth, semi-structured interviews (16 health care providers, 12 village health teams and 12 CMs, aged 25-80 years). Interviews were analyzed using inductive coding, and the Illness Representations Model guided our analysis. Stakeholder groups showed concordance in identifying causal mechanisms of COPD, but showed disagreement in reasons for care seeking behaviors and treatment preferences. CMs did not use a distinct label to differentiate COPD from other respiratory illnesses, and described both the physical and social consequences of COPD. Local representations can inform development of adapted educational and self-management tools for COPD.

10.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 232, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing burden of non-communicable disease globally. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is the most commonly prescribed antiretroviral drug globally. Studies show that patients receiving TDF are more prone to renal dysfunction at some point in time during treatment. Evaluation of kidney function is not routinely done in most HIV public clinics. Identification of renal dysfunction is key in resource constrained settings because managing patients with end stage renal disease is costly. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an outpatient clinic in 2018 involving patients on TDF for at least 6 months who were 18 years or older. Patients with documented kidney disease and pregnancy were excluded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the CKD-Epi formula. Renal dysfunction was defined as any of the following; either eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73m2,or proteinuria of ≥2+ on urine dipstick, glycosuria with normal blood glucose. Electrolyte abnormalities were also documented. RESULTS: We enrolled 278 participants. One hundred sixty nine (60.8%) were females, majority 234(84.2%) were < 50 years old, 205 (73.74%) were in WHO stage 1, most participants 271(97.5%) in addition to TDF were receiving lamivudine/efavirenz. The median age was 37(IQR 29-45) years; median duration on ART was 36 (IQR 24-60) months. The prevalence of renal dysfunction was 2.52% (7/278). Most noted electrolyte abnormality was hypocalcaemia (15.44%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of renal dysfunction was low though some participants had hypocalcaemia. Screening for kidney disease should be done in symptomatic HIV infected patients on TDF.

11.
Glob Public Health ; 15(10): 1566-1577, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352888

RESUMO

As part of a multicentre study on kidney disease (ARK) undertaken in Malawi, South Africa and Uganda we undertook a social science component in Uganda to gather information on people's understandings and perceptions of a diagnosis of kidney dysfunction, treatment and treatment seeking. We recruited 46 people who had been given information about kidney dysfunction and had been found to have some, usually early, signs of mild impairment. Data were collected during two in-depth interviews. Most participants had heard of the condition, but half denied knowledge of the health status of their kidneys or receiving results of tests from the clinic team. This response may have been linked to a lack of symptoms, for those with early stage kidney dysfunction. The treatment people reported receiving caused some uncertainty about condition severity. This may be because several people were treated for other conditions (such as urinary tract infections) and did not require treatment specifically for kidney disease. In our study, participants assessed illness severity based on symptoms and treatment and compared with the progression of other conditions.

12.
COPD ; 17(3): 297-305, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462945

RESUMO

In Sub-Saharan Africa, COPD remains prevalent but its association with HIV is not well characterized especially in rural settings. We assessed for COPD prevalence, associated factors and lung function profile among HIV-infected individuals attending ART clinics in rural Nakaseke district of Uganda. We enrolled HIV-positive participants from four HIV treatment centers in rural Uganda. Participants underwent spirometry testing following standard guidelines. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio less than the fifth percentile of the NHANES III African-American reference. We assessed for factors associated with COPD and lung function profiles using multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses. We analyzed data from 722 HIV-positive participants (mean age 48.0 years, 59.7% women). Over 90% of participants were on ART for a median duration of 4 years (IQR 2-7 years), with a median viral load of 0 copies/mL (IQR 0-0 copies/mL), current and baseline CD4 + T cell count of 478 cells/mm3 (IQR 346-663 cells/mm3) and 335 cells/mm3 (IQR 187-523 cells/mm3) respectively. The prevalence of COPD was 6.22%. COPD was associated with worse respiratory symptoms and health status. History of pulmonary tuberculosis was strongly associated with COPD (adjusted OR = 4.92, 95% CI 1.71 to 14.15, p = 0.003) and reduced lung function. Use of ART, CD4+T cell count and viral load were not associated with COPD or reduced lung function. In conclusion, we report a COPD prevalence of 6.22% in HIV-infected individuals in rural Uganda. Pulmonary tuberculosis remains the strongest predictor of COPD risk and reduced lung function in well-controlled HIV.

13.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 20, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with disproportionate effects in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The optimal methods to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and therefore to determine the presence of CKD in SSA are uncertain. We plan to measure iohexol excretion to accurately determine GFR in Malawi, South Africa and Uganda. We will then assess the performance of existing equations to estimate GFR and determine whether a modified equation can better improve estimation of GFR in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The African Research on Kidney Disease (ARK) study is a three-country study embedded within existing cohorts. We seek to enrol 3000 adults > 18 years based on baseline serum creatinine. Study procedures include questionnaires on socio-demographics and established risk factors for kidney disease along with anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure, blood chemistry and urine microscopy and albuminuria. We will measure GFR (mGFR) by plasma clearance of iohexol at 120, 180 and 240 min. We will compare eGFR determined by established equations with mGFR using Bland-Altman plots. We will use regression methods to estimate GFR and compare the newly derived model with existing equations. DISCUSSION: Through the ARK study, we aim to establish the optimal approach to estimate GFR in SSA. The study has the advantage of drawing participants from three countries, which will increase the applicability of the findings across the region. It is also embedded within established cohorts that have longitudinal information and serial measures that can be used to characterize kidney disease over a period of time. This will help to overcome the limitations of previous research, including small numbers, selected population sub-groups, and lack of data on proteinuria. The ARK collaboration provides an opportunity for close working partnerships across different centres, using standardized protocols and measurements, and shared bio-repositories. We plan to build on the collaboration for this study for future work on kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and welcome additional partners from across the continent.

14.
Clin Kidney J ; 12(6): 778-787, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807291

RESUMO

Globally, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health challenge but accurate data on its true prevalence are scarce, particularly in poorly resourced regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Limited funding for population-based studies, poor laboratory infrastructure and the absence of a validated estimating equation for kidney function in Africans are contributing factors. Consequently, most available studies used to estimate population prevalence are hospital-based, with small samples of participants who are at high risk for kidney disease. While serum creatinine is most commonly used to estimate glomerular filtration, there is considerable potential bias in the measurement of creatinine that might lead to inaccurate estimates of kidney disease at individual and population level. To address this, the Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education Program published recommendations in 2006 to standardize the laboratory measurement of creatinine. The primary objective of this review was to appraise implementation of these recommendations in studies conducted in SSA after 2006. Secondary objectives were to assess bias relating to choice of estimating equations for assessing glomerular function in Africans and to evaluate use of recommended diagnostic criteria for CKD. This study was registered with Prospero (CRD42017068151), and using PubMed, African Journals Online and Web of Science, 5845 abstracts were reviewed and 252 full-text articles included for narrative analysis. Overall, two-thirds of studies did not report laboratory methods for creatinine measurement and just over 80% did not report whether their creatinine measurement was isotope dilution mass spectroscopy (IDMS) traceable. For those reporting a method, Jaffe was the most common (93%). The four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (4-v MDRD) equation was most frequently used (42%), followed by the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation for creatinine (26%). For the 4-v MDRD equation and CKD-EPI equations, respectively, one-third to one half of studies clarified use of the coefficient for African-American (AA) ethnicity. When reporting CKD prevalence, <15% of studies fulfilled Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria and even fewer used a population-based sample. Six studies compared performance of estimating equations to measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) demonstrating that coefficients for AA ethnicity used in the 4-v MDRD and the CKD-EPI equations overestimated GFR in Africans. To improve on reporting in future studies, we propose an 'easy to use' checklist that will standardize reporting of kidney function and improve the quality of studies in the region. This research contributes some understanding of the factors requiring attention to ensure accurate assessment of the burden of kidney disease in SSA. Many of these factors are difficult to address and extend beyond individual researchers to health systems and governmental policy, but understanding the burden of kidney disease is a critical first step to informing an integrated public health response that would provide appropriate screening, prevention and management of kidney disease in countries from SSA. This is particularly relevant as CKD is a common pathway in both infectious and non-communicable diseases, and multimorbidity is now commonplace, and even more so when those living with severe kidney disease have limited or no access to renal replacement therapy.

15.
Wellcome Open Res ; 4: 92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656860

RESUMO

Background: Sub-Saharan Africa faces region-specific risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), such as nephrotoxic herbal medicines, antiretroviral therapy and infections, in addition to hypertension and diabetes. However, large epidemiological studies from this area are scarce. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey of non-communicable diseases, we conducted a prevalence sub-study of CKD in two Malawian populations. Study participants (N=5264) of 18 years of age and above were recruited and data on demographics and CKD risk factors were collected. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) using the CKD-EPI equation. Results: The prevalence of eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m 2 was 1.4% (95% CI 1.1 - 1.7%) and eGFR<90ml/min/1.73m 2 was 20.6% (95% CI 19.5 - 21.7%). The rural area had higher age-standardized prevalence of both eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m 2, at 1.8% (95% CI 1.4 - 2.3) and eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73m², at 21.1% (95% CI 19.9 - 22.3), than urban location, which had a prevalence of 1.5%, (95% CI 1.0 - 2.2) and 19.4% (95% CI 18.0 - 20.8), respectively, with overlapping confidence intervals. The prevalence of CKD was lower in females than in males in both rural and urban areas. Older age (p < 0.001), a higher level of education (p = 0.03) and hypertension (p < 0.001) were associated with a higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of low eGFR. Diabetes was associated with a reduced aOR of eGFR<90ml/min/1.73m 2 of 0.69 (95% CI 0.49-0.96; p=0.03). Of participants with eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m 2, 14 (19.4%) had no history of hypertension, diabetes or HIV, while 36 (50%) had a single risk factor of being hypertensive. Conclusion s: Impaired renal function is prevalent, but lower than expected, in rural and urban Malawi. Further research is needed to increase understanding of CKD incidence, survival and validation of eGFR calculations in this population.

16.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(5): 318-327, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551628

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases in urban and rural Uganda and to identify risk factors for these diseases. Methods: The population-based, cross-sectional study included adults aged 35 years or older. All participants were evaluated by spirometry according to standard guidelines and completed questionnaires on respiratory symptoms, functional status and demographic characteristics. The presence of four chronic respiratory conditions was monitored: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, chronic bronchitis and a restrictive spirometry pattern. Findings: In total, 1502 participants (average age: 46.9 years) had acceptable, reproducible spirometry results: 837 (56%) in rural Nakaseke and 665 (44%) in urban Kampala. Overall, 46.5% (698/1502) were male. The age-adjusted prevalence of any chronic respiratory condition was 20.2%. The age-adjusted prevalence of COPD was significantly greater in rural than urban participants (6.1 versus 1.5%, respectively; P < 0.001), whereas asthma was significantly more prevalent in urban participants: 9.7% versus 4.4% in rural participants (P < 0.001). The age-adjusted prevalence of chronic bronchitis was similar in rural and urban participants (3.5 versus 2.2%, respectively; P = 0.62), as was that of a restrictive spirometry pattern (10.9 versus 9.4%; P = 0.82). For COPD, the population attributable risk was 51.5% for rural residence, 19.5% for tobacco smoking, 16.0% for a body mass index < 18.5 kg/m2 and 13.0% for a history of treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of chronic respiratory disease was high in both rural and urban Uganda. Place of residence was the most important risk factor for COPD and asthma.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 563, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community health workers, known as Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda, play a central role in increasing access to community-based health services. The objective of this research is to explore tensions that may emerge as VHTs navigate multiple roles as community members and care providers particularly when providing sensitive reproductive health and HIV care. METHODS: Twenty-five VHTs from a rural clinic in Uganda completed semi-structured interviews focused on experiences providing services. Interview questions focused on challenges VHTs face providing services and strategies for improving quality care. After translation from Luganda and transcription, interviews were analyzed using content analysis to identify emergent themes. RESULTS: Most VHTs were female (n = 16). The average age was 46, and average length of VHT work, 11 years. Analyses revealed that all VHTs capitalized upon the duality of their position, shifting roles depending upon context. Three themes emerged around VHTs' perceptions of their roles: community insiders, professional outsiders, and intermediaries. A caregiver "insider" role facilitated rapport and discussion of sensitive issues. As community members, VHTs leveraged existing community structures to educate clients in familiar settings such as "drinking places". However, this role posed challenges as some VHTs felt compelled to share their own resources including food and transport money. Occupying a professional outsider role offered VHTs respect. Their specialized knowledge gave them authority to counsel others on effective forms of family planning. However, some VHTs faced opposition, suspicions about their motives, and violence in this role. In balancing these two roles, the VHTs adopted a third as intermediaries, connecting the community to services in the formalized health care system. Participants suggested that additional training, ongoing supervision, and the opportunity to collaborate with other VHTs would help them better navigate their different roles and, ultimately, improve the quality of service. CONCLUSIONS: As countries scale up family planning and HIV services using VHTs, supportive supervision and ethical dilemma training are recommended so VHTs are prepared for the challenges of assuming multiple roles within communities.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negociação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/normas , População Rural , Uganda
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216060, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a dual burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. There is limited data on causes and trends of admission and death among patients on the medical wards. Understanding the major drivers of morbidity and mortality would help inform health systems improvements. We determined the causes and trends of admission and mortality among patients admitted to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. METHODS AND RESULTS: The medical record data base of patients admitted to Mulago Hospital adult medical wards from January 2011 to December 2014 were queried. A detailed history, physical examination and investigations were completed to confirm the diagnosis and identify comorbidities. Any histopathologic diagnoses were made by hematoxylin and eosin tissue staining. We identified the 10 commonest causes of hospitalization, and used Poisson regression to generate annual percentage change to describe the trends in causes of hospitalization. Survival was calculated from the date of admission to the date of death or date of discharge. Cox survival analysis was used to identify factors associate with in-hospital mortality. We used a statistical significance level of p<0.05. A total of 50,624 patients were hospitalized with a median age of 38 (range 13-122) years and 51.7% females. Majority of patients (72%) had an NCD condition as the primary reason for admission. Specific leading causes of morbidity were HIV/AIDS in 30% patients, hypertension in 14%, tuberculosis (TB) in 12%), non-TB pneumonia in11%) and heart failure in 9.3%. There was decline in the proportion of hospitalization due to malaria, TB and pneumonia with an annual percentage change (apc) of -20% to -6% (all p<0.03) with an increase in proportions of admissions due to chronic kidney disease, hypertension, stroke and cancer, with apc 13.4% to 24%(p<0.001). Overall, 8,637(17.1%) died during hospitalization with the highest case fatality rates from non-TB pneumonia (28.8%), TB (27.1%), stroke (26.8%), cancer (26.1%) and HIV/AIDS (25%). HIV-status, age above 50yrs and being male were associated with increased risk of death among patients with infections. CONCLUSION: Admissions and case fatality rates for both infectious and non-infectious diseases were high, with declining trends in infectious diseases and a rising trend in NCDs. Health care systems in sub-Saharan region need to prepare to deal with dual burden of disease.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Centros de Atenção Terciária/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 38, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes are expected to increase in sub-Saharan Africa over the next decade. Some studies have documented that lifestyle factors and lack of awareness are directly influencing the control of these diseases. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the barriers to control of these conditions in rural settings. The main objective of this study was to understand the challenges to hypertension and diabetes care in rural Uganda. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 patients with hypertension and/or diabetes, 11 health care professionals (HCPs), and 12 community health workers (known as village health team members [VHTs]) in Nakaseke District, Uganda. Data were coded using NVivo software and analyzed using a thematic approach. RESULTS: The results replicated several findings from other settings, and identified some previously undocumented challenges including patients' knowledge gaps regarding the preventable aspects of HTN and DM, patients' mistrust in the Ugandan health care system rather than in individual HCPs, and skepticism from both HCPs and patients regarding a potential role for VHTs in HTN and DM management. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve hypertension and diabetes management in this setting, we recommend taking actions to help patients to understand NCDs as preventable, for HCPs and patients to advocate together for health system reform regarding medication accessibility, and for promoting education, screening, and monitoring activities to be conducted on a community level in collaboration with village health team members.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/psicologia , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 6(1): 17-28, 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775421

RESUMO

Introduction: Almost 90% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where there are large rural populations and access to health care for COPD is poor. The purpose of this study was to compare urban-rural provider experiences regarding systemic facilitators and barriers to COPD management and treatment access. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using direct observations and in-depth semi-structured interviews with 16 and 10 health care providers in urban Kampala and rural Nakaseke, Uganda, respectively. We analyzed interviews by performing inductive coding using generated topical codes. Results: In both urban and rural districts, exposure to evidence-based practices for COPD diagnosis and treatment was limited. The biomedical definition of COPD is not well distinguished in rural communities and was commonly confused with asthma and other respiratory diseases. Urban and rural participants alike described low availability of medications, limited access to diagnostic tools, poor awareness of the disease, and lack of financial means for medical care as common barriers to seeking and receiving care for COPD. While there was greater access to COPD treatment in urban areas, rural populations faced more pronounced barriers in access to diagnostic equipment, following standard treatment guidelines, and training medical personnel in non-communicable disease (NCD) management and treatment. Conclusion: Our results suggest that health system challenges for the treatment of COPD may disproportionately affect rural areas in Uganda. Implementation of diagnostic and treatment guidelines and training health professionals in COPD, with a special emphasis on rural communities, will assist in addressing these barriers.

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