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1.
Ind Health ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588381

RESUMO

2-Ethyl-1-hexanol (2EH) is a volatile organic compound known to cause sick building syndrome. However, 2EH-induced hepatotoxicity has been mainly evaluated in experiments orally administering 2EH as a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. To evaluate the hepatotoxicity risk of 2EH as an indoor air pollutant, we exposed 10-wk-old male ICR mice to 2EH by inhalation for 8 h/d, 5 d/wk for 3 months (0, 20, 60, or 150 ppm) or 6 months (0, 0.5, 10, or 100 ppm). In both experiments, relative liver weights significantly increased in the highest exposure groups. The 3-month exposure increased histopathological lipid droplets in the liver in a dose-dependent manner, hepatic triglyceride at all exposure levels, hepatic phospholipid at 150 ppm, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein at 60 and 150 ppm; however, these changes were not observed following the 6-month of exposure. Following the 3-month exposure, alanine transaminase and peroxisomal bifunctional proteins, known markers of liver injury and peroxisome proliferation, respectively, remained unaltered. Therefore, in the present study, the inhalation concentration range of 2EH induced a toxic hypertrophic change, revealing a limited role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The liver weights may have presumably increased via a mechanism independent of PPARα activation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal cholesterol is important for fetal development. Whether maternal serum total cholesterol (maternal TC) levels in mid-pregnancy are associated with small- (SGA) or large- (LGA) for-gestational-age independent of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between maternal TC in mid-pregnancy and SGA or LGA. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Japan Environment and Children's Study is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37,449 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive mothers with singleton birth at term without congenital abnormalities. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight for the gestational age <10 percentile and ≥90 percentile were respectively defined as SGA and LGA by the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at blood sampling was 22.7±4.0 weeks. After adjustment for maternal age, sex of child, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood glucose levels, household income, and Study Areas, one standard deviation decrement of maternal TC was linearly associated with SGA [odds ratio (OR): 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.20: 1.15-1.25]. In contrast, one standard deviation increment of maternal TC was linearly associated with LGA [OR: 95% CI = 1.13: 1.09-1.16]. Associations did not differ according to pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (p for interaction>0.20). CONCLUSION: Maternal TC levels in mid-pregnancy were associated with SGA or LGA in Japanese. Maternal TC in mid-pregnancy may help to predict SGA and LGA. Favorable maternal lipid profiles for fetal development must be explored.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
4.
Environ Int ; 156: 106762, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal cadmium exposure has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, previous findings are contradictory, and little is known about the potential modifiers of the cadmium-related neurodevelopmental risk. We investigated the associations between prenatal cadmium exposure and neurodevelopment in 2-year-old children and examined the influence of mother/child characteristics. METHODS: We recruited 3545 mother-child pairs from the Japan Environment and Children's Study. We collected maternal blood during mid/late pregnancy and cord blood at delivery, and measured cadmium concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD), which includes cognitive-adaptive (C-A), language-social (L-S), postural-motor (P-M) and developmental quotient (DQ) domains. Associations between cadmium and KSPD scores were tested using multivariable models after controlling for confounders. RESULTS: Median levels (interquartile ranges) of cadmium in maternal and cord blood were 0.70 (0.52-0.95) and 0.04 (0.03-0.06) µg/L, respectively. Maternal blood cadmium concentrations were inversely associated with P-M scores in boys (ß = -1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.7, -0.038), DQ in children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy (ß = -2.9, 95% CI: -5.7, -0.12), P-M (ß = -5.4, 95% CI: -10, -0.67), C-A (ß = -6.1, 95% CI: -11, -1.8), L-S (ß = -9.0, 95% CI: -13, -4.8) and DQ scores (ß = -6.4, 95% CI: -9.6, -3.1) in children born to mothers with gestational diabetes. Cord blood cadmium concentrations were negatively associated with L-S scores (ß = -6.0., 95% CI: -11, -0.91) in children born to mothers with gestational diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal cadmium exposure was negatively associated with neurodevelopment in boys, in children whose mothers smoked, and in children born to mothers with gestational diabetes. Further studies in other populations are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Cádmio/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 522, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression is one of the most commonly experienced psychological disorders for women after childbirth, usually occurring within one year. This study aimed to clarify whether women with delivery with anesthesia, including epidural analgesia, spinal-epidural analgesia, and paracervical block, had a decreased risk of postpartum depression after giving birth in Japan. METHODS: The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) was a prospective cohort study that enrolled registered fetal records (n = 104,065) in 15 regions nationwide in Japan. Binomial logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the adjusted odd ratios (aORs) for the association between mode of delivery with or without anesthesia and postpartum depression at one-, six- and twelve-months after childbirth. RESULTS: At six months after childbirth, vaginal delivery with anesthesia was associated with a higher risk of postpartum depression (aOR: 1.233, 95% confidence interval: 1.079-1.409), compared with vaginal delivery without analgesia. Nevertheless, the risk dropped off one year after delivery. Among the pregnant women who requested delivery with anesthesia, 5.1% had a positive Kessler-6 scale (K6) score for depression before the first trimester (p < 0.001), which was significantly higher than the proportions in the vaginal delivery without analgesia (3.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that the risk of postpartum depression at six months after childbirth tended to be increased after vaginal delivery with anesthesia, compared with vaginal delivery without analgesia. Requests for delivery with anesthesia continue to be relatively uncommon in Japan, and women who make such requests might be more likely to experience postpartum depressive symptoms because of underlying maternal environmental statuses.

6.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12218, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The comprehensive detection of environmental chemicals in biospecimens, an indispensable task in exposome research, is advancing. This study aimed to develop an exposomic approach to identify urinary metabolites of organophosphate (OP) pesticides, specifically cadusafos and prothiofos metabolites, as an example chemical group, using an original metabolome dataset generated from animal experiments. METHODS: Urine samples from 73 university students were analyzed using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The metabolome data, including the exact masses, retention time (tR ), and tandem mass spectra obtained from the human samples, were compared with the existing reference databases and with our original metabolome dataset for cadusafos and prothiofos, which was produced from mice to whom two doses of these OPs were orally administered. RESULTS: Using the existing databases, one chromatographic peak was annotated as 2,4-dichlorophenol, which could be a prothiofos metabolite. Using our original dataset, one peak was annotated as a putative cadusafos metabolite and three peaks as putative prothiofos metabolites. Of these, all three peaks suggestive of prothiofos metabolites, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) oxane-2-carboxylic acid, and (2,4-dichlorophenyl) hydrogen sulfate were confirmed as authentic compounds by comparing their peak data with both the original dataset and peak data of the standard reagents. The putative cadusafos metabolite was identified as a level C compound (metabolite candidate with limited plausibility). CONCLUSIONS: Our developed method successfully identified prothiofos metabolites that are usually not a target of biomonitoring studies. Our approach is extensively applicable to various environmental contaminants beyond OP pesticides.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Organotiofosfatos/urina , Compostos Organotiofosforados/urina , Praguicidas/urina , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Valores de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Toxicology ; 450: 152679, 2021 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460720

RESUMO

Urinary dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are measured to assess exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), but they are common metabolites of OPs and not specific indices for individual agents. Biomonitoring (BM) of urinary DAPs has been widely adopted as an assessment of individual exposure in general environments, however, guidance values for DAPs based on health effects have yet to be established. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between the amount of urinary dimethylphosphate (DMP), a metabolite of dichlorvos (DDVP), and the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in rats exposed to DDVP. The relationship was analyzed using a nonlinear model analysis, and the excretion level of urinary DMP equivalent to ChE 20 % inhibition (EL20) and the lower limit of the 95 % confidence interval of EL20 (ELL20) were estimated. EL20 and ELL20 (mg/24 h urine) of brain, erythrocyte, and plasma ChE activities after 10-day administration of DDVP were 0.21 and 0.15, 0.11 and 0.06, and 0.23 and 0.09, respectively. Extrapolating ELL20 of the brain ChE to humans, the range of 24 h urinary DMP concentration according to the 20 % inhibition of cholinesterase activity was estimated to be 20.5-30.8 mg/l. In conclusion, the amount of urinary DMP as ELL20 for DDVP exposure was identified and could probably be used as a novel index for the assessment of risk from OP exposure. Further studies are needed to clarify the ELL20 s derived from OPs other than DDVP, for informing efforts to establish guidance values of urinary OP metabolites that should prevent neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Diclorvós/toxicidade , Dinâmica não Linear , Compostos Organofosforados/urina , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356863

RESUMO

A case-control study was conducted to investigate the relationship between indoor air pollution and childhood acute leukemia (AL) in Shanghai. 97 cases and 148 gender-, age-, and residence-matched controls were included. Indoor air pollution was evaluated by questionnaires and quantitative measurement including 14 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the homes of the two groups. The levels of individual VOCs, VOC families, TVOC (sum of the concentrations of the individual VOCs) and NO2 were compared between the two groups. Exposure to styrene and butyl alcohol were associated with an increased risk of childhood AL (styrene: odds ratio (OR)=2.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-5.07; butyl alcohol: OR = 2.51, 95%CI: 1.19-5.28); 4th quartile of chlorinated hydrocarbons (OR = 2.52, 95%CI: 1.02-6.26) and 3rd quartile of TVOC (OR = 4.03, 95%CI: 1.06-6.81) had significant higher ORs for childhood AL compared with that in the lowest quartiles. Elevated levels of individual VOCs, VOC families and TVOC were also associated with self-reported risk factors. Our findings suggest that VOCs exposure was associated with an elevated risk of childhood AL, underscore that more attention should be paid to indoor air pollution as a risk factor of childhood AL.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Habitação/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141630, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182171

RESUMO

Exposure levels of neonicotinoids (NEO) in young children remain unknown, despite their widespread use and the plausible vulnerability of toddlers to environmental toxicants. Herein we aimed to clarify the exposure levels and sources of NEOs in young Japanese children. Disposable diapers were collected from 1036 children (16-23 months old) participating in an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study between 2015 and 2016. Six NEOs and one metabolite in urine extracted from a diaper from each child were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A relative potency factor approach was used to assess the cumulative exposure to NEOs equivalent to dinotefuran levels (DINRPF). The 95th percentile urinary concentration of DINRPF was 157 µg/L and 380 µg/g creatinine (Cr). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for the propensity scores of the possible exposure-related factors revealed that the discriminatory powers determining whether Cr-adjusted and Cr-unadjusted DINRPF concentrations exceeding the 95th percentile values were higher for the amount of each foodstuff ingested on the survey day (areas under the curve were 0.62 and 0.75, respectively) than for the exposure-related behaviors (0.60 and 0.71, respectively) or for mothers' attitudes toward food selection and preparation (0.54 and 0.57, respectively). Use of a mosquito coil, insect repellent, and mothproof net for a screen door, and playing on a lawn were associated with increased urinary NEO levels (odds ratio [OR]: 2.0-2.9), while care about the child's nutritional balance by mothers reduced urinary NEO levels (OR: 0.23-0.41). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that dealt with urinary concentrations and possible exposure sources of NEOs in a large number of young children. Attention to the children's behavior and diet might result in the reduction of a high exposure to NEOs in young children.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Japão , Mães , Neonicotinoides
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 83, 2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glyphosate and its salt formulations are nonselective herbicides that have been extensively used worldwide, both for residential and agricultural purposes. The possible carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of glyphosate remain to be elucidated. We developed a sensitive and high-throughput analytical method for urinary glyphosate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with the aim of contributing to glyphosate exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. METHODS: After urine dilution (creatinine matching dilution to 0.05 g creatinine/L), glyphosate was extracted using two types of solid phase extraction columns (SCX and NH2) with automated sample preparation instruments. The eluate was dried and dissolved in the mobile phase, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The optimized method was applied to urine samples obtained from 54 Japanese adults and children. RESULTS: The results from the validation study demonstrated good recoveries (91.0-99.6%), within- and between-run precisions (< 15%), low detection limits (0.1 µg/L), and lower limit of quantification (0.3 µg/L). The detection frequency and median concentration of the urinary glyphosate in Japanese subjects were 59% and 0.25 µg/L (0.34 µg/g creatinine). CONCLUSIONS: Our reliable determination method was successful in measuring urinary glyphosate concentration. Moreover, this is the first biomonitoring report of urinary glyphosate levels in the Japanese general population.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Glicina/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12159, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the self-monitoring interventions of a mobile health app reduce sedentary behavior in the short and long terms. METHOD: We designed a double-blind randomized control trial. Participants were selected from among the staff of a medical institution and registrants of an online research firm. Forty-nine participants were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 25) or an intervention group (n = 24). The control group was given only the latest information about sedentary behavior, and the intervention was provided real-time feedback for self-monitoring in addition to the information. These interventions provided for 5 weeks (to measure the short-term effect) and 13 weeks (to measure the long-term effect) via the smartphone app. Measurements were as follows: subjective total sedentary time (SST), objective total sedentary time (OST), mean sedentary bout duration (MSB), and the number of sedentary breaks (SB). Only SST was measured by self-report based on the standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire and others were measured with the smartphone. RESULTS: No significant results were observed in the short term. In the long term, while no significant results were also observed in objective sedentary behavior (OST, MSB, SB), the significant differences were observed in subjective sedentary behavior (SST, ßint  - ßctrl between baseline and 9/13 weeks; 1.73 and 1.50 h/d, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Real-time feedback for self-monitoring with smartphone did not significantly affect objective sedentary behavior. However, providing only information about sedentary behavior to users with smartphones may make misperception on the amount of their subjective sedentary behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Comportamento Sedentário , Smartphone , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Environ Res ; 191: 109972, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758551

RESUMO

Occupational trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure can cause hypersensitivity syndrome (TCE-HS). The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*13:01 is reportedly an important allele involved in TCE-HS onset. However, the threshold exposure level causing TCE-HS in relation to HLA-B*13:01 remains unknown. We conducted a case-control study comprising 37 TCE-HS patients and 97 age- and sex-matched TCE-tolerant controls from the Han Chinese population. Urine and blood of patients were collected on the first day of hospitalization, and those of controls were collected at the end of their shifts. Urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was measured as an exposure marker, and end-of-shift levels in the patients were estimated using the biological half-life of 83.7 h. HLA-B genotype was identified using DNA from blood. Crude odds ratios (ORs) for TCE-HS in the groups with urinary TCA concentration >15 mg/L to ≤50 mg/L and of >50 mg/L were 21.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-114.1] and 27.6 (6.1-125.8), respectively, when the group with urinary TCA ≤15 mg/L was used as a reference. The frequency of HLA-B*13:01, the most common allele in the patients, was 62.2% (23/37), which was significantly higher than 17.5% (17/97) in the TCE-tolerant controls, with a crude OR of 8.4 (3.1-22.6). The mutually-adjusted ORs for urinary TCA >15 to ≤50 mg/L, >50 mg/L, and for HLA-B*13:01 were 33.4 (4.1-270.8), 34.0 (5.3-217.1), and 11.0 (2.4-50.7), respectively. In conclusion, reduction of TCE exposure to ≤15 mg/L is required for TCE-HS prevention because urinary TCA concentration >15 mg/L showed increased risk of TCE-HS, regardless of whether the patients had the HLA-B*13:01 allele.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Tricloroetileno , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ácido Tricloroacético , Tricloroetileno/análise , Tricloroetileno/toxicidade
13.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12142, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) induces trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome (TCEHS), which causes hypersensitivity dermatitis and hepatitis. However, whether TCE itself or its two metabolites, trichloroethanol (TCEOH) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), are involved in TCEHS remains unclear. Therefore, in this study we explored the allergens causing TCEHS and characterized TCEHS-related liver injury in guinea pigs. METHOD: The guinea pig maximization test was performed using TCE, TCEOH, and TCA as candidate allergens. Skin inflammation was scored, and liver function and histopathological changes were evaluated by biochemical tests and hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively. RESULTS: The sensitization rates for TCE, TCEOH, and TCA were 90.0%, 50.0%, and 0.0%, respectively. In the TCE and TCEOH experimental groups, the skin showed varying degrees of erythema with eosinophil granulocyte infiltration in the dermis. Additionally, serum alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels increased significantly, and histological analysis revealed focal hepatocellular necrosis with inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: TCE is the main cause of allergy and TCEOH is a secondary factor for allergy in guinea pigs. TCE and TCEOH can cause immune-mediated skin sensitization complicated by focal hepatic necrosis.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Etilenocloroidrina/análogos & derivados , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Ácido Tricloroacético/toxicidade , Tricloroetileno/toxicidade , Animais , Etilenocloroidrina/toxicidade , Feminino , Cobaias , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604899

RESUMO

The effects of prenatal exposure to household pesticides on fetal and neonatal growth have not been fully clarified. The present study aims to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to pesticides on neonates' body size and growth during the first month. This study included 93,718 pairs of pregnant women and their children from the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Participants completed self-reporting questionnaires during their second or third trimesters on their demographic characteristics and frequency of pesticide use during pregnancy. Child weight, length, and sex were obtained from medical record transcripts. Birth weight and length, as well as weight and length changes over the first month, were estimated using an analysis of covariance. Frequency of exposure to almost all pesticides had no effects on birth weight and length. However, we found small but significant associations (i) between the use of fumigation insecticides and decreased birth weight, and (ii) between frequencies of exposure to pyrethroid pesticides, especially mosquito coils/mats, and suppression of neonatal length growth. Prenatal exposure to household pesticides, especially those containing pyrethroids, might adversely influence fetal and postnatal growth trajectories.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Early Hum Dev ; 146: 105050, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A sex difference in the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D, males < females) has been described in Japanese fetuses and children, and its possible links to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been discussed. Accordingly, this sexual difference in representative neonates merits examination. AIMS: This study aimed to examine 2D:4D measurements and sexual differences in Japanese toddlers aged 1.5 years. STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: The digit lengths used to calculate 2D:4D were measured using an easy-to-use photography method. A total of 1045 JECS-A (the Aichi regional sub-cohort of the Japan Environment and Children's Study) children (males, 523; females, 522) aged 1.5 years were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean ages for the males and females were 575.3 ± 13.1 and 575.9 ± 17.1 days, respectively. Histograms of left and right 2D:4D were normally distributed regardless of sex (left male, 0.909 ± 0.048; left female, 0.913 ± 0.049, d = 0.08; right male, 0.938 ± 0.055; right female, 0.937 ± 0.049, d = 0.02). Because of high dispersion in the data, t-tests did not support a significant sex difference in 2D:4D. Post-hoc statistical power was calculated as 0.124 and the effect size for the sex difference in 2D:4D was 0.036. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to confirm sexual differences in 2D:4D in 1.5-year-old Japanese children. This may be because digit measurement is difficult in this group, resulting in reduced effect sizes, or because rapid growth attenuates the in utero sexual dimorphism. This evidence is useful for the light it casts on the extreme male brain theory of ASDs.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2547-2553, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995978

RESUMO

Anticholinergic organophosphate (OP) agents act on the diverse serine hydrolases, thereby revealing unexpected biological effects. Epidemiological studies indicate a relationship between the OP exposure and development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms, whereas no plausible mechanism for the OP-induced ADHD has been established. The present investigation employs ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF) as an OP-probe, which is an extremely potent inhibitor of endocannabinoid (EC, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol)-hydrolyzing enzymes: that is, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). An ex vivo experiment shows that EOPF treatment decreases FAAH and MAGL activities and conversely increases EC levels in the rat brain. Subsequently, EOPF (treated intraperitoneally once at 0, 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg) clearly induces ADHD-like behaviors (in elevated plus-maze test) in both Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The EOPF-induced behaviors are reduced by a concomitant administration of cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist SLV-319. Accordingly, the EC system is a feasible target for OP-caused ADHD-like behaviors in adolescent rats.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/enzimologia , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Organofosforados/efeitos adversos , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/metabolismo , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 225: 113448, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Metofluthrin, profluthrin, tefluthrin, and transfluthrin are pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides increasingly used to control mosquitoes, flies, and moths in households and public places (hygiene-PYRs). Currently, there is limited data available concerning exposure to these novel hygiene-PYRs. The goal of this study was to monitor exposure to these hygiene-PYRs by analysing their urinary metabolites and to investigate the temporal and seasonal trends in the concentrations of these metabolites. METHODS: First morning urine samples were obtained from 50 Japanese children (four-six years old) in October of 2006, 2011, and 2015 (total = 150 children) in order to investigate temporal trends. Additionally, first-morning urine samples were collected from 44 three-year-old children in August-September of 2012 (summer) and in February of 2013 (winter) to investigate seasonal differences. The urinary concentrations of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (FB-Al; a specific metabolite of transfluthrin), 4-methyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (CH3-FB-Al; a common metabolite of tefluthrin and profluthrin), 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (CH3OCH2-FB-Al; a specific metabolite of metofluthrin), and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,4-benzenedimethanol (HOCH2-FB-Al; a common metabolite of metofluthrin, tefluthrin, and profluthrin) were measured using GC-MS/MS. RESULTS: For the investigated years, rapid increases in the detection rates of the hygiene-PYR metabolites were observed. In 2015, FB-Al was identified in 64% of the samples, CH3-FB-Al in 46%, CH3OCH2-FB-Al in 50%, and HOCH2-FB-Al in 83%. Significant increasing trends were found for the concentrations of all hygiene-PYR metabolites from 2006 to 2015 (Jonckheere-Terpstra test, p < 0.001). The concentrations of FB-Al and CH3OCH2-FB-Al were higher in summer than in winter (Mann Whitney-U test, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that, in Japanese children, exposure to hygiene-PYRs has increased over the past decade, and that children are exposed to higher levels of hygiene-PYRs in summer than in winter.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/urina , Piretrinas/urina , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Japão , Masculino , Estações do Ano
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825743

RESUMO

There is a growing appreciation of the importance of determining chemical exposure levels in early childhood, as well as in embryonic and foetal life, which are now widely believed to be essential for gaining insight into potential health risks associated with these chemicals. To facilitate the assessment of exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides (NEOs) in non-toilet-trained children, a new method using disposable diapers (nappies) was developed for the simultaneous determination of the NEOs acetamiprid and its metabolite N-desmethylacetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam (NEO biomarkers). The urine absorbed in disposable diapers was extracted with acetone (diaper urine) and was cleaned using a solid-phase extraction column, before analysis with LC-MS/MS. The absolute recoveries of NEO biomarkers were 19-50%. Good results were observed for the linearity of the matrix-matched calibration curves (r2 = 0.983-0.996; concentration range LOQ-20 µg L-1) and the precision of intra-day (% relative standard deviation (%RSD): 3.3-12.7%) and inter-day (%RSD: 4.3-19.5%) analyses. The lowest and highest limits of detection of the developed method were 0.07 µg L-1 for acetamiprid and 0.75 µg L-1 for clothianidin. The developed method was applied for the evaluation of fifty diapered three-year-old children in Japan. Importantly, the study revealed relatively high detection rates for dinotefuran and N-desmethylacetamiprid; 84% and 78% respectively. The highest geometric mean of dinotefuran urinary concentration was 2.01 µg L-1. Thus, a method for determining NEO biomarkers in urine extracted from disposable diapers was established. This is the first report on the simultaneous quantitative analysis of NEO biomarkers of diaper-absorbed urine samples.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Inseticidas/urina , Neonicotinoides/urina , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Guanidinas/urina , Humanos , Japão , Nitrocompostos/urina , Piridinas/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiazinas/urina , Tiazóis/urina
19.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 30(4): 721-729, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728480

RESUMO

Single-spot urine is often used to estimate organophosphorus insecticide (OP) exposure. However, variations of urinary metabolite concentrations during the day are considerable as OP half-lives are short and as diet is their main exposure source. In addition, quality control is indispensable for institutions that analyze these metabolites. This study aimed to clarify (1) adequate frequencies of urine collection for estimating OP exposure and (2) interlaboratory variation in measured concentrations of OP metabolites, dialkylphosphates (DAPs). To quantify intra-individual variations, urine was collected eight times during a period that spanned 5 consecutive days from nine children aged 5-6 years. For interlaboratory variations, 41 spot samples from 14 pregnant women and 13 three-year-old children were used. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the DAPs were moderate but misclassification occurred in > 50% of the surrogate category analyses using single measurements. The misclassification frequency decreased to satisfactory levels when three temporal measurements were conducted. Values of four DAPs measured in the two laboratories correlated well except in the cases of urine samples obtained from two pregnant women. In conclusion, urinary DAPs should be measured from spot urine samples obtained during 3 different days. Sharing matrix-contained standards and quality control samples should minimize interlaboratory variations.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Inseticidas/urina , Compostos Organofosforados/urina , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Gravidez , Gestantes
20.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12089, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent attention has been focused on sedentary behavior (SB) affecting health outcomes, but the characteristics of indicators reflecting SB remain to be identified. This cross-sectional study aims to identify the characteristics of indicators of SB, focusing on the examination of correlations, reliability, and validity of sedentary variables assessed by the smartphone app. METHOD: Objectively measured data of SB of eligible 46 Japanese workers obtained from smartphones were used. We assessed the characteristics of current indicators being used with a 10-minute or 30-minute thresholds, in addition to the conventional indicators of total sedentary time, mean sedentary bout duration, and total number of sedentary bouts. They were evaluated from three perspectives: (a) association among the indicators, (b) reliability of the indicators, and (c) criterion validity. RESULTS: Total sedentary time under 10 minutes (U10) and U30 had negative associations with Total sedentary time (r = -.47 and -.21 respectively). The correlation between Mean sedentary bout duration and Total number of sedentary bouts was -.84, whereas between Mean sedentary bout duration 10, 30 and Total number of sedentary bouts were -.54 and -.21, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients of almost all indicators were around .80. Mean sedentary bout duration, Mean sedentary bout duration 10, Total number of sedentary bouts, Total sedentary time 30, U30 and U10 have significant differences between three BMI groups. CONCLUSION: This study comprehensively revealed the rationale of advantage in the current indicator being used with a 10-minute or 30-minute threshold, rather than the conventional total amount of SB.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Comportamento Sedentário , Smartphone , Acelerometria , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
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