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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of data regarding healthcare costs associated with damage accrual in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe costs associated with damage states across the disease course using multi-state modeling. METHODS: Patients from 33 centres in 11 countries were enrolled in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort within 15 months of diagnosis. Annual data on demographics, disease activity, damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Damage Index [SDI]), hospitalizations, medications, dialysis, and selected procedures were collected. Ten-year cumulative costs (Canadian dollars) were estimated by multiplying annual costs associated with each SDI state by the expected state duration using a multi-state model. RESULTS: 1687 patients participated, 88.7% female, 49.0% of Caucasian race/ethnicity, mean age at diagnosis 34.6 years (SD 13.3), and mean follow up 8.9 years (range 0.6-18.5). Annual costs were higher in those with higher SDIs (SDI ≥ 5: $22 006 2019 CDN, 95% CI $16 662, $27 350 versus SDI=0: $1833, 95% CI $1134, $2532). Similarly, 10-year cumulative costs were higher in those with higher SDIs at the beginning of the 10-year interval (SDI ≥ 5: $189 073, 95% CI $142 318, $235 827 versus SDI=0: $21 713, 95% CI $13 639, $29 788). CONCLUSION: Patients with the highest SDIs incur 10-year cumulative costs that are almost 9-fold higher than those with the lowest SDIs. By estimating the damage trajectory and incorporating annual costs, damage can be used to estimate future costs, critical knowledge for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of novel therapies.

2.
J Autoimmun ; : 102340, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE. METHODS: Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). RESULTS: The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) has been shown to predict mortality, but its association with other important outcomes is unknown. We examined the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with damage accrual in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: The baseline visit was defined as the first at which both organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36]) were assessed. Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. Damage accrual was measured by the increase in SDI between the baseline assessment and the last study visit. Multivariable negative binomial regression estimated the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of increase in the SDI during follow-up, adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (standard deviation, SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (interquartile range) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range of 0-0.51. Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 653 patients (42.2%) had an increase in SDI. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with higher rates of increase in the SDI during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1.19; 95% CI 1.13-1.25), after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity/region, education, baseline SLEDAI-2K, baseline SDI, and baseline use of corticosteroids, antimalarials, and immunosuppressives. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts damage accrual in incident SLE, which further supports the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In a multi-ethnic/racial, prospective SLE inception cohort, to determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, associations and outcomes in different types of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease. METHODS: Patients were evaluated annually for 19 neuropsychiatric (NP) events including seven types of PNS disease. SLE disease activity, organ damage, autoantibodies, patient and physician assessment of outcome were measured. Time to event and linear regressions were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Of 1,827 SLE patients, 88.8% were female, 48.8% Caucasian. The mean±SD age was 35.1±13.3 years, disease duration at enrollment 5.6±4.2 months and follow-up 7.6±4.6 years. There were 161 PNS events in 139/1,827 (7.6%) patients. The predominant events were peripheral neuropathy [66/161 (41.0%)], mononeuropathy [44/161 (27.3%)] and cranial neuropathy [39/161 (24.2%)] and the majority were attributed to SLE. Multivariate Cox regressions suggested longer time to resolution in patients with prior history of neuropathy, older age at SLE diagnosis, higher SLEDAI-2K scores, and for peripheral neuropathy versus other neuropathies. Neuropathy was associated with significantly lower SF-36 physical and mental component summary scores versus patients without NP events. By physician assessment, the majority of neuropathies resolved or improved over time and this was associated with improvements in SF-36 summary scores for peripheral neuropathy and mononeuropathy. CONCLUSION: PNS disease is an important component of total NPSLE and has a significant negative impact on health related quality of life. The outcome is favourable for most patients, but we noted several factors associated with longer time to resolution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1151-1159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. (1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort and a patient survey. (2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. (3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. (4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in seven clinical (constitutional, haematological, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and three immunological (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered and weighted criteria reflect current thinking about SLE and provide an improved foundation for SLE research.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1400-1412, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. 1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort, and a patient survey. 2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. 3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. 4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1,001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1,270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in 7 clinical (constitutional, hematologic, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and 3 immunologic (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered, and weighted criteria reflects current thinking about SLE and provides an improved foundation for SLE research.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1235-1241, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an environmental factor associated with SLE. EBV maintains latency in B cells with frequent reactivation measured by antibodies against viral capsid antigen (VCA) and early antigen (EA). In this study, we determined whether EBV reactivation and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EBV-associated host genes are associated with SLE transition. METHODS: SLE patient relatives (n=436) who did not have SLE at baseline were recontacted after 6.3 (±3.9) years and evaluated for interim transitioning to SLE (≥4 cumulative American College of Rheumatology criteria); 56 (13%) transitioned to SLE prior to the follow-up visit. At both visits, detailed demographic, environmental, clinical information and blood samples were obtained. Antibodies against viral antigens were measured by ELISA. SNPs in IL10, CR2, TNFAIP3 and CD40 genes were typed by ImmunoChip. Generalised estimating equations were used to test associations between viral antibody levels and transitioning to SLE. RESULTS: Mean baseline VCA IgG (4.879±1.797 vs 3.866±1.795, p=0.0003) and EA IgG (1.192±1.113 vs 0.7774±0.8484, p=0.0236) levels were higher in transitioned compared with autoantibody negative non-transitioned relatives. Increased VCA IgG and EA IgG were associated with transitioning to SLE (OR 1.28 95% CI 1.07 to 1.53, p=0.007, OR 1.43 95% CI 1.06 to 1.93, p=0.02, respectively). Significant interactions were observed between CD40 variant rs48100485 and VCA IgG levels and IL10 variant rs3024493 and VCA IgA levels in transitioning to SLE. CONCLUSION: Heightened serologic reactivation of EBV increases the probability of transitioning to SLE in unaffected SLE relatives.

9.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 902-914, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209404

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease for which the current treatment is ineffective and often toxic. To develop mechanistic hypotheses of disease, we analyzed kidney samples from patients with lupus nephritis and from healthy control subjects using single-cell RNA sequencing. Our analysis revealed 21 subsets of leukocytes active in disease, including multiple populations of myeloid cells, T cells, natural killer cells and B cells that demonstrated both pro-inflammatory responses and inflammation-resolving responses. We found evidence of local activation of B cells correlated with an age-associated B-cell signature and evidence of progressive stages of monocyte differentiation within the kidney. A clear interferon response was observed in most cells. Two chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CX3CR1, were broadly expressed, implying a potentially central role in cell trafficking. Gene expression of immune cells in urine and kidney was highly correlated, which would suggest that urine might serve as a surrogate for kidney biopsies.


Assuntos
Rim/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interferons/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8367, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182728

RESUMO

Progesterone plays a protective role in preventing inflammation and preterm delivery during pregnancy. However, the mechanism involved is unknown. Microbial product translocation from a permeable mucosa is demonstrated as a driver of inflammation. To study the mechanism of the protective role of progesterone during pregnancy, we investigated the effect of physiologic concentrations of progesterone on tight junction protein occludin expression and human gut permeability in vitro and systemic microbial translocation in pregnant women in vivo. Plasma bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a representative marker of in vivo systemic microbial translocation was measured. We found that plasma LPS levels were significantly decreased during 24 to 28 weeks of gestation compared to 8 to 12 weeks of gestation. Moreover, plasma LPS levels were negatively correlated with plasma progesterone levels but positively correlated with plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels at 8 to 12 weeks of gestation but not at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. Progesterone treatment increased intestinal trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in primary human colon tissues and Caco-2 cells in vitro through upregulating tight junction protein occludin expression. Furthermore, progesterone exhibited an inhibitory effect on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation following LPS stimulation in Caco-2 cells. These results reveal a novel mechanism that progesterone may play an important role in decreasing mucosal permeability, systemic microbial translocation, and inflammation during pregnancy.

11.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(11): 1858-1868, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by the production of antibodies against self antigens. However, the events underlying autoantibody formation in SLE remain unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of plasma autoantibody levels, microbial translocation, and the microbiome in SLE. METHODS: Plasma samples from 2 cohorts, one with 18 unrelated healthy controls and 18 first-degree relatives and the other with 19 healthy controls and 21 SLE patients, were assessed for autoantibody levels by autoantigen microarray analysis, measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels by Limulus amebocyte assay, and determination of microbiome composition by microbial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. RESULTS: First-degree relatives and SLE patients exhibited increased plasma autoantibody levels compared to their control groups. Parents and children of lupus patients exhibited elevated plasma LPS levels compared to controls (P = 0.02). Plasma LPS levels positively correlated with plasma anti-double-stranded DNA IgG levels in first-degree relatives (r = 0.51, P = 0.03), but not in SLE patients. Circulating microbiome analysis revealed that first-degree relatives had significantly reduced microbiome diversity compared to their controls (observed species, P = 0.004; Chao1 index, P = 0.005), but this reduction was not observed in SLE patients. The majority of bacteria that were differentially abundant between unrelated healthy controls and first-degree relatives were in the Firmicutes phylum, while differences in bacteria from several phyla were identified between healthy controls and SLE patients. Bacteria in the Paenibacillus genus were the only overlapping differentially abundant bacteria in both cohorts, and were reduced in first-degree relatives (adjusted P [Padj ] = 2.13 × 10-12 ) and SLE patients (Padj = 0.008) but elevated in controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a possible role of plasma microbial translocation and microbiome composition in influencing autoantibody development in SLE.

12.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a Frailty Index (FI) as a measure of vulnerability to adverse outcomes among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort. METHODS: The SLICC inception cohort consists of recently diagnosed patients with SLE followed annually with clinical and laboratory assessments. For this analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which sufficient information was available for construction of an FI. Following a standard procedure, variables from the SLICC database were evaluated as potential health deficits. Selected health deficits were then used to generate a SLICC-FI. The prevalence of frailty in the baseline dataset was evaluated using established cutpoints for FI values. RESULTS: The 1683 patients with SLE (92.1% of the overall cohort) eligible for inclusion in the baseline dataset were mostly female (89%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.4) years and mean (SD) disease duration 18.8 (15.7) months at baseline. Of 222 variables, 48 met criteria for inclusion in the SLICC-FI. Mean (SD) SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range from 0 to 0.51. At baseline, 27.1% (95% CI 25.0-29.2) of patients were classified as frail, based on SLICC-FI values > 0.21. CONCLUSION: The SLICC inception cohort permits feasible construction of an FI for use in patients with SLE. Even in a relatively young cohort of patients with SLE, frailty was common. The SLICC-FI may be a useful tool for identifying patients with SLE who are most vulnerable to adverse outcomes, but validation of this index is required prior to its use.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(8): 1297-1307, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of a frailty index (FI), constructed using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort, as a novel health measure in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: For this secondary analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which both organ damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36] scores) were assessed. The SLICC-FI was constructed using baseline data. The SLICC-FI comprises 48 health deficits, including items related to organ damage, disease activity, comorbidities, and functional status. Content, construct, and criterion validity of the SLICC-FI were assessed. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and mortality risk, adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: In the baseline data set of 1,683 patients with SLE, 89% were female, the mean ± SD age was 35.7 ± 13.4 years, and the mean ± SD disease duration was 18.8 ± 15.7 months. At baseline, the mean ± SD SLICC-FI score was 0.17 ± 0.08 (range 0-0.51). Baseline SLICC-FI values exhibited the expected measurement properties and were weakly correlated with baseline SDI scores (r = 0.26, P < 0.0001). Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.35-1.87), after adjusting for age, sex, steroid use, ethnicity/region, and baseline SDI scores. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI demonstrates internal validity as a health measure in SLE and might be used to predict future mortality risk. The SLICC-FI is potentially valuable for quantifying vulnerability among patients with SLE, and adds to existing prognostic scores.

14.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(7): 1259-1267, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) in reproductive-age women with SLE with and without possible contraindications and to determine factors associated with their use in the presence of possible contraindications. METHODS: This observational cohort study included premenopausal women ages 18-45 years enrolled in the SLICC Registry ⩽15 months after SLE onset, with annual assessments spanning 2000-2017. World Health Organization Category 3 or 4 contraindications to CHCs (e.g. hypertension, aPL) were assessed at each study visit. High disease activity (SLEDAI score >12 or use of >0.5 mg/kg/day of prednisone) was considered a relative contraindication. RESULTS: A total of 927 SLE women contributed 6315 visits, of which 3811 (60%) occurred in the presence of one or more possible contraindication to CHCs. Women used CHCs during 512 (8%) visits, of which 281 (55%) took place in the setting of one or more possible contraindication. The most frequently observed contraindications were aPL (52%), hypertension (34%) and migraine with aura (22%). Women with one or more contraindication were slightly less likely to be taking CHCs [7% of visits (95% CI 7, 8)] than women with no contraindications [9% (95% CI 8, 10)]. CONCLUSION: CHC use was low compared with general population estimates (>35%) and more than half of CHC users had at least one possible contraindication. Many yet unmeasured factors, including patient preferences, may have contributed to these observations. Further work should also aim to clarify outcomes associated with this exposure.

15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(5): 634-640, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692164

RESUMO

European League Against Rheumatism and are jointly supporting multiphase development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria based on weighted criteria and a continuous probability scale. Prior steps included item generation, item reduction and hierarchical organisation of candidate criteria using an evidence-based approach. Our objectives were to determine relative weights using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and to set a provisional threshold score for SLE classification. An SLE Expert Panel (8 European, 9 North American) submitted 164 real, unique cases with a wide range of SLE probability in a standardised format. Using the candidate criteria, experts scored and rank-ordered 20 representative cases. At an in-person meeting, experts reviewed inter-rater reliability of scoring, further refined criteria definitions and participated in an MCDA exercise. Based on expert consensus decisions on pairwise comparisons of criteria, 1000minds software calculated criteria weights and rank-ordered the remaining 144 cases based on their additive scores. The score of the lowest-ranked case for which complete expert consensus was achieved defined the provisional threshold classification score. Inter-rater reliability of scoring cases with the candidate criteria was good. MCDA involved 74 pairwise decisions and was repeated for the arthritis and mucocutaneous domains when the initial ranking of some cases did not match expert opinion. After criteria weights and additive scores were recalculated once, experts reached consensus for SLE classification for all cases scoring>83. Using an iterative process, the candidate criteria definitions were refined, preliminary weights were calculated and a provisional threshold score for SLE classification was determined.

16.
J Rheumatol ; 46(5): 492-500, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In cross-sectional studies, elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels have been proposed to reflect, and/or precede, progressive organ damage and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed, in a cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE, to determine whether raised serum OPN levels precede damage and/or are associated with disease activity or certain disease phenotypes. METHODS: We included 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who had 5 years of followup data available. All patients fulfilled the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Baseline sera from patients and from age- and sex-matched population-based controls were analyzed for OPN using ELISA. Disease activity and damage were assessed at each annual followup visit using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), respectively. RESULTS: Compared to controls, baseline OPN was raised 4-fold in SLE cases (p < 0.0001). After relevant adjustments in a binary logistic regression model, OPN levels failed to significantly predict global damage accrual defined as SDI ≥ 1 at 5 years. However, baseline OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K at enrollment into the cohort (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI-2K ≥ 5) had raised serum OPN (p < 0.0001). In addition, higher OPN levels were found in patients with persistent disease activity (p = 0.0006), in cases with renal involvement (p < 0.0001) and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The performance of OPN to predict development of organ damage was not impressive. However, OPN associated significantly with lupus nephritis and with raised disease activity at enrollment, as well as over time.

17.
J Rheumatol ; 46(7): 721-726, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Given the complexity and heterogeneity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), high-performing classification criteria are critical to advancing research and clinical care. A collaborative effort by the European League Against Rheumatism and the American College of Rheumatology was undertaken to generate candidate criteria, and then to reduce them to a smaller set. The objective of the current study was to select a set of criteria that maximizes the likelihood of accurate classification of SLE, particularly early disease. METHODS: An independent panel of international SLE experts and the SLE classification criteria steering committee (conducting SLE research in Canada, Mexico, United States, Austria, Germany, Greece, France, Italy, and Spain) ranked 43 candidate criteria. A consensus meeting using nominal group technique (NGT) was conducted to reduce the list of criteria for consideration. RESULTS: The expert panel NGT exercise reduced the candidate criteria for SLE classification from 43 to 21. The panel distinguished potential "entry criteria," which would be required for classification, from potential "additive criteria." Potential entry criteria were antinuclear antibody (ANA) ≥ 1:80 (HEp-2 immunofluorescence), and low C3 and/or low C4. The use of low complement as an entry criterion was considered potentially useful in cases with negative ANA. Potential additive criteria included lupus nephritis by renal biopsy, autoantibodies, cytopenias, acute and chronic cutaneous lupus, alopecia, arthritis, serositis, oral mucosal lesions, central nervous system manifestations, and fever. CONCLUSION: The NGT exercise resulted in 21 candidate SLE classification criteria. The next phases of SLE classification criteria development will require refinement of criteria definitions, evaluation of the ability to cluster criteria into domains, and evaluation of weighting of criteria.

19.
Trials ; 19(1): 694, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onset of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is preceded by a preclinical phase characterized by expression of autoantibodies and nonspecific clinical symptoms. Hydroxychloroquine is a treatment for lupus that is widely used based on longstanding experience and a very good safety profile. Existing data suggest that treatment with hydroxychloroquine may postpone the onset of disease. However, prospective studies that prove and quantify the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in the preclinical phase of lupus have not been done. This study will test the hypothesis that early hydroxychloroquine use can prevent accumulation of clinical abnormalities and modify immune responses that define SLE. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of hydroxychloroquine vs placebo will be conducted. Participants will have incomplete lupus erythematosus as defined by the presence of antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity at a titer of 1:80 or greater, as well as one or two additional criteria from the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) classification criteria. The age range will be 15-45 years and the treatment phase will be 96 weeks. The primary endpoint will be the increase in the number of features of SLE defined by the 2012 SLICC classification schema. Secondary outcomes will include the proportion of participants who transition to a classification of SLE as defined by SLICC criteria. DISCUSSION: A major challenge for improving therapies in patients with SLE is early detection of disease. The ANA test that is widely used to screen for SLE has low specificity and interpretation of its significance is challenging. The Study of Anti-Malarials in Incomplete Lupus Erythematosus (SMILE) trial will provide insights into the appropriate target population for intervention, and will assess whether hydroxychloroquine can slow progression as measured by the accumulation of criteria. Ophthalmologic safety in this population will be assessed. The study will investigate candidate biomarkers that will guide treatment decisions and will accumulate a specimen biobank that will be available to the lupus research community for further in-depth mechanistic studies. This trial is a first step toward testing the feasibility of disease prevention strategies in SLE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 03030118 . Registered on 24 January 2017.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine, in a multi-ethnic/racial, prospective SLE inception cohort, the frequency, attribution, clinical and autoantibody associations with lupus psychosis and the short and long-term outcome as assessed by physicians and patients. METHODS: Patients were evaluated annually for 19 neuropsychiatric (NP) events including psychosis. SLE disease activity 2000, SLICC/ACR damage index and SF-36 scores were collected. Time to event and linear regressions were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Of 1,826 SLE patients, 88.8% were female, 48.8% Caucasian. The mean±SD age was 35.1±13.3 years, disease duration 5.6±4.2 months and follow-up 7.4±4.5 years. There were 31 psychotic events in 28/1,826 (1.53%) patients and most [(26/28; 93%)] had a single event. In the majority of patients [20/25; (80%)] and events [28/31; (90%)] psychosis was attributed to SLE, usually within 3 years of SLE diagnosis. Positive associations [hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval [HR (95%CI)] with lupus psychosis were prior SLE NP events [3.59, (1.16, 11.14), male sex [3.0, (1.20, 7.50)], younger age at SLE diagnosis [(per 10 years younger), 1.45 (1.01, 2.07)] and African ancestry [4.59 (1.79, 11.76)]. By physician assessment most psychotic events resolved by the second annual visit following onset, in parallel with an improvement in patient reported SF-36 summary and subscale scores. CONCLUSION: Psychosis is an infrequent manifestation of NPSLE. Generally, it occurs early after SLE onset and has a significant negative impact on health status. As determined by patient and physician report, the short and long term outlook is good for most patients, though careful follow-up is required. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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