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1.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104557, 2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706318

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of such diseases that represent the most prominent cause of dementia in elderly people. To explore the possible neuroprotective effect as well as mechanism of action of Vinpocetine either alone or in combination with EGCG, CoQ10, or VE & Se in ameliorating aluminum chloride-induced AD in rats. Rats were received AlCl3 (70 mg/kg) intraperitoneal daily dose for 30 days along with EGCG (10 mg/kg, I.P), CoQ10 (200 mg/kg, P.O), VE (100 mg/kg, P.O) & Se (1 mg/kg, P.O) as well as Vinpocetine (20 mg/kg, P.O) either alone or in combination. Results revealed that the combination of Vinpocetine with EGCG showed the best neuroprotection. This protection in the brain was indicated by the significant decrease in Aß and ACHE. The same pattern of results were shown in the levels of monoamines and BDNF. In addition, the combination of Vinpocetine with EGCG showed more pronounced anti-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1ß) and antioxidant (MDA, SOD, TAC) effects in comparison to other combinations. These results were confirmed using histopathological examinations as well as DNA fragmentation assays. Vinpocetine with EGCG showed pronounced protection on neurons against AD induced by AlCl3 in rats.

2.
Exp Aging Res ; : 1-20, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disorder. Pomegranate (POM) has been previously shown to have a dopaminergic neuroprotective effect against parkinsonism. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study is to investigate the possible effect of POM in combination with each of vinpocetine, propolis, or cocoa in the treatment of parkinsonism disease even without being given as adjuvant to L-dopa . METHODS: Rats were divided into seven groups, one normal and six RT model groups. One of the RT groups (2.5 mg/kg/48 h/10 doses sc), for 20 days served as non-treated parkinsonism model, whereas the others were treated with either L-dopa (10 mg/kg, p.o./day) or with POM (150 mg/kg, p.o./day) together with each of the following; vinpocetine (VIN) (20 mg/kg, p.o./day), propolis (300 mg/kg, p.o./day), cocoa (24 mg/kg, p.o./day). Motor and cognitive performances were examined using four tests (catalepsy, swimming, Y-maze, open field). Striatal dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA, glutamate, acetylcholinesterase, GSK-3ß, BDNF levels were assessed as well as MDA, SOD, TAC, IL-1ß, TNF-α, iNOs, and caspase-3. Also, histopathological examinations of different brain regions were determined. RESULTS: Treatment with L-dopa alone or with all POM combination groups alleviated the deficits in locomotor activities, cognition, neurotransmitter levels, acetylcholinesterase activity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers as well as caspase-3 expression induced by RT. CONCLUSION: Combinations of POM with each of VIN, propolis, or cocoa have a promising disease-modifying antiparkinsonian therapy even without being given as an adjuvant to L-dopa.

3.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(11): 930.e1-930.e10, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265479

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is being increasingly used to treat patients with advanced hematologic malignancies; however, the symptoms related to standard of care CAR T cell therapy during the first year after treatment have not been assessed using patient-reported outcome (PRO) measurements. This study aimed to quantify patients' perspectives of symptom burden and functional status using PROs during the first year after CAR T cell therapy for hematologic malignancies, especially in patients who experienced grade 2-4 toxicities. Sixty patients were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study at any time during their first 12 months post-treatment. All 60 had received CAR T cell therapy as standard of care at MD Anderson Cancer Center in 2019. PROs were measured using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), the PROs Measurement Information System 29 (PROMIS-29), the global health tool EQ5D-5L, and the single-item health-related quality of life scale (HRQoL). Twenty-two additional symptoms related to CAR T cell therapy, as identified by an expert panel, were also evaluated. CAR T cell therapy-related toxicities were rated according to the ASTCT consensus grading criteria. The majority of patients (52 of 60; 87%) received axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta). One-third of the patients developed grade 2-4 cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity. The first 90 days after infusion represented the most symptomatic period, in which >10% of patients rated 18 symptoms as severe (ie, MDASI symptom score of 7 to 10 on scale of 0 to 10), strongly indicating the need for effective symptom management. Physical functioning, measured by interference on the "general activity" item on the MDASI and this domain on the PROMIS-29, were significantly worse in patients who underwent therapy during the first 30 days compared with those who underwent therapy over 90 days (all P < .05 with the Hochberg step-up procedure), whereas the EQ5D-5L and single-item HRQoL did not detect such differences. Compared with patients who had mild cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity (grade 0-1), patients who developed grade 2-4 toxicities persistently reported multiple severe symptoms after 30 days following therapy (all P < .05). Furthermore, although using a different recall period, patient-reported scores on several PROMIS-29 domains were significantly correlated with the scores of corresponding MDASI symptom items. This real-world quantitative PRO symptoms study provides evidence of unique profiles of the physical, psychological, and cognitive symptom burden in patients undergoing CAR T cell therapy that varies within the first year after infusion and demonstrates differences among PRO measurement scales. These results support the need for validation of fit-for-purpose PRO measurements for routinely monitoring symptom and toxicity burdens in CAR T cell therapy care settings.

4.
Educ Inf Technol (Dordr) ; : 1-13, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075299

RESUMO

These days, distance learning has almost completely replaced traditional teaching methods due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the introduction of quarantine measures. A sharp rise in interest in distance learning methodology has raised a number of new questions and challenges. This research examines changes in the training process and cognitive abilities and academic performance during the coronavirus pandemic. Students of the I.M. Sechenov University and Al Ain University were surveyed (103) during classroom and distance English learning before and during the COVID-19. Three samples of the average values of the respondents' self-assessment of academic performance, cognitive abilities (namely concentration and memory), progress in performing oral assignments, progress in performing written assignments, ability to absorb information while reading and by ear; general health condition during the training and were obtained and tested for the Gaussian distribution law compliance. All of the rates studied fell during distance learning during a pandemic compared to distance learning outside a pandemic. However, it should be noted that they still turned out to be higher than the marks obtained in classroom teaching. Students were interviewed for possible factors influencing the reviewed teaching modes effectiveness (the survey showed that these factors are an increase in the amount of leisure time, ability to take breaks more often, more comfortable learning environment, no need to spend time on the road to the university).

5.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 52: 101959, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964632

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Based on the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), we developed a Patient-reported outcomes tool for hepatectomy perioperative care (MDASI-PeriOp-Hep). METHODS: To establish the content validity, we generated PeriOp-Hep-specific candidate items from qualitative interviews of patients (n = 30), and removed items that lacked clinical relevance on the basis of input from panels of patients, caregivers, and clinicians. The psychometric properties of the MDASI-PeriOp-Hep were validated (n = 150). The cognitive debriefing and clinical interpretability were assessed to confirm the ease of comprehension, relevance, and acceptability of the tool. RESULTS: Five symptoms specific to hepatectomy (abdominal bloating, tightness, or fullness; abdominal cramping; muscle weakness, instability, or vertigo; constipation; and incisional tightness) were identified as module items to form the MDASI-PeriOp-Hep. The Cronbach αs for symptoms and for interference were 0.898 and 0.861, respectively. The test-retest reliability was 0.887 for all 18 symptom severity items. Compared to other commonly used tools, correlation of MDASI-PeriOp-Hep scores to performance status (all, P < 0.001) and to the phase of perioperative care confirmed known-group validity. Convergent validity was excellent against other standard Patient-reported outcomes tools. Cognitive debriefing demonstrated that the MDASI-PeriOp-Hep was an easy to use and understandable tool. CONCLUSIONS: For integrating patient-reported outcomes in perioperative patient care, a procedure-specific tool is desirable. The MDASI-PeriOp-Hep is a valid, reliable, concise tool for measuring symptom severity and functional interference in patients undergoing liver surgery.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Assistência Perioperatória , Humanos , Fígado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 390.e1-390.e7, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965176

RESUMO

Databases were searched to identify studies published over the past 10 years that addressed the utility of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in patients with hematological malignancies. Among 280 records, three articles covering 206 patients were eligible. The data were prospectively collected at multiple time points. The compliance rates were 70% to 94%. There was an inverse relationship between fatigue and social function among adults. The quality of life (QoL) improvement and ability to complete PROs were linked to disease status. About 40% of adults reported at least some cognitive difficulties, with a detrimental impact on mental and physical health status. In adults, the most commonly reported cognitive impairment was memory difficulties. Depression was associated with cognitive difficulties. Younger adults were at higher risk of long-term poor mental health, anxiety, and depression. For pediatric and adolescent patients, emotional dysfunction improves over time. QoL status improved over time; yet, severe cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity caused delayed improvement. Information regarding whether the PROs were integrated into medical records and clinical guidelines is lacking. Utilizing PROs in patients on CAR T cell therapy seems feasible and informative. Studies utilizing larger sample sizes and using validated PRO tools at different time points remain unmet needs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Neoplasias , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Criança , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 31(7): 538-545, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036875

RESUMO

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a known complication in cancer patients after getting thoracic radiotherapy. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as anastrozole have been used instead of tamoxifen for adjuvant endocrine treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone sensitive breast cancer. This study is to evaluate the concurrent treatment of anastrozole and RIPF in rats. Twenty four female Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups: Control (C), Radiation group (R) (total dose 30 Gy in 10 fractions, 5 fractions/week), anastrozole group (A) (0.003 mg/200 g body weight) orally for 14 consecutive days, and Radiation + anastrozole group (R + A). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in pulmonary Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß), SMAD family member 3 (Smad3), Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), malondialdehyde (MDA), Total nitrate/nitrite (NO), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) compared to the control group. While, significant decreases (p < 0.05) in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were observed in lung tissue. These alterations were minimized by anastrozole intervention. Also, anastrozole markedly hindered the lung histopathological changes observed after radiation. Concomitant use of anastrozole with radiation seems to attenuate radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity via TGF-ß/Smad 3 and TGF-ß/PDGF pathways in rats.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Inibidores da Aromatase/toxicidade , Feminino , Pulmão , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteína Smad3 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
8.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(10): 6099-6107, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) experience substantial cancer/treatment-related symptom burden during maintenance therapy. This is a phase II randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial to examine the effect of minocycline for symptom reduction by its potential anti-inflammatory effect. METHODS: Eligible MM patients for maintenance therapy were randomized to receive minocycline (100 mg twice daily) or placebo. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for MM (MDASI-MM) was used to assess multiple symptoms weekly during the trial. Clinician-rated toxicities and blood samples were prospectively collected. The effect size, area under the curve (AUC), and t tests were used to determine the symptom burden between treatment groups and identify the 5 most-severe MDASI-MM symptoms. The longitudinal analysis compared the changes in symptom severity and associated inflammatory markers between groups over time. RESULTS: Sixty-nine evaluable MM patients (33 from the intervention group and 36 from the placebo group) were included. No grade 3+ adverse events related to study medication were noted. The AUCs for the 5 worst MDASI-MM symptoms (fatigue, pain, disturbed sleep numbness/tingling, and drowsiness) were not significantly different between two arms. Regardless of group assignment, pain reduction was positively associated with decreased serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 and 2 during therapy (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This pPhase II randomized study observed no statistically significant positive signal impact from minocycline on symptom reduction or inflammatory markers during maintenance therapy for MM, although using minocycline was feasible and had a low toxicity profile.


Assuntos
Minociclina , Mieloma Múltiplo , Biomarcadores , Método Duplo-Cego , Fadiga , Humanos , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Dor
9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 161(1): 83-88, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to measure physical functioning in perioperative care for patients with gynecological (GYN) tumors. METHODS: 180 patients with GYN tumors undergoing open surgery participated in this longitudinal study. The physical functioning was measured by a subjective PRO tool, the Interference subscales of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-I); as well as by an objective tool, the Timed Up & Go test (TUGT), perioperatively. Longer time (>20 s) needed to complete the TUGT was defined as "Prolonged". Patients completed EuroQoL-5D as well. The association between the scores of MDASI-I items and TUGT was assessed via the Spearman correlation coefficient. The known-group validity was assessed using the t-test and Cohen's D effect size. RESULTS: Compliance rates at preoperative, discharge and postoperative time points of MDASI-I were 98%, 95%, 96%; while TUGT completion rates were 92%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Patients who had refused TUGT at discharge reported a significantly worse "MDASI-general activity" score compared to patients who completed TUGT (mean score of 7.00 vs. 5.38, P = 0.020). Patient-reported "Walking" on MDASI-I significantly differentiated patients with prolonged vs. those with frail/normal TUGT at discharge (mean score of 4.89 vs. 2.79, Cohen's d effect size = 0.82, P < 0.001). MDASI-I demonstrated excellent known-group validity per performance status and for the EuroQoL-5D subscales. CONCLUSION: Patient-reported physical functioning impairment after GYN surgery correspond with observed worse scores of the objective functioning measure test (TUGT). MDASI-I assessment represents a feasible and valid tool to evaluate functional status and warrants further implementation in the perioperative setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/cirurgia , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Período Perioperatório , Período Pós-Operatório , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(4): 1825-1835, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate prevalence/severity of self-reported trismus, determine association with quality of life (QOL), and examine clinical risk factors in a large population of patients treated for oropharyngeal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survivorship survey was conducted among patients who completed definitive treatment for oropharyngeal carcinoma, disease-free ≥ 1-year post-treatment (median survival, 7 years among 892 survivors). Associations between trismus and QOL were also analyzed using MDASI-HN, EQ-5D, and MDADI. Dietary and feeding tube status were also correlated to trismus status. RESULTS: Trismus was self-reported in 31%. Severity of trismus positively correlated (r = 0.29) with higher mean interference scores reflecting a moderate association with quality of life (p < 0.0001). There was a negative correlation for MDADI composite scores (r = - 0.33) indicating increased perceived dysphagia related to trismus severity (p < 0.0001). EQ-5D VAS scores were also negatively correlated with trismus severity (r = - 0.26, p < 0.0001). Larger T-stage (p ≤ 0.001), larger nodal stage (p = 0.03), tumor sub-site (p = 0.05), and concurrent chemoradiation (p = 0.01) associated with increased prevalence of trismus. Diet negatively correlated (r = - 0.27) with trismus severity (p = < 0.0001), and survivors with severe trismus were also more likely to be feeding tube-dependent. CONCLUSION: Severity of trismus appears to negatively impact quality of life and associate with various adverse functional outcomes in long-term oropharyngeal cancer survivorship. Trismus remains associated with advanced disease stages, tumor sub-site (tonsil), and addition of chemotherapy. Further investigation is merited for the dose-effect relationship to the muscles of mastication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/complicações , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Trismo/epidemiologia , Trismo/etiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
11.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 467-475, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) is labeled "symptomatic" based on laboratory values, but not relevant to quantitative measure of patient's perspectives. This study aimed to describe symptom burden, health status, and quality of life in RRMM patients. METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 184 MM patients (141 RRMM cases and 43 MM patients on follow-up without diagnosis/treatment of RRMM disease as controls), while 64 RRMM patients also provided longitudinal patient-reported outcomes (PROs) data. Symptomatic status was based on clinical measures of disease activity. PROs included the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory multiple myeloma module (MDASI-MM), single-item quality of life (SIQOL), and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). Wilcoxon rank test and effect size were used for comparisons. Regression models were used to describe symptom trajectory and to identify predictors of high symptom burden during 3 months of RRMM therapy. RESULTS: Most patients were clinically identified as symptomatic (93%). RRMM patients tended to report more severe symptoms, with significantly lower QOL scores and more severe fatigue, poor appetite, and lower enjoyment of life compared with controls (all p < 0.05). In RRMM patients, lower hemoglobin and higher B-2 microglobulin levels significantly correlated with higher burdens of fatigue, pain, and muscle weakness and also with lower QOL and EQ-5D scores (all p < 0.05). During RRMM therapy, being female, with any comorbidity, ≥ 65 years old, and ≥ 5 years MM history, contributed to high symptoms burden and poor QOL status (each p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MDASI-MM modules were sensitive to detect the RRMM-related symptoms burden, which correlated with objective clinical measures. RRMM patients reported a more compromised QOL.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(5): 929-935, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083655

RESUMO

Purpose: We evaluated the geometric and dosimetric-based distribution of mucosal and nodal recurrences in patients with metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to cervical lymph nodes of unknown primary after intensity modulated radiation therapy using validated typology-indicative taxonomy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the data of 260 patients who were irradiated between 2000 and 2015 and had a median follow-up time for surviving patients of 61 months. The mucosal and nodal recurrences were manually delineated on computed tomography images demonstrating the recurrences. The images were overlaid on the treatment plan using deformable image registration. The locations of the recurrences were determined relative to the original planning target volumes and doses using centroid-based approaches. Subsequently, the pattern of failures were classified into 5 types based on combined spatial and dosimetric criteria: A (central high dose), B (peripheral high dose), C (central elective dose), D (peripheral elective dose), and E (extraneous dose). For patients with type A failure with simultaneous nontype A lesions, the overall pattern of failures was defined as type A. Results: Thirty-two patients had mucosal or nodal recurrences. The most common clinical nodal stage was N2b (66%). Preradiation therapy neck dissections were performed in 6 patients. The median dose delivered to clinical tumor volume 1 was 66 Gy. The majority (84%) had total/partial pharyngeal mucosa elective irradiation. Twenty-three patients had nodal recurrences, 8 had mucosal recurrences, and 1 had both nodal and mucosal recurrences. Twenty-one patients (91%) had type A nodal failure, and 7 of the mucosal failures (89%) were type C. Conclusions: The majority of nodal recurrences occurred within the high-dose area, demanding the need for identification of radioresistant areas within malignant nodes. Future studies should focus on either dose escalation of high-risk volumes or novel radiosensitizers.

13.
Blood Adv ; 4(8): 1606-1614, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311012

RESUMO

Incidental pulmonary embolisms (IPEs) are common in cancer patients. Examining the characteristics and outcomes of IPEs in cancer patients can help to ensure proper management, promoting better outcomes. To determine the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of IPEs for cancer patients, we conducted a 1:2 ratio case-control study and identified all consecutive patients with IPE who visited the emergency department at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1 January 2006 and 1 January 2016. Each IPE case was matched with 2 controls using a propensity score obtained using logistic regression for IPE status with other factors affecting overall survival. A total of 904 confirmed cases were included in the analysis. IPE frequently occurred during the first year after cancer diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 2.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.37-3.29; P < .001). Patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy had a nearly threefold greater risk of developing IPE (OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 2.42-3.40; P < .001). In-hospital mortality was 1.9%. The 7- and 30-day mortality rates among the cases were 1.8% and 9.9%, respectively, which was significantly higher than in the control groups: 0.2% and 3.1%, respectively (P < .001). IPE was associated with reduced overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.93; 95% CI, 1.74-2.14; P < .001). Concurrent incidental venous thromboembolism was identified in 189 of the patients (20.9%) and was also associated with reduced overall survival (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.21-2.25; P = .001). Our results show that IPE events are associated with poor outcomes in cancer patients. Proper management plans similar to those of symptomatic pulmonary embolisms are essential.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia
14.
Head Neck ; 42(8): 2137-2144, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little data describing neurocognitive late sequelae in patients treated for oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS: Using PROs, scores for "numbness/tingling" and "difficulty remembering" were assessed. Wilcoxon testing was utilized to compare mean assessment scores (1-10) between treatment subgroups. RESULTS: Four-hundred ninety-seven patients were evaluated and 267 (54%) received chemotherapy. The mean score for numbness/tingling for patients receiving radiation alone was 0.99 and for each chemotherapy subgroup were: Induction chemotherapy (IC), 1.35 (n = 99); concurrent chemotherapy (CCRT), 1.04 (n = 111) and IC + CCRT, 2.48 (n = 57); 30% of patients who received IC + CCRT had scores ≥5. The mean scores for difficulty remembering were XRT: 1.44, chemotherapy: 1.45, and IC + CCRT subgroup: 2.42. CONCLUSIONS: The symptom burden related to peripheral neuropathy and cognitive complaints was minimal. A minority of patients reported high burdens. Particularly, 30% of patients receiving IC + CCRT described moderate to severe numbness/tingling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
15.
Head Neck ; 42(8): 1919-1927, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study reports long-term head and neck cancer (HNC) patient-reported symptoms using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory Head and Neck Cancer Module (MDASI-HN) in a large cohort of HNC survivors. METHODS: MDASI-HN results were prospectively collected from an institutional survivorship database. Associations with clinicopathologic data were analyzed using χ2 , Mann-Whitney, and univariate regression. RESULTS: Nine hundred and twenty-eight patients were included. Forty-six percent had oropharyngeal primary tumors. Eighty-two percent had squamous cell carcinoma. Fifty-six percent of patients had ablative surgery and 81% had radiation therapy as a component of treatment. The most severe symptoms were xerostomia and dysphagia. Symptom scores were worst for hypopharynx and varied by subsite. Patients treated with chemoradiation or surgery followed by radiation ± chemotherapy reported the worst symptoms while patient treated with surgery plus radiation ± chemotherapy reported the worst interference. CONCLUSION: HNC survivors describe their long-term symptom burden and inform efforts to improve care many years into survivorship.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes , Sobrevivência
16.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 8(1): 25-30, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104583

RESUMO

Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized cancer therapy and is now the standard treatment for several different types of cancer, supported by favorable outcomes and good tolerance. However, it is linked to multiple immune manifestations, referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These adverse events frequently affect the skin, colon, endocrine glands, lungs, and liver. The gastrointestinal system is one of the most commonly affected organ systems and is responsible for the most frequent emergency visits resulting from irAEs. However, because immune checkpoint inhibitors are a recent addition to our arsenal of cancer drugs, many health-care providers remain unfamiliar with the management of irAEs. Gastroenterologists involved in the treatment of oncology patients who have received checkpoint inhibitors are currently encountering cases of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and other nonspecific symptoms that may be challenging to manage. This article reviews the gastrointestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic toxicities of checkpoint inhibitors and provides an approach to their diagnosis and recommended workup. It also highlights the management of irAEs according to their toxicity grading and specifically discusses the instances in which corticosteroids should be administered and/or the immune checkpoint inhibitors should be withheld.

17.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(1): 111-119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051897

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate 2 published normal tissue complication probability models for radiation-induced hypothyroidism (RHT) on a large cohort of oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) patients who were treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: OPC patients treated with retrievable IMRT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOMs) data and available baseline and follow-up thyroid function tests were included. Mean dose (Dmean) to the thyroid gland (TG) and its volume were calculated. The study outcome was clinical HT at least 6 months after radiation therapy, which was defined as grade ≥2 HT per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grading system (symptomatic hypothyroidism that required thyroid replacement therapy). Regression analyses and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used. Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve for the fitted model were calculated. Results: In the study, 360 OPC patients were included. The median age was 58 years. Most tumors (51%) originated from the base of tongue. IMRT-split field was used in 95%, and median radiation therapy dose was 69.96 Gy. In the study, 233 patients (65%) developed clinical RHT that required thyroid replacement therapy. On multivariate analysis higher Dmean and smaller TG volume maintained the statistically significant association with the risk of clinical RHT (P < .0001). Dmean was significantly higher in patients with clinical RHT versus those without (50 vs 42 Gy, P < .0001). Patients with RHT had smaller TG volume compared with those without (11.8 compared with 12.8 mL, P < .0001). AUC of 0.72 and 0.66 were identified for fitted model versus for the applied Boomsma et al and Cella et al models, respectively. Conclusions: Volume and Dmean of the TG are important predictors of clinical RHT and shall be integrated into normal tissue complication probability models for RHT. Dmean and thyroid volume should be considered during the IMRT plan optimization in OPC patients.

18.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 59(5): 1052-1058.e1, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982605

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Although it is well known that patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (PC) experience significant symptom burden, few strategies for effective symptom intervention are available for them. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent, for symptom reduction in patients with advanced PC. METHODS: We conducted Phase II, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial to obtain preliminary estimates of the effects on symptom reduction with 100 mg of minocycline or placebo given twice a day. Eligible patients had diagnosed advanced PC and were scheduled for standard chemotherapy. Patient-reported symptoms were measured weekly during the eight-week trial using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) module in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. The primary outcome measure was the area under the curve values of the five most severe symptoms in the two arms. RESULTS: Of the 44 patients recruited, 31 (71%) were evaluable for the primary efficacy analysis, with 18 received minocycline and 13 placebo. Fatigue, pain, disturbed sleep, lack of appetite, and drowsiness were the most severe symptoms reported by both groups. No significant differences in area under the curve values over time between the study arms were found for the composite MDASI score or single-item scores of the five most severe MDASI items. No treatment-related deaths were reported, and no Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed. CONCLUSION: Minocycline is safe for use in patients receiving treatment for PC. There is no observed symptom reduction with minocycline on the major symptom burden associated with advanced PC compared with placebo. Attrition because of rapid disease progression impacted the study significantly.


Assuntos
Minociclina , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Método Duplo-Cego , Fadiga , Humanos , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(1): 100-107, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627177

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) exacerbates a cluster of difficult-to-manage symptoms, especially cancer-related fatigue. Minocycline is a readily available, low-cost antibiotic with antiinflammatory properties. We conducted a phase 2 randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of minocycline in reducing CRT-symptom burden in NSCLC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with NSCLC scheduled to receive CRT provided consent and were randomized to receive either minocycline (100 mg twice daily) or a matching placebo during 6 to 7 weeks of CRT. Patient-reported fatigue and other symptoms were assessed on MD Anderson Symptom Inventory weekly from the start of CRT for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was 12-week (±2 days) area under the curve for symptom burden, which was compared between treatment groups. RESULTS: Forty of 49 enrolled patients (80%) were evaluable (19 on minocycline and 21 on placebo). There were no grade 3 + adverse events related to the study medication. Fatigue was significantly reduced in the minocycline group compared with placebo group during the 12-week trial period (area under the curve = 31.2 ± 14.2 vs 45.0 ± 20.9, P = .011), with a large effect size (Cohen's d = 0.77). Pain (Cohen's d = 0.54) and shortness of breath (Cohen's d = 0.55) were also significantly reduced in the minocycline group (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Minocycline during CRT for NSCLC was feasible, had a low toxicity profile, and yielded a clinically and statistically significant positive signal in reducing symptom burden related to NSCLC and CRT. This study is a proof of concept so a larger trial in CRT patients is warranted.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol ; 14: 1-5, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458306

RESUMO

In treatment planning, multiple imaging modalities can be employed to improve the accuracy of tumor delineation but this can be costly. This study aimed to compare the interobserver consistency of using dual energy computed tomography (DECT) versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for delineating tumors in the head and neck cancer (HNC) re-irradiation scenario. Twenty-three patients with recurrent HNC and had planning DECT and MRI were identified. Contoured tumor volumes by seven radiation oncologists were compared. Overall, T1c MRI performed the best with median DSC of 0.58 (0-0.91) for T1c. T1c MRI provided higher interobserver agreement for skull base sites and 60 kV DECT provided higher interobserver agreement for non-skull base sites.

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