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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127604, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777562

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the phytonutrients and antioxidant activity, protein content, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), protein fraction, and bioavailability of Fe and Zn in the grains of five sorghum landraces grown in Sudan. The results showed significant differences in all quality tests among the landraces. The Tetron landrace showed the highest percentage of crude protein and IVPD among the landraces. Additionally, most of the landrace grains had high contents of Fe and Zn with a high rate of bioavailability. The Kolom 4055 and Wad akar exhibited significantly higher total phenolic contents, with antioxidant activity of 79.3% and 83.4%, respectively. The glutelin content was relatively higher compared to the other fractions, irrespective of sorghum landraces. The principal components cumulatively accounted for 89.3% of the total variation among the five sorghum landraces. It can be concluded that these landraces could be used in the improvement of new value-added crops using the by-products of sorghum grains.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757070

RESUMO

The yield losses in cereal crops because of abiotic stress and the expected huge losses from climate change indicate our urgent need for useful traits to achieve food security. The stay-green (SG) is a secondary trait that enables crop plants to maintain their green leaves and photosynthesis capacity for a longer time after anthesis, especially under drought and heat stress conditions. Thus, SG plants have longer grain-filling period and subsequently higher yield than non-SG. SG trait was recognized as a superior characteristic for commercially bred cereal selection to overcome the current yield stagnation in alliance with yield adaptability and stability. Breeding for functional SG has contributed in improving crop yields, particularly when it is combined with other useful traits. Thus, elucidating the molecular and physiological mechanisms associated with SG trait is maybe the key to defeating the stagnation in productivity associated with adaptation to environmental stress. This review discusses the recent advances in SG as a crucial trait for genetic improvement of the five major cereal crops, sorghum, wheat, rice, maize, and barley with particular emphasis on the physiological consequences of SG trait. Finally, we provided perspectives on future directions for SG research that addresses present and future global challenges.


Assuntos
Secas , Grão Comestível/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pressão Osmótica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Termotolerância
3.
Food Sci Nutr ; 7(4): 1529-1539, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024727

RESUMO

In the last decades, deficiency of macro- and micronutrients was considered as a serious problem associated with the increase in the human population. To meet the increased demand for food consumption, the wild relative plant might serve as an important source of new genetic material for increasing macro- and micronutrients. To investigate this, the variations in protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, tannin content, phytic acid content, total polyphenol content, and total and bioavailability of minerals were studied in grains of ten wild sorghums and two released sorghum cultivars. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in all quality tests among the genotypes. The highest percentage of total protein contents and in vitro protein digestibility were encountered in the grains of PQ-434 (14.6%) and the released cultivar AG8 (49.8%), respectively, while the highest concentrations of total and bioavailable iron were found in the grains of Almahkara (3.17 mg/100 g) and Abusabiba (92.8 mg/100 g), respectively. The grains of wild sorghum genotype Adar Umbatikh grains were found to possess higher total zinc contents. The PCA identified only five components of eigenvalues greater than one and cumulatively accounted for 88% of the total variation. It could be concluded that Almahkara and PQ-434 could be used as potential sources for iron and protein sorghum biofortification, respectively. Results from this study might be used in the development of new value-added products from wild sorghum grains by-products.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 7082095, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584537

RESUMO

Stay-green trait enhances sorghum adaptation to post-flowering drought. Six stay-green backcross introgression lines (BILs) carrying one or more stay-green QTLs (Stg1-4) and their parents were characterized under non-stress (W100: 100% of soil field capacity (FC)) and two levels of post-flowering drought (W75: 75% FC; W50: 50% FC) in a controlled condition. We aimed to study the response and identify the drought threshold of these QTLs under different levels of post-flowering drought and find traits closely contributing to grain yield (GY) under different drought severity. W50 caused the highest reduction in BILs performance. From W100 to W50, the GY of the recurrent parent reduced by 70%, whereas that of the BILs reduced by only 36%. W75 and W50 induce different behavior/response compared to W100. Harvest index contributed to the GY under the three water regimes. For high GY under drought transpiration rate at the beginning of drought and mid-grain filling was important at W75, whereas it was important at mid-grain filling and late-grain filling at W50. Stay-green trait can be scored simply with the relative number of green leaves/plants under both irrigated and stress environments. QTL pyramiding might not always be necessary to stabilize or increase the GY under post-flowering drought. The stay-green QTLs increase GY under drought by manipulating water utilization depending on drought severity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Flores/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Cor , Secas , Flores/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo
5.
Breed Sci ; 63(5): 450-60, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24757384

RESUMO

Adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to high temperatures could be improved by introducing alien genes from wild relatives. We evaluated the responses of wheat-Leymus racemosus chromosome introgression lines to high temperature to determine their potentiality for developing improved wheat cultivars. Introgression lines and their parent Chinese Spring were evaluated in a growth chamber at the seedling stage and in the field at the reproductive stage in two heat-stressed environments in Sudan. Optimum and late planting were used to ensure exposure of the plants to heat stress at the reproductive stage. The results revealed the impact of several Leymus chromosomes in improving wheat adaptation and tolerance to heat. Three lines possessed enhanced adaptation, whereas two showed high heat tolerance. Two addition lines showed a large number of kernels per spike, while one possessed high yield potential. Grain yield was correlated negatively with the heat susceptibility index, days to heading and maturity and positively with kernel number per spike and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride assay under late planting. The findings suggest that these genetic stocks could be used as a bridge to introduce the valuable Leymus traits into a superior wheat genetic background, thus helping maximize wheat yield in heat-stressed environments.

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