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1.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) flares following hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) reduction or discontinuation versus HCQ maintenance. METHODS: We analysed prospective data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) cohort, enrolled from 33 sites within 15 months of SLE diagnosis and followed annually (1999-2019). We evaluated person-time contributed while on the initial HCQ dose ('maintenance'), comparing this with person-time contributed after a first dose reduction, and after a first HCQ discontinuation. We estimated time to first flare, defined as either subsequent need for therapy augmentation, increase of ≥4 points in the SLE Disease Activity Index-2000, or hospitalisation for SLE. We estimated adjusted HRs (aHRs) with 95% CIs associated with reducing/discontinuing HCQ (vs maintenance). We also conducted separate multivariable hazard regressions in each HCQ subcohort to identify factors associated with flare. RESULTS: We studied 1460 (90% female) patients initiating HCQ. aHRs for first SLE flare were 1.20 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.38) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.31 to 1.86) for the HCQ reduction and discontinuation groups, respectively, versus HCQ maintenance. Patients with low educational level were at particular risk of flaring after HCQ discontinuation (aHR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.87). Prednisone use at time-zero was associated with over 1.5-fold increase in flare risk in all HCQ subcohorts. CONCLUSIONS: SLE flare risk was higher after HCQ taper/discontinuation versus HCQ maintenance. Decisions to maintain, reduce or stop HCQ may affect specific subgroups differently, including those on prednisone and/or with low education. Further study of special groups (eg, seniors) may be helpful.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics, American College of Rheumatology and Lupus Foundation of America are developing a revised SLE Damage Index (SDI). Shifts in the concept of damage in SLE have occurred with new insights into disease manifestations, diagnostics, and therapy. We evaluated contemporary constructs in SLE damage to inform development of the revised SDI. METHODS: We conducted a 3-part qualitative study of international SLE experts. Facilitated small groups evaluated the construct underlying the concept of damage in SLE. A consensus meeting using nominal group technique was conducted to achieve agreement on aspects of the conceptual framework and scope of the revised damage index. The framework was finally reviewed and agreed upon by the entire group. RESULTS: Fifty participants from 13 countries were included. Eight thematic clusters underlying the construct of SLE damage were purpose, items, weighting, reversibility, impact, timeframe, attribution, and perspective. The revised SDI will be a discriminative index to measure morbidity in SLE, independent of activity or impact on the patient, and should be related to mortality. The SDI is primarily intended for research purposes and should take a life course approach. Damage can occur before a diagnosis of SLE but should be attributable to SLE. Damage to an organ is irreversible but the functional consequences on that organ may improve over time through physiological adaptation or treatment. CONCLUSION: We identified shifts in the paradigm of SLE damage and developed a unifying conceptual framework. These data form the groundwork for the next phases of SDI development.

3.
Lupus Sci Med ; 8(1)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), disease activity and glucocorticoid (GC) exposure are known to contribute to irreversible organ damage. We aimed to examine the association between GC exposure and organ damage occurrence. METHODS: We conducted a literature search (PubMed (Medline), Embase and Cochrane January 1966-October 2021). We identified original longitudinal observational studies reporting GC exposure as the proportion of users and/or GC use with dose information as well as the occurrence of new major organ damage as defined in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index. Meta-regression analyses were performed. Reviews, case-reports and studies with <5 years of follow-up, <50 patients, different outcomes and special populations were excluded. RESULTS: We selected 49 articles including 16 224 patients, 14 755 (90.9%) female with a mean age and disease duration of 35.1 years and of 37.1 months. The mean follow-up time was 104.9 months. For individual damage items, the average daily GC dose was associated with the occurrence of overall cardiovascular events and with osteoporosis with fractures. A higher average cumulative dose adjusted (or not)/number of follow-up years and a higher proportion of patients on GC were associated with the occurrence of osteonecrosis. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations of GC use with three specific damage items. In treating patients with SLE, our aim should be to maximise the efficacy of GC and to minimise their harms.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Elevated interleukin 10 (IL10) in SLE patients has B-cell promoting effects, contributing to autoantibody production and tissue damage. We aimed to characterize upregulated IL10+ B-cell subsets and dysregulated IL10 expression in SLE B cells for new therapeutic options. METHODS: Proportions of Th10 and IL10+ B-cell subsets in PBMCs were assessed using flow cytometry. The IL10-3'UTR dual-luciferase vector was constructed and co-transfected with siRNA, miRNA mimics or inhibitors into RAJI cell line. Transcript levels were quantified using Taqman assays. RESULTS: Culture conditions that induced IL10+ Breg in healthy controls (HC) resulted in expansion of IL10+ DN2 (IgD- CD27- CD21- CD11c+ ) B-cells in SLE PBMCs. Proportions of IL10+ DN2, but not those of IL10- DN2, correlated with disease activity, levels of antibodies to dsDNA, and associated with high levels or seropositivity of anti-Smith and anti-cardiolipin IgG in SLE patients from two cohorts of mainly African Americans and Asians, respectively. Proportions of Th10 (CD45RA- CXCR5- CXCR3+ PD1hi CD4+ ) cells correlated with IL10+ DN2 frequencies, ANA titers and proteinuria levels in SLE patients. Screening predicted IL10 3'UTR-targeting miRNAs in SLE B cells identified miR-17-5p and miR-20a-5p with their levels inversely correlated with IL10 and transcription factor E2F2. In RAJI cells, knockdown of E2F2 expression resulted in increased levels of miR-17-5p and miR-20a-5p and decreased IL10 mRNA and protein levels, and overexpression and inhibition of miR-17-5p down-regulated and up-regulated IL10 mRNA levels respectively; suggesting regulation of IL10 expression by E2F2-miR-17-5p loop. CONCLUSION: IL10 promotes extrafollicular autoimmune responses in active SLE patients, which might be dampened by targeting the E2F2-miR-17-5p circuitry.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We previously identified a hypomorphic variant, p.Arg90His (p.R90H) of neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1, a regulatory subunit of phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 complex), as an putative causal variant for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and established a knock-in (KI) H90 variant in the C57BL/6 background to study how this variant promotes lupus development. METHODS: Wild type (WT) and KI littermates were assessed for immune profiles and lupus-like features. Disease activity and renal damage of patients with SLE were assessed by systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) and renal items of systemic lupus international collaborating clinics (SLICC), respectively. RESULTS: Compared with WT littermates, 5-week-old homozygous KI mice had reduced oxidative burst, splenomegaly, elevated type I interferon (IFN-I) scores, increased ratios of splenic follicular T helper 2 (Tfh2) to either T follicular regulatory (Tfr) or Tfh1 cells, increased ANA+ follicular, germinal centre and plasma cells without spontaneous kidney disease up to 1 year of age. Pristane treatment exacerbated the immune dysregulation and induced IFN-I-dependent kidney disease in 36-week-old H90 KI female mice. Decreased efferocytosis of macrophages derived from KI mice and patients with homozygous H90 SLE promoted elevated ratios of Tfh2/Tfr and Tfh2/Tfh1 as well as dysregulated humoral responses due to reduced voltage-gated proton channel 1 (Hv1)-dependent acidification of phagosome pH to neutralise the decreased electrogenic effect of the H90 variant, resulting in impaired maturation and phagosome proteolysis, and increased autoantibody production and kidney damage in mice and patients with SLE of multiple ancestries. CONCLUSIONS: A lupus causal variant, NCF1-H90, reduces macrophage efferocytosis, enhances Tfh2 responses and promotes autoantibody production and kidney damage in both mice and patients with SLE.

6.
Lupus Sci Med ; 8(1)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In lupus nephritis the pathological diagnosis from tissue retrieved during kidney biopsy drives treatment and management. Despite recent approval of new drugs, complete remission rates remain well under aspirational levels, necessitating identification of new therapeutic targets by greater dissection of the pathways to tissue inflammation and injury. This study assessed the safety of kidney biopsies in patients with SLE enrolled in the Accelerating Medicines Partnership, a consortium formed to molecularly deconstruct nephritis. METHODS: 475 patients with SLE across 15 clinical sites in the USA consented to obtain tissue for research purposes during a clinically indicated kidney biopsy. Adverse events (AEs) were documented for 30 days following the procedure and were determined to be related or unrelated by all site investigators. Serious AEs were defined according to the National Institutes of Health reporting guidelines. RESULTS: 34 patients (7.2%) experienced a procedure-related AE: 30 with haematoma, 2 with jets, 1 with pain and 1 with an arteriovenous fistula. Eighteen (3.8%) experienced a serious AE requiring hospitalisation; four patients (0.8%) required a blood transfusion related to the kidney biopsy. At one site where the number of cores retrieved during the biopsy was recorded, the mean was 3.4 for those who experienced a related AE (n=9) and 3.07 for those who did not experience any AE (n=140). All related AEs resolved. CONCLUSIONS: Procurement of research tissue should be considered feasible, accompanied by a complication risk likely no greater than that incurred for standard clinical purposes. In the quest for targeted treatments personalised based on molecular findings, enhanced diagnostics beyond histology will likely be required.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa , Nefrite Lúpica , Biópsia , Hematoma , Humanos , Rim , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
7.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(4): 905-919, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gullah African Americans are descendants of formerly enslaved Africans living in the Sea Islands along the coast of the southeastern U.S., from North Carolina to Florida. Their relatively high numbers and geographic isolation were conducive to the development and preservation of a unique culture that retains deep African features. Although historical evidence supports a West-Central African ancestry for the Gullah, linguistic and cultural evidence of a connection to Sierra Leone has led to the suggestion of this country/region as their ancestral home. This study sought to elucidate the genetic structure and ancestry of the Gullah. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We leveraged whole-genome genotype data from Gullah, African Americans from Jackson, Mississippi, African populations from Sierra Leone, and population reference panels from Africa and Europe to infer population structure, ancestry proportions, and global estimates of admixture. RESULTS: Relative to non-Gullah African Americans from the Southeast US, the Gullah exhibited higher mean African ancestry, lower European admixture, a similarly small Native American contribution, and increased male-biased European admixture. A slightly tighter bottleneck in the Gullah 13 generations ago suggests a largely shared demographic history with non-Gullah African Americans. Despite a slightly higher relatedness to populations from Sierra Leone, our data demonstrate that the Gullah are genetically related to many West African populations. DISCUSSION: This study confirms that subtle differences in African American population structure exist at finer regional levels. Such observations can help to inform medical genetics research in African Americans, and guide the interpretation of genetic data used by African Americans seeking to explore ancestral identities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , África , Afro-Americanos/genética , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(12): 2293-2302, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of change in neuropsychiatric (NP) event status in a large, prospective, international inception cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Upon enrollment and annually thereafter, NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes and physician-determined resolution were documented. Factors potentially associated with the onset and resolution of NP events were determined by time-to-event analysis using a multistate modeling structure. RESULTS: NP events occurred in 955 (52.3%) of 1,827 patients, and 593 (31.0%) of 1,910 unique events were attributed to SLE. For SLE-associated NP (SLE NP) events, multivariate analysis revealed a positive association with male sex (P = 0.028), concurrent non-SLE NP events excluding headache (P < 0.001), active SLE (P = 0.012), and glucocorticoid use (P = 0.008). There was a negative association with Asian race (P = 0.002), postsecondary education (P = 0.001), and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.019) or antimalarial drugs (P = 0.056). For non-SLE NP events excluding headache, there was a positive association with concurrent SLE NP events (P < 0.001) and a negative association with African race (P = 0.012) and Asian race (P < 0.001). NP events attributed to SLE had a higher resolution rate than non-SLE NP events, with the exception of headache, which had comparable resolution rates. For SLE NP events, multivariate analysis revealed that resolution was more common in patients of Asian race (P = 0.006) and for central/focal NP events (P < 0.001). For non-SLE NP events, resolution was more common in patients of African race (P = 0.017) and less common in patients who were older at SLE diagnosis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In a large and long-term study of the occurrence and resolution of NP events in SLE, we identified subgroups with better and worse prognosis. The course of NP events differs greatly depending on their nature and attribution.

9.
Lupus ; 30(8): 1283-1288, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA is a common isotype of anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I in SLE. Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I was not included in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria, but was included in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I IgA in SLE versus other rheumatic diseases. In addition, we examined the association between anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA and disease manifestations in SLE. METHODS: The dataset consisted of 1384 patients, 657 with a consensus physician diagnosis of SLE and 727 controls with other rheumatic diseases. Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I isotypes were measured by ELISA. Patients with a consensus diagnosis of SLE were compared to controls with respect to presence of anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I. Among patients with SLE, we assessed the association between anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA and clinical manifestations. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA was 14% in SLE patients and 7% in rheumatic disease controls (odds ratio, OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6, 3.3). It was more common in SLE patients who were younger patients and of African descent (p = 0.019). Eleven percent of SLE patients had anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA alone (no anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgG or IgM). There was a significant association between anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA and anti-dsDNA (p = 0.001) and the other antiphospholipid antibodies (p = 0.0004). There was no significant correlation of anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA with any of the other ACR or SLICC clinical criteria for SLE. Those with anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA tended to have a history of thrombosis (12% vs 6%, p = 0.071), but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: We found the anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA isotype to be more common in patients with SLE and in particular, with African descent. It could occur alone without other isotypes.

11.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(10): 4737-4747, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency and metabolic syndrome (MetS) may both contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in SLE. We aimed to examine the association of demographic factors, SLE phenotype, therapy and vitamin D levels with MetS and insulin resistance. METHODS: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) enrolled patients recently diagnosed with SLE (<15 months) from 33 centres across 11 countries from 2000. Clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data were collected. Vitamin D level was defined according to tertiles based on distribution across this cohort, which were set at T1 (10-36 nmol/l), T2 (37-60 nmol/l) and T3 (61-174 nmol/l). MetS was defined according to the 2009 consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Insulin resistance was determined using the HOMA-IR model. Linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the association of variables with vitamin D levels. RESULTS: Of the 1847 patients, 1163 (63%) had vitamin D measured and 398 (34.2%) subjects were in the lowest 25(OH)D tertile. MetS was present in 286 of 860 (33%) patients whose status could be determined. Patients with lower 25(OH)D were more likely to have MetS and higher HOMA-IR. The MetS components, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were all significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D. Increased average glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: MetS and insulin resistance are associated with lower vitamin D in patients with SLE. Further studies could determine whether vitamin D repletion confers better control of these cardiovascular risk factors and improve long-term outcomes in SLE.

12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2019 classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus system showed high specificity, while attaining also high sensitivity. We hereby analysed the performance of the individual criteria items and their contribution to the overall performance of the criteria. METHODS: We combined the EULAR/ACR derivation and validation cohorts for a total of 1197 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and n=1074 non-SLE patients with a variety of conditions mimicking SLE, such as other autoimmune diseases, and calculated the sensitivity and specificity for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and the 23 specific criteria items. We also tested performance omitting the EULAR/ACR criteria attribution rule, which defines that items are only counted if not more likely explained by a cause other than SLE. RESULTS: Positive ANA, the new entry criterion, was 99.5% sensitive, but only 19.4% specific, against a non-SLE population that included other inflammatory rheumatic, infectious, malignant and metabolic diseases. The specific criteria items were highly variable in sensitivity (from 0.42% for delirium and 1.84% for psychosis to 75.6% for antibodies to double-stranded DNA), but their specificity was uniformly high, with low C3 or C4 (83.0%) and leucopenia <4.000/mm³ (83.8%) at the lowest end. Unexplained fever was 95.3% specific in this cohort. Applying the attribution rule improved specificity, particularly for joint involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Changing the position of the highly sensitive, non-specific ANA to an entry criterion and the attribution rule resulted in a specificity of >80% for all items, explaining the higher overall specificity of the criteria set.

13.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 73(9): 1231-1235, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria and the revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1997 criteria are list based, counting each SLE manifestation equally. We derived a classification rule based on giving variable weights to the SLICC criteria and compared its performance to the revised ACR 1997, the unweighted SLICC 2012, and the newly reported European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology (EULAR)/ACR 2019 criteria sets. METHODS: The physician-rated patient scenarios used to develop the SLICC 2012 classification criteria were reemployed to devise a new weighted classification rule using multiple linear regression. The performance of the rule was evaluated on an independent set of expert-diagnosed patient scenarios and compared to the performance of the previously reported classification rules. RESULTS: The weighted SLICC criteria and the EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria had less sensitivity but better specificity compared to the list-based revised ACR 1997 and SLICC 2012 classification criteria. There were no statistically significant differences between any pair of rules with respect to overall agreement with the physician diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The 2 new weighted classification rules did not perform better than the existing list-based rules in terms of overall agreement on a data set originally generated to assess the SLICC criteria. Given the added complexity of summing weights, researchers may prefer the unweighted SLICC criteria. However, the performance of a classification rule will always depend on the populations from which the cases and non-cases are derived and whether the goal is to prioritize sensitivity or specificity.


Assuntos
Regras de Decisão Clínica , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Reumatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 73(12): 1789-1795, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer risk factors in incident systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Clinical variables and cancer outcomes were assessed annually among incident SLE patients. Multivariate hazard regression models (overall risk and most common cancers) included demographic characteristics and time-dependent medications (corticosteroids, antimalarial drugs, immunosuppressants), smoking, and the adjusted mean Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 score. RESULTS: Among 1,668 patients (average 9 years follow-up), 65 cancers occurred: 15 breast, 10 nonmelanoma skin, 7 lung, 6 hematologic, 6 prostate, 5 melanoma, 3 cervical, 3 renal, 2 each gastric, head and neck, and thyroid, and 1 each rectal, sarcoma, thymoma, and uterine cancers. Half of the cancers (including all lung cancers) occurred in past/current smokers, versus one-third of patients without cancer. Multivariate analyses indicated that overall cancer risk was related primarily to male sex and older age at SLE diagnosis. In addition, smoking was associated with lung cancer. For breast cancer risk, age was positively associated and antimalarial drugs were negatively associated. Antimalarial drugs and higher disease activity were also negatively associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer risk, whereas age and cyclophosphamide were positively associated. Disease activity was associated positively with hematologic and negatively with nonmelanoma skin cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Smoking is a key modifiable risk factor, especially for lung cancer, in SLE. Immunosuppressive medications were not clearly associated with higher risk except for cyclophosphamide and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Antimalarials were negatively associated with breast cancer and nonmelanoma skin cancer risk. SLE activity was associated positively with hematologic cancer and negatively with nonmelanoma skin cancer. Since the absolute number of cancers was small, additional follow-up will help consolidate these findings.

15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(1): 121-131, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, mechanism of action, and preliminary efficacy of rituximab followed by belimumab in the treatment of refractory lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: In a multicenter, randomized, open-label clinical trial, 43 patients with recurrent or refractory LN were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide (CYC), and glucocorticoids followed by weekly belimumab infusions until week 48 (RCB group), or treated with rituximab and CYC but no belimumab infusions (RC group). Patients were followed up until week 96. Percentages of total and autoreactive B cell subsets in the patients' peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Treatment with belimumab did not increase the incidence of adverse events in patients with refractory LN. At week 48, a complete or partial renal response occurred in 11 (52%) of 21 patients receiving belimumab, compared to 9 (41%) of 22 patients in the RC group who did not receive belimumab (P = 0.452). Lack of improvement in or worsening of LN was the major reason for treatment failure. B cell depletion occurred in both groups, but the percentage of B cells remained lower in those receiving belimumab (geometric mean number of B cells at week 60, 53 cells/µl in the RCB group versus 11 cells/µl in the RC group; P = 0.0012). Percentages of total and autoreactive transitional B cells increased from baseline to week 48 in both groups. However, percentages of total and autoreactive naive B cells decreased from baseline to week 48 in the belimumab group compared to the no belimumab RC group (P = 0.0349), a finding that is consistent with the observed impaired maturation of naive B cells and enhanced censoring of autoreactive B cells. CONCLUSION: The addition of belimumab to a treatment regimen with rituximab and CYC was safe in patients with refractory LN. This regimen diminished maturation of transitional to naive B cells during B cell reconstitution, and enhanced the negative selection of autoreactive B cells. Clinical efficacy was not improved with rituximab and CYC in combination with belimumab when compared to a therapeutic strategy of B cell depletion alone in patients with LN.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) predicts mortality and damage accrual in SLE, but its association with hospitalizations has not been described. We estimated the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with future hospitalizations in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. The number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations during follow-up were recorded. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of hospitalizations per patient-year of follow-up. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of baseline SLICC-FI scores with the proportion of follow-up time spent in hospital. Multivariable models were adjusted for relevant baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (IQR) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08). During mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 614 patients (39.6%) experienced 1570 hospitalizations. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with more frequent hospitalizations during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.21; 95%CI 1.13-1.30), adjusting for baseline age, sex, corticosteroid use, immunosuppressive use, ethnicity/location, SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), and disease duration. Among patients with ≥1 hospitalization, higher baseline SLICC-FI values predicted a greater proportion of follow-up time spent hospitalized (Relative Rate 1.09; 95%CI 1.02-1.16). CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts future hospitalizations among incident SLE patients, further supporting the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

17.
Ethn Dis ; 30(4): 611-620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989361

RESUMO

Background: People living with lupus may experience poor access to primary care and delayed specialty care. Purpose: To identify characteristics that lead to increased odds of poor access to primary care for minorities hospitalized with lupus. Methods: Cross-sectional design with 2011-2012 hospitalization data from South Carolina, North Carolina, and Florida. We used ICD-9 codes to identify lupus hospitalizations. Ambulatory care sensitive conditions were used to identify preventable lupus hospitalizations and measure access to primary care. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for the association between predictors and having poor access to primary care. Sensitivity analysis excluded patients aged >65 years. Results: There were 23,154 total lupus hospitalizations, and 2,094 (9.04%) were preventable. An adjusted model showed minorities aged ≥65 years (OR 2.501, CI 1.501, 4.169), minorities aged 40-64 years (OR 2.248, CI: 1.394, 3.627), minorities with Medicare insurance (OR 1.669, CI:1.353,2.059) and minorities with Medicaid (OR 1.662,CI:1.321, 2.092) had the highest odds for a preventable lupus hospitalization. Minorities with Medicare had significantly higher odds for ≥3 hospital days (OR 1.275, CI: 1.149, 1.415). Whites with Medicare (OR 1.291, CI: 1.164, 1.432) had the highest odds for ≥3 days. Conclusions: Our data show that middle-aged minorities living with lupus and on public health insurance have a higher likelihood of poor access to primary care. Health care workers and policymakers should develop plans to identify patients, explore issues affecting access, and place patients with a community health worker or social worker to promote better access to primary care.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Fatores Raciais , South Carolina , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(10): 1333-1339, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2019 Classification Criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been validated with high sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated the performance of the new criteria with regard to disease duration, sex and race/ethnicity, and compared its performance against the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 and ACR 1982/1997 criteria. METHODS: Twenty-one SLE centres from 16 countries submitted SLE cases and mimicking controls to form the validation cohort. The sensitivity and specificity of the EULAR/ACR 2019, SLICC 2012 and ACR 1982/1997 criteria were evaluated. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of female (n=1098), male (n=172), Asian (n=118), black (n=68), Hispanic (n=124) and white (n=941) patients; with an SLE duration of 1 to <3 years (n=196) and ≥5 years (n=879). Among patients with 1 to <3 years disease duration, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (97% vs 81%). The EULAR/ACR criteria performed well in men (sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%) and women (sensitivity 97%, specificity 94%). Among women, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (97% vs 83%) and better specificity than the SLICC criteria (94% vs 82%). Among white patients, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (95% vs 83%) and better specificity than the SLICC criteria (94% vs 83%). The EULAR/ACR criteria performed well among black patients (sensitivity of 98%, specificity 100%), and had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria among Hispanic patients (100% vs 86%) and Asian patients (97% vs 77%). CONCLUSIONS: The EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria perform well among patients with early disease, men, women, white, black, Hispanic and Asian patients. These criteria have superior sensitivity than the ACR criteria and/or superior specificity than the SLICC criteria across many subgroups.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(10): 1734-1740, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In previous studies, atherosclerotic vascular events (AVEs) were shown to occur in ~10% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We undertook this study to investigate the annual occurrence and potential risk factors for AVEs in a multinational, multiethnic inception cohort of patients with SLE. METHODS: A large 33-center cohort of SLE patients was followed up yearly between 1999 and 2017. AVEs were attributed to atherosclerosis based on SLE being inactive at the time of the AVE as well as typical atherosclerotic changes observed on imaging or pathology reports and/or evidence of atherosclerosis elsewhere. Analyses included descriptive statistics, rate of AVEs per 1,000 patient-years, and univariable and multivariable relative risk regression models. RESULTS: Of the 1,848 patients enrolled in the cohort, 1,710 had ≥1 follow-up visit after enrollment, for a total of 13,666 patient-years. Of these 1,710 patients, 3.6% had ≥1 AVEs attributed to atherosclerosis, for an event rate of 4.6 per 1,000 patient-years. In multivariable analyses, lower AVE rates were associated with antimalarial treatment (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.32-0.91]), while higher AVE rates were associated with any prior vascular event (HR 4.00 [95% CI 1.55-10.30]) and a body mass index of >40 kg/m2 (HR 2.74 [95% CI 1.04-7.18]). A prior AVE increased the risk of subsequent AVEs (HR 5.42 [95% CI 3.17-9.27], P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AVEs and the rate of AVE accrual demonstrated in the present study is much lower than that seen in previously published data. This may be related to better control of both the disease activity and classic risk factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(3): 356-362, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using a reversible multistate model, we prospectively examined neuropsychiatric (NP) events for attribution, outcome and association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in an international, inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Annual assessments for 19 NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes, physician determination of outcome and patient HRQoL (short-form (SF)-36 scores) were measured. Time-to-event analysis and multistate modelling examined the onset, recurrence and transition between NP states. RESULTS: NP events occurred in 955/1827 (52.3%) patients and 592/1910 (31.0%) unique events were attributed to SLE. In the first 2 years of follow-up the relative risk (95% CI) for SLE NP events was 6.16 (4.96, 7.66) and non-SLE events was 4.66 (4.01, 5.43) compared with thereafter. Patients without SLE NP events at initial assessment had a 74% probability of being event free at 10 years. For non-SLE NP events the estimate was 48%. The majority of NP events resolved over 10 years but mortality was higher in patients with NP events attributed to SLE (16%) versus patients with no NPSLE events (6%) while the rate was comparable in patients with non-SLE NP events (7%) compared with patients with no non-SLE events (6%). Patients with NP events had lower SF-36 summary scores compared with those without NP events and resolved NP states (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: NP events occur most frequently around the diagnosis of SLE. Although the majority of events resolve they are associated with reduced HRQoL and excess mortality. Multistate modelling is well suited for the assessment of NP events in SLE.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/psicologia , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/mortalidade , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Multinível , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
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