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1.
J Chem Phys ; 151(13): 134703, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594360

RESUMO

Cesium lead halide perovskite films with a systematic change in the halide composition of CsPbBr3-xIx, in which iodide concentration varies from x = 0 to x = 3, provide a built-in gradient band structure. Such a gradient structure allows for the integrated capture of visible photons and directs them to the energetically low-lying iodide rich region. Annealing gradient halide perovskite films at temperatures ranging from 50 °C to 90 °C causes the films to homogenize into mixed halide perovskites. The movement of halide ions during the homogenization process was elucidated using UV-Visible absorbance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The halide ion movement in CsPbBr3-xIx gradient films was tracked via absorbance changes in the visible region of the spectrum that enabled us to measure the temperature dependent rate constant and energy of activation (74.5 kJ/mol) of halide ion homogenization. Excited state processes of both gradient and homogenized films probed through transient absorption spectroscopy showed the direct flow of charge carriers and charge recombination in both films.

2.
Chemphyschem ; 20(20): 2579, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608539
3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(20): 6074-6080, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539259

RESUMO

Interfacial charge transfer between a semiconductor nanocrystal and a molecular relay is an important step in nanomaterial photocatalysis. The ferrocene redox couple (Fc+/Fc0, E0 = -4.9 eV vs vacuum) has now been used as a model redox relay system to investigate photocatalytic properties of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals. The photocatalytic reduction of ferrocenium (Fc+) to ferrocene (Fc0) with CsPbBr3 nanocrystals was dictated by the surface interactions. Whereas a rapid quenching and subsequent recovery of CsPbBr3 emission is seen at low Fc+ concentrations, the quenched emission was sustained at higher Fc+ concentrations. The photoinduced interfacial electron transfer between CsPbBr3 and ferrocenium (Fc+) studied using transient absorption spectroscopy occurred with a rate constant of 1.64 × 1010 s-1. Better understanding of interfacial processes using redox probes can lead to the improvement in photocatalytic performance of perovskite nanocrystals.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(27): 10812-10820, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259546

RESUMO

Halide ion mobility in metal halide perovskites remains an intriguing phenomenon, influencing their optical and photovoltaic properties. Selective injection of holes through electrochemical anodic bias has allowed us to probe the effect of hole trapping at iodide (0.9 V) and bromide (1.15 V) in mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbBr1.5I1.5) films. Upon trapping holes at the iodide site, the iodide gradually gets expelled from the mixed halide film (as iodine and/or triiodide ion), leaving behind re-formed CH3NH3PbBr3 domains. The weakening of the Pb-I bond following the hole trapping (oxidation of the iodide site) and its expulsion from the lattice in the form of iodine provided further insight into the photoinduced segregation of halide ions in mixed halide perovskite films. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that the iodide expulsion process leaves a defect-rich perovskite lattice behind as charge carrier recombination in the re-formed lattice is greatly accelerated. The selective mobility of iodide species provides insight into the photoinduced phase segregation and its implication in the stable operation of perovskite solar cells.

5.
ACS Energy Lett ; 4(3): 702-708, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882041

RESUMO

Owing to its high hole conductivity and ease of preparation, CuI was among the first inorganic hole-transporting materials that were introduced early on in metal halide perovskite solar cells, but its full potential as a semiconductor material is still to be realized. We have now performed ultrafast spectroelectrochemical experiments on ITO/CuI electrodes to show the effect of applied bias on the excited-state dynamics in CuI. Under operating conditions, the recombination of excitons is dependent on the applied bias, and it can be accelerated by decreasing the potential from +0.6 to -0.1 V vs Ag/AgCl. Prebiasing experiments show the persistent and reversible "memory" effect of electrochemical bias on charge carrier lifetimes. The excitation of CuI in a CuI/CsPbBr3 film provides synergy between both CuI and CsPbBr3 in dictating the charge separation and recombination.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(13): 12492-12503, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838846

RESUMO

Intrinsic low stability and short excited lifetimes associated with Ag nanoclusters (NCs) are major hurdles that have prevented the full utilization of the many advantages of Ag NCs over their longtime contender, Au NCs, in light energy conversion systems. In this report, we diagnosed the problems of conventional thiolated Ag NCs used for solar cell applications and developed a new synthesis route to form aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-type Ag NCs that can significantly overcome these limitations. A series of Ag(0)/Ag(I)-thiolate core/shell-structured NCs with different core sizes were explored for photoelectrodes, and the nature of the two important interfacial events occurring in Ag NC-sensitized solar cells (photoinduced electron transfer and charge recombination) were unveiled by in-depth spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses. This work reveals that the subtle interplay between the light absorbing capability, charge separation dynamics, and charge recombination kinetics in the photoelectrode dictates the solar cell performance. In addition, we demonstrate significant improvement in the photocurrent stability and light conversion efficiency that have not been achieved previously. Our comprehensive understanding of the critical parameters that limit the light conversion efficiency lays a foundation on which new principles for designing Ag NCs for efficient light energy conversion can be built.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(2): 259-264, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601661

RESUMO

Detailed mechanistic understanding of the optoelectronic features is a key factor in designing efficient and stable photoelectrodes. In situ spectroelectrochemical methods were employed to scrutinize the effect of trap states on the optical and electronic properties of CuI photoelectrodes and to assess their stability against (photo)electrochemical corrosion. The excitonic band in the absorption spectrum and the Raman spectral features were directly influenced by the applied bias potential. These spectral changes exhibit a good correlation with the alterations observed in the charge-transfer resistance. Interestingly, the population and depopulation of the trap states, which are responsible for the changes in both the optical and electronic properties, occur in a different potential/energy regime. Although cathodic photocorrosion of CuI is thermodynamically favored, this process is kinetically hindered, thus providing good stability in photoelectrochemical operation.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(20): 5962-5969, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260227

RESUMO

Record-breaking efficiency achieved with quantum dot solar cells made of perovskite nanocrystals demands understanding of the excited-state interactions between perovskite nanocrystals and metal oxide electron transport layers. The interfacial electron transfer between excited CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals and metal oxides (TiO2, SnO2, and ZnO) was elucidated using transient absorption spectroscopy and found to occur with a rate constant in the range of 2-4 × 1010 s-1. In an inert atmosphere, back electron transfer helps to maintain the stability of the perovskite nanocrystals. However, the presence of oxygen introduces instability as it scavenges away transferred electrons from the electron-transporting metal oxide, leaving behind holes to accumulate at CsPbBr3 nanocrystals, which in turn induce anodic corrosion. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements have enabled us to identify PbO as the major photodegraded product. The importance of the surrounding atmosphere and the supporting metal oxide in governing the stability of perovskite nanocrystals is discussed.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(28): 8887-8894, 2018 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927589

RESUMO

The suppression of halide ion exchange between CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3 nanocrystals achieved through capping with PbSO4-oleate has enabled us to deposit different perovskite nanocrystals as aligned arrays on the electrode surfaces without intermixing of species. The electrophoretic deposition of PbSO4-oleate-capped CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) nanocrystals suspended in hexane solution on mesoscopic TiO2 films allows the design of controlled architecture with single or multiple layers of perovskite films. The hierarchy in the assembly of these nanocrystals is seen first through the linearly organized nanocrystals in hexane followed by the deposition of larger linear rods ∼500 nm in length. Since most of the photophysical properties of nanocrystals are retained in these aligned arrays, we can design films with tunable luminescence including white color. The electrophoretic deposition of layered films of perovskites in a controlled fashion opens up new ways to design tandem perovskite solar cells and tunable display devices.

11.
Chem Mater ; 30(3): 561-569, 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503507

RESUMO

The unique optoelectronic properties of lead halide perovskites have triggered a new wave of excitement in materials chemistry during the past five years. Electrochemistry, spectroelectrochemistry, and photoelectrochemistry could be viable tools both for analyzing the optoelectronic features of these materials and for assembling them into hybrid architectures (e.g., solar cells). At the same time, the instability of these materials limits the pool of solvents and electrolytes that can be employed in such experiments. The focus of our study is to establish a stability window for electrochemical tests for all-inorganic CsPbBr3 and hybrid organic-inorganic MAPbI3 perovskites. In addition, we aimed to understand the reduction and oxidation events that occur and to assess the damage done during these processes at extreme electrochemical conditions. In this vein, we demonstrated the chemical, structural, and morphological changes of the films in both reductive and oxidative environments. Taking all these results together as a whole, we propose a set of boundary conditions and protocols for how electrochemical experiments with lead halide perovskites should be carried out and interpreted. The presented results will contribute to the understanding of the electrochemical response of these materials and lead to a standardization of results in the literature so that comparisons can more easily be made.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 148, 2018 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323111

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Joseph S. Manser, which was incorrectly given as Joseph M. Manser. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(1): 86-89, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129051

RESUMO

The charging of a mesoscopic TiO2 layer in a metal halide perovskite solar cell can influence the overall power conversion efficiency. By employing CsPbBr3 films deposited on a mesoscopic TiO2 film, we have succeeded in probing the influence of electrochemical bias on the charge carrier recombination process. The transient absorption spectroscopy experiments conducted at different applied potentials indicate a decrease in the charge carrier lifetimes of CsPbBr3 as we increase the potential from -0.6 to +0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl. The charge carrier lifetime increased upon reversing the applied bias, thus indicating the reversibility of the photoresponse to charging effects. The ultrafast spectroelectrochemical experiments described here offer a convenient approach to probe the charging effects in perovskite solar cells.

14.
Acc Chem Res ; 50(3): 527-531, 2017 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28945391

RESUMO

The trail of semiconductor surface photochemistry during the past four decades has led to the emergence of new areas in chemistry (e.g., photocatalysis, solar cells, solar fuels). How can one now exploit the richness of surface chemistry of hybrid architectures and make a transformative leap in light energy conversion and other applications?

15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 200, 2017 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779144

RESUMO

Mixed halide hybrid perovskites, CH3NH3Pb(I1-x Br x )3, represent good candidates for low-cost, high efficiency photovoltaic, and light-emitting devices. Their band gaps can be tuned from 1.6 to 2.3 eV, by changing the halide anion identity. Unfortunately, mixed halide perovskites undergo phase separation under illumination. This leads to iodide- and bromide-rich domains along with corresponding changes to the material's optical/electrical response. Here, using combined spectroscopic measurements and theoretical modeling, we quantitatively rationalize all microscopic processes that occur during phase separation. Our model suggests that the driving force behind phase separation is the bandgap reduction of iodide-rich phases. It additionally explains observed non-linear intensity dependencies, as well as self-limited growth of iodide-rich domains. Most importantly, our model reveals that mixed halide perovskites can be stabilized against phase separation by deliberately engineering carrier diffusion lengths and injected carrier densities.Mixed halide hybrid perovskites possess tunable band gaps, however, under illumination they undergo phase separation. Using spectroscopic measurements and theoretical modelling, Draguta and Sharia et al. quantitatively rationalize the microscopic processes that occur during phase separation.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(36): 30741-30745, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841285

RESUMO

Multinary semiconductor nanoparticles such as CuInS2, AgInS2, and the corresponding alloys with ZnS hold promise for designing future quantum dot light-emitting devices (QLED). The QLED architectures require matching of energy levels between the different electron and hole transport layers. In addition to energy level alignment, conductivity and charge transfer interactions within these layers determine the overall efficiency of QLED. By employing CuInS2-ZnS QDs we succeeded in fabricating red-emitting QLED using two different hole-transporting materials, polyvinylcarbazole and poly(4-butylphenyldiphenylamine). Despite the similarity of the HOMO-LUMO energy levels of these two hole transport materials, the QLED devices exhibit distinctly different voltage dependence. The difference in onset voltage and excited state interactions shows the complexity involved in selecting the hole transport materials for display devices.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(20): 13324-13332, 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492684

RESUMO

A large spill of 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) and propylene glycol phenyl ether (PPh) into the Elk River near Charleston, West Virginia on January 9, 2014 led to serious water contamination and public concerns about appropriate remediation. To assess the feasibility of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for remediation of waters contaminated with these compounds, we induced hydroxyl radical (HO˙) reactions using time-resolved and steady-state radiolysis methods. Detailed product analyses showed initial HO˙ attack was at the benzene ring of PPh, and occurred through H-atom abstraction reactions for MCHM. Pulse radiolysis and steady state radiolysis experiments conducted using pure compound solutions, mixtures of the compounds and real water solvents allowed us to obtain mechanistic insights of hydroxyl radical attack and establish the fate of the compounds using AOP remediation technologies. These results demonstrate that hydroxyl radical induced oxidization of PPh can lead to "repair-type" reactions, which regenerates this contaminant. The study further highlights the importance of such counterproductive reactions for the quantitative estimate of the required amount of oxidant in any large-scale treatment approaches.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(39): 33379-33388, 2017 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157296

RESUMO

Multinary quantum dots such as AgInS2 and alloyed AgInS2-ZnS are an emerging class of semiconductor materials for applications in photovoltaic and display devices. The nanocrystals of (AgInS2)x-(ZnS)1-x (for x = 0.67) exhibit a broad emission with a maximum at 623 nm and interact strongly with TiO2 nanostructures by injecting electrons from the excited state. The electron transfer rate constant as determined from transient absorption spectroscopy was 1.8 × 1010 s-1. The photovoltaic performance was evaluated over a period of a few weeks to demonstrate the stability of AgInS2-ZnS when utilized as sensitizers in solar cells. We report a power conversion efficiency of 2.25% of our champion cell 1 month after its fabrication. The limitations of AgInS2-ZnS nanocrystals in achieving greater solar cell efficiency are discussed.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(24): 5068-5073, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27973893

RESUMO

Despite its competitive photovoltaic efficiency, the structural transformations of the prototypical hybrid perovskite, methylammonium lead iodide, are facilitated by interactions with polar molecules. Changes in optical and electronic properties upon exposure to ammonia potentially can enable the use of hybrid perovskites in gas-sensing applications. We investigated the effects of ammonia on CH3NH3PbI3 by exposing perovskite films to a wide range of vapor pressures. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that ammonium cations replaced the methylammonium cations in the perovskite crystal, thereby resulting in the formation of NH4PbI3. The transformation of CH3NH3PbI3 to NH4PbI3 caused distinct changes in the morphology of the film and its crystalline structure; however, the introduction of CH3NH2 gas reversed these changes. An in-depth understanding of the reversible chemical and structural alterations resulting from exposure to polar molecules can advance the development of hybrid perovskite sensors and provide insight into mechanisms by which perovskites convert due to interactions with polar molecules.

20.
Chem Rev ; 116(21): 12956-13008, 2016 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327168

RESUMO

A new chapter in the long and distinguished history of perovskites is being written with the breakthrough success of metal halide perovskites (MHPs) as solution-processed photovoltaic (PV) absorbers. The current surge in MHP research has largely arisen out of their rapid progress in PV devices; however, these materials are potentially suitable for a diverse array of optoelectronic applications. Like oxide perovskites, MHPs have ABX3 stoichiometry, where A and B are cations and X is a halide anion. Here, the underlying physical and photophysical properties of inorganic (A = inorganic) and hybrid organic-inorganic (A = organic) MHPs are reviewed with an eye toward their potential application in emerging optoelectronic technologies. Significant attention is given to the prototypical compound methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) due to the preponderance of experimental and theoretical studies surrounding this material. We also discuss other salient MHP systems, including 2-dimensional compounds, where relevant. More specifically, this review is a critical account of the interrelation between MHP electronic structure, absorption, emission, carrier dynamics and transport, and other relevant photophysical processes that have propelled these materials to the forefront of modern optoelectronics research.

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