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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718702


OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) supplementation to the CPB circuit on the development of cardiac surgery-associated AKI. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study included 96 patients with moderate risk of renal complications who underwent elective cardiac surgery with CPB. The study protocol was registered at (identifier NCT03527381). Patients were randomly allocated to either NO supplementation to the CPB bypass circuit (NO treatment group; n = 48) or usual care (control group; n = 48). In the NO treatment group, 40-ppm NO was administered during the entire CPB period. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI. RESULTS: NO treatment was associated with a significant decrease in AKI incidence (10 cases [20.8%] vs 20 cases [41.6%] in the control group; relative risk, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.95; P = .023) and a higher median urine output during CPB (2.6 mL/kg/h [interquartile range (IQR), 2.1-5.08 mL/kg/h] vs 1.7 mL/kg/h [IQR, 0.80-2.50 mL/kg/h]; P = .0002). The median urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin level at 4 hours after surgery was significantly lower in the NO treatment group (1.12 ng/mL [IQR, 0.75-5.8 ng/mL] vs 4.62 ng/mL [IQR, 2.02-34.55 ng/mL]; P = .005). In the NO treatment group, concentrations of NO metabolites were significantly increased at 5 minutes postclamping, at 5 minutes after declamping, and at the end of the operation. Concentrations of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators and free plasma hemoglobin did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: NO administration in patients at moderate risk of renal complications undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB was associated with a lower incidence of AKI.

Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 129, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754841


BACKGROUND: The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on renal function is controversial in critical illness. We performed a systematic meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis to determine the effect of NO gas on renal function and other clinical outcomes in patients requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The primary outcome was the relative risk (RR) of acute kidney injury (AKI), irrespective of the AKI stage. The secondary outcome was the mean difference (MD) in the length of ICU and hospital stay, the RR of postoperative hemorrhage, and the MD in levels of methemoglobin. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed for the primary outcome. RESULTS: 54 trials were assessed for eligibility and 5 studies (579 patients) were eligible for meta-analysis. NO was associated with reduced risk of AKI (RR 0.76, 95% confidential interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.93, I2 = 0%). In the subgroup analysis by NO initiation timing, NO did not decrease the risk of AKI when started at the end of CPB (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.52-2.78, I2 = 0%). However, NO did significantly reduce the risk of AKI when started from the beginning of CPB (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.94, I2 = 10%). We conducted TSA based on three trials (400 patients) using KDIGO criteria and with low risk of bias. TSA indicated a CI of 0.50-1.02 and an optimal information size of 589 patients, suggesting a lack of definitive conclusion. Furthermore, NO does not affect the length of ICU and hospital stay or the risk of postoperative hemorrhage. NO slightly increased the level of methemoglobin at the end of CPB (MD 0.52%, 95% CI 0.27-0.78%, I2 = 90%), but it was clinically negligible. CONCLUSIONS: NO appeared to reduce the risk of postoperative AKI in patients undergoing CPB. Additional studies are required to ascertain the finding and further determine the dosage, timing and duration of NO administration.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 157(6): 2328-2336.e1, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447958


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pilot study was to elucidate the effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) supply to the extracorporeal circulation circuit for cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: A total of 60 patients with coronary artery disease scheduled for CABG with CPB were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Patients were allocated randomly to receive treatment according to standard or modified CPB protocol where 40-ppm NO was added to the CPB circuit during cardiac surgery. The primary endpoint was the measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). The secondary end points consisted in the measurements of creatine kinase-muscle/brain fraction (CK-MB) and vasoactive inotropic score (VIS). RESULTS: NO delivered into the CPB circuit had a cardioprotective effect. The level of cTnI was significantly lower in NO-treated group compared with the control group 6 hours after surgery: 1.79 ± 0.39 ng/mL versus 2.41 ± 0.55 ng/mL, respectively (P = .001). The CK-MB value was significantly lower in NO-treated group compared with the control group 24 hours after surgery: 47.69 ± 8.08 U/L versus 62.25 ± 9.78 U/L, respectively (P = .001); and the VIS was significantly lower in the NO-treated group 6 hours after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: NO supply to the CPB circuit during CABG exerted a cardioprotective effect and was associated with lower levels of VIS and cardiospecific blood markers cTnI and CK-MB.

Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle