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1.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1693-1702, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leptin is critical for central nervous system development and maturation. This study aimed to evaluate the potential regulatory role of cord leptin in the neuropsychomotor development of children ages 18 months to 6 years. METHODS: This study included 424 children from a prospective mother-child cohort (Rhea Study; Crete, Greece) with available cord leptin levels and data on neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition), 4 years (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities), and 6 years (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Trail Making Test). Multivariable linear regression models were used to explore the associations. RESULTS: Each 10-ng/mL increase in the cord leptin level was associated with increased scores on the gross motor scale at 18 months (ß coefficient: 3.8; 95% CI: 0.0-7.5), with decreased scores in the general cognitive performance (ß coefficient: -3.0; 95% CI: -5.5 to -0.4), perceptual performance (ß coefficient: -3.4; 95% CI: -6.0 to -9.9), working memory (ß coefficient: -3.1; 95% CI: -5.7 to -0.4), executive function (ß coefficient -3.1; 95% CI: -5.7 to -0.5), and functions of the posterior cortex (ß coefficient: -2.7; 95% CI: -5.2 to -0.1) scales at 4 years, and with a 3.7-unit decrease in the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices score at 6 years (ß coefficient: -3.7; 95% CI: -6.9 to -0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Increased cord leptin levels are associated with enhanced gross motor development at 18 months but decreased cognitive performance in early and middle childhood.

3.
Environ Res ; 174: 95-104, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055170

RESUMO

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6-11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min/week of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), while only 3% of children achieved the childhood recommendation of ≥60 min/day MVPA. 11% of women and 17% of children were exposed to daily PM2.5 levels higher than recommended (≥25µg/m3). Mean exposure to noise ranged from Lden 51.1 dB in Kaunas to Lden 65.2 dB in Barcelona. 4% of women and 23% of children exceeded the recommended maximum of 2 Standard-Erythemal-Dose of UV-B at least once a week. 33% of women and 43% of children never reached the minimum NOE contact recommendation of ≥30 min/week. The variations in air and noise pollution exposure were dominated by between-city variability, while most of the variation observed for NOE contact and PA was between-participants. The correlations between all personal exposures ranged from very low to low (Rho < 0.30). The levels of personal external exposures in both pregnant women and children are above the health recommendations, and there is little correlation between the different exposures. The assessment of the personal external exposome is feasible but sampling requires from one day to more than one year depending on exposure due to high variability between and within cities and participants.

4.
Cytokine ; 117: 1-7, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772773

RESUMO

There is growing evidence associating inflammatory markers in complex, higher order neurological functions, such as cognition and memory. We examined whether high levels of various inflammatory markers are associated with cognitive outcomes at 4 years of age in a mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study). We included 642 children in this cross-sectional study. Levels of several inflammatory markers (IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17α, IL-10, MIP-1α, TNF-α and the ratios of IL-6 to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10) were determined in child serum via immunoassay. Neurodevelopment at 4 years was assessed by means of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between the exposures and outcomes of interest after adjustment for various confounders. Our results indicate that children with high TNF-α concentrations (≥90th percentile) in serum demonstrated decreased scores in memory (adjusted ß = -4.0; 95% CI: -7.7, -0.2), working memory (adjusted ß = -4.0; 95% CI: -8.0, -0.1) as well as in memory span scale (adjusted ß = -4.0; 95% CI: -7.9, -0.1). We also found that children with high IFN-γ serum levels showed lower scores in memory span scale (adjusted ß = -3.4; 95% CI: -7.3, -0.4). Children with elevated TNF-α/IL-10 ratio demonstrated decreased quantitative (adjusted ß = -4.3; 95% CI: -8.2, -0.4), motor (adjusted ß = -3.5; 95% CI: -7.5, -0.5), executive function (adjusted ß = -4.8; 95% CI: -8.5, -1.1), general cognitive (adjusted ß = -3.6; 95% CI: -7.3, -0.1), memory (adjusted ß = -3.8; 95% CI: -7.6, -0), working memory (adjusted ß = -3.5; 95% CI: -7.5, -0.5) and memory span scores (adjusted ß = -5.3; 95% CI: -9.1, -1.4) The findings suggest that high levels of TNF-α may contribute to reduced memory performance at preschool age.

5.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 561-573, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposome studies are challenged by exposure misclassification for non-persistent chemicals, whose temporal variability contributes to bias in dose-response functions. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the variability of urinary concentrations of 24 non-persistent chemicals: 10 phthalate metabolites, 7 phenols, 6 organophosphate (OP) pesticide metabolites, and cotinine, between weeks from different pregnancy trimesters in pregnant women, and between days and between seasons in children. METHODS: 154 pregnant women and 152 children from six European countries were enrolled in 2014-2015. Pregnant women provided three urine samples over a day (morning, midday, and night), for one week in the 2nd and 3rd pregnancy trimesters. Children provided two urines a day (morning and night), over two one-week periods, six months apart. We pooled all samples for a given subject that were collected within a week. In children, we also made four daily pools (combining morning and night voids) during the last four days of the first follow-up week. Pools were analyzed for all 24 metabolites of interest. We calculated intraclass-correlation coefficients (ICC) and estimated the number of pools needed to obtain an ICC above 0.80. RESULTS: All phthalate metabolites and phenols were detected in >90% of pools whereas certain OP pesticide metabolites and cotinine were detected in <43% of pools. We observed fair (ICC = 0.40-0.59) to good (0.60-0.74) between-day reliability of the pools of two samples in children for all chemicals. Reliability was poor (<0.40) to fair between trimesters in pregnant women and between seasons in children. For most chemicals, three daily pools of two urines each (for weekly exposure windows) and four weekly pools of 15-20 urines each would be necessary to obtain an ICC above 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: This quantification of the variability of biomarker measurements of many non-persistent chemicals during several time windows shows that for many of these compounds a few dozen samples are required to accurately assess exposure over periods encompassing several trimesters or months.

6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(7): 077005, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urban exposome is the set of environmental factors that are experienced in the outdoor urban environment and that may influence child development. OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to describe the urban exposome among European pregnant women and understand its socioeconomic determinants. METHODS: Using geographic information systems, remote sensing and spatio-temporal modeling we estimated exposure during pregnancy to 28 environmental indicators in almost 30,000 women from six population-based birth cohorts, in nine urban areas from across Europe. Exposures included meteorological factors, air pollutants, traffic noise, traffic indicators, natural space, the built environment, public transport, facilities, and walkability. Socioeconomic position (SEP), assessed at both the area and individual level, was related to the exposome through an exposome-wide association study and principal component (PC) analysis. RESULTS: Mean±standard deviation (SD) NO2 levels ranged from 13.6±5.1 µg/m3 (in Heraklion, Crete) to 43.2±11 µg/m3 (in Sabadell, Spain), mean±SD walkability score ranged from 0.22±0.04 (Kaunas, Lithuania) to 0.32±0.07 (Valencia, Spain) and mean±SD Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ranged from 0.21±0.05 in Heraklion to 0.51±0.1 in Oslo, Norway. Four PCs explained more than half of variation in the urban exposome. There was considerable heterogeneity in social patterning of the urban exposome across cities. For example, high-SEP (based on family education) women lived in greener, less noisy, and less polluted areas in Bradford, UK (0.39 higher PC1 score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31, 0.47), but the reverse was observed in Oslo (-0.57 PC1 score, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.41). For most cities, effects were stronger when SEP was assessed at the area level: In Bradford, women living in high SEP areas had a 1.34 higher average PC1 score (95% CI: 1.21, 1.48). CONCLUSIONS: The urban exposome showed considerable variability across Europe. Pregnant women of low SEP were exposed to higher levels of environmental hazards in some cities, but not others, which may contribute to inequities in child health and development. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2862.

7.
Child Dev ; 89(4): 1063-1073, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369793

RESUMO

Early-life exposures are critical for later child cognitive development. McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) were used to assess cognitive development of 700 preschoolers (Mage  = 4.2 years), derived from the "Rhea" birth cohort, in Greece. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on prospectively collected exposure data. Six components were extracted; five of them were associated with child cognition. Higher parental social status, preschool attendance and less TV watching, nonsmoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and parental involvement in child life were protective factors of child cognition at 4 years. Increased child birth order was negatively associated with child cognition. Offspring's size at birth was not associated with any cognitive outcome. These findings reveal the importance of early-life exposures to child cognitive development.

8.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 27(1): 79-88, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685401

RESUMO

Animal studies suggest that prenatal vitamin D status may affect fetal brain growth. However, human studies are scarce with conflicting results. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with multiple neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4 years of age. We included 487 mother-child pairs from the prospective pregnancy cohort, "Rhea" in Crete, Greece. Maternal serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured at the first prenatal visit (13 ± 2.4 weeks). Cognitive functions at 4 years were assessed by means of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Behavioral difficulties were assessed by means of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test. Children of women in the high 25(OH) D tertile (>50.7 nmol/l) had 37% decreased number of hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms (IRR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39, 0.99, p trend = 0.05) and 40% decreased number of total ADHD-like symptoms (IRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37, 0.95, p trend = 0.03) at 4 years of age, compared to children of women in the low 25(OH) D tertile (<38.4 nmol/l), after adjustment for several confounders. Similar associations were found with the hyperactivity/inattention score of the SDQ questionnaire. Children of mothers with high 25(OH) D levels had also fewer total behavioral difficulties (beta-coeff: -1.25, 95% CI -2.32, -0.19) and externalizing symptoms (beta-coeff: -0.87, 95% CI -1.58, -0.15) at preschool age. The observed associations were stronger in girls than in boys (p for interaction < 0.1). No association was observed between maternal 25(OH) D concentrations and cognitive function in preschoolers. Our results suggest that high maternal vitamin D levels in early pregnancy may protect against behavioral difficulties, especially ADHD-like symptoms at preschool age.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mães/psicologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 31(4): 374-384, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists on the association between exposure to Helicobacter pylori infection early in life, including fetal life, and neurodevelopment in childhood. METHODS: We used prospective data on 352 mother-child pairs and cross-sectional data on 674 children to assess the association of maternal and child's H. pylori seropositivity correspondingly on child's neurodevelopment at age four in the Rhea birth cohort in Crete, Greece. Blood levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies to 12 H. pylori proteins were measured using multiplex serology. Child's neurodevelopment at age four was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Linear regression models were used to explore the associations after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence (95% CI) in cord blood, representing maternal status, was 41.5% (36.3%, 46.8%) and in 4 years old children was 6.5% (95% CI 4.8%, 8.7%). Children of H. pylori seropositive mothers had lower score in the general cognitive (-3.87, 95% CI -7.02, -0.72), verbal (-2.96, 95% CI -6.08, 0.15), perceptual performance (-3.37, 95% CI -6.60, -0.15), quantitative (-2.85, 95% CI -6.28, 0.58), and memory scale (-3.37, 95% CI -6.67, -0.07) compared to those of seronegative mothers. Seropositivity in cord blood specifically to GroEl and NapA - two of the 12 H. pylori proteins investigated - was associated with lower scores in almost all scales. At age four, H. pylori seropositive children performed worst in neurodevelopment assessment compared to their seronegative counterparts although no association reached statistically significant level. CONCLUSIONS: Helicobacter pylori infection in early life may be an important but preventable risk factor for poor neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/microbiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
J Affect Disord ; 217: 89-98, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor perinatal maternal mental health has been linked with negative outcomes on early child development; however, the importance of maternal personality has been neglected thus far. We aimed to examine the effects of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health, including assessment of maternal personality characteristics, on child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years in a population based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. METHOD: Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of 288 women at 28-32 weeks of gestation. A larger sample of 642 mothers completed the EPDS scale at 8 weeks postpartum. Children's neuropsychological (MSCA) and behavioral (ADHDT and SDQ) development were assessed at 4 years of age. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between the exposures and outcomes of interest after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Regarding child neuropsychological development, increased postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with child's perceptual performance, whereas increased maternal psychoticism was linked with child's motor ability at 4 years of age. Furthermore, elevated levels of maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, and the predisposing personality characteristics of trait anxiety and neuroticism, were associated with children's behavioral difficulties. LIMITATIONS: A clinical diagnostic instrument for maternal mental health was not used and assessment of children's behavior was based on maternal report. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that poor perinatal maternal mental health and an adverse personality profile may be associated with impaired child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Personalidade , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(6): 3336-3345, 2017 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28244744

RESUMO

Long-term ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure estimates at a fine spatial scale are needed for epidemiological studies. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and evaluated for six European areas based on repeated 30 min monitoring following standardized protocols. In each area; Basel (Switzerland), Heraklion (Greece), Amsterdam, Maastricht, and Utrecht ("The Netherlands"), Norwich (United Kingdom), Sabadell (Spain), and Turin (Italy), 160-240 sites were monitored to develop LUR models by supervised stepwise selection of GIS predictors. For each area and all areas combined, 10 models were developed in stratified random selections of 90% of sites. UFP prediction robustness was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) at 31-50 external sites per area. Models from Basel and The Netherlands were validated against repeated 24 h outdoor measurements. Structure and model R2 of local models were similar within, but varied between areas (e.g., 38-43% Turin; 25-31% Sabadell). Robustness of predictions within areas was high (ICC 0.73-0.98). External validation R2 was 53% in Basel and 50% in The Netherlands. Combined area models were robust (ICC 0.93-1.00) and explained UFP variation almost equally well as local models. In conclusion, robust UFP LUR models could be developed on short-term monitoring, explaining around 50% of spatial variance in longer-term measurements.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos
13.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 26(6): 703-714, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050707

RESUMO

Studies have suggested an association between maternal obesity pre-pregnancy and gestational diabetes (GDM) with impaired offspring neurodevelopment, but it is not clear if these associations are explained by shared familiar characteristics. We aimed to assess the associations of maternal and paternal obesity, maternal glucose intolerance in early pregnancy and GDM, with offspring neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. We included 772 mother-child pairs from the "Rhea" Mother-Child cohort in Crete, Greece. Data on maternal/paternal body mass index (BMI) and maternal fasting serum samples for glucose and insulin measurements were collected at 12 weeks of gestation. GDM screening was performed at 24-28 weeks. Neurodevelopment at 4 years was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Behavioral difficulties were assessed by Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that maternal obesity was associated with a significant score reduction in general cognitive ability (ß-coeff -4.03, 95% CI: -7.08, -0.97), perceptual performance (ß-coeff -4.60, 95% CI: -7.74, -1.47), quantitative ability (ß-coeff -4.43, 95% CI: -7.68, -1.18), and executive functions (ß-coeff -4.92, 95% CI: -8.06, -1.78) at 4 years of age, after adjustment for several confounders and paternal BMI. Maternal obesity was also associated with increased behavioral difficulties (ß-coeff 1.22, 95% CI: 0.09, 2.34) and ADHD symptoms (ß-coeff 4.28, 95% CI: 1.20, 7.36) at preschool age. Paternal obesity maternal glucose intolerance in early pregnancy and GDM was not associated with child neurodevelopment. These findings suggest that maternal obesity may impair optimal child neurodevelopment at preschool age independently of family shared characteristics.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/psicologia , Obesidade/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
14.
Environ Int ; 97: 204-211, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27666324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are highly-resistant compounds to environmental degradation and due to fat solubility they bioaccumulate through the food chain. As they cross the placenta, in utero exposure to POPs could disrupt child neurodevelopment as they are considered to be neurotoxic. AIMS: We examined whether in utero exposure to levels of different POPs is associated with offspring cognitive and behavioral outcomes at 4years of age in a mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study). METHODS: We included 689 mother-child pairs. Concentrations of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organochlorine compounds (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene [DDE], hexachlorobenzene [HCB]) were determined in maternal serum collected in the first trimester of pregnancy by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Neurodevelopment at 4years was assessed by means of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Behavioral difficulties were assessed by Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between the exposures and outcomes of interest after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Children with "high" HCB concentrations (≥90th percentile) in maternal serum, demonstrated decreased scores in perceptual performance (adjusted ß=-6.07; 95% CI: -10.17, -1.97), general cognitive (adjusted ß=-4.97; 95% CI: -8.99, -0.96), executive function (adjusted ß=-6.24; 95% CI: -10.36, -2.11) and working memory (adjusted ß=-4.71; 95% CI: -9.05, -0.36) scales at 4years of age. High exposure to PCBs (≥90th percentile) during pregnancy was associated with a 4.62 points reduction in working memory score at 4years of age (95% CI: -9.10, -0.14). Prenatal exposure to DDE, HCB and PCBs was not associated with child behavioral difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that prenatal exposure to HCB and PCBs may contribute to reduced cognitive development at preschool age. Our results raise the possibility that exposure to HCB may play a more important role in child cognition than previously considered.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diclorodifenildicloroetano/sangue , Diclorodifenildicloroetano/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Grécia , Hexaclorobenzeno/sangue , Hexaclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Gravidez
15.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 57(11): 1268-1276, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral infections of the central nervous system may have detrimental effects for the developing brain, but the effects of less virulent common infections are unclear. We aim to investigate the impact of common viral infections of early childhood on neuropsychological performance of children at age four. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data on 674 children participating at the 4 years of age follow-up of the Rhea birth cohort in Crete, Greece. Blood levels of IgG antibodies to 10 polyomaviruses (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, MCPyV, HPyV9, and HPyV10) and four herpesviruses [Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2)] were measured using multiplex serology. Child's neuropsychological development at age four was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test (ADHDT), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multiple linear regression models were used to explore the associations. RESULTS: Seroprevalence to polyomaviruses ranged from 21% for HPyV9 to 82% for HPyV10. Seroprevalence for EBV was 53%, for CMV 26%, for HSV-1 3.6%, and for HSV-2 1.5%. Children seropositive to ≥8 polyomaviruses had lower score in ADHDT inattention subscale [ß = -1.28 (95% CI: -2.56, -0.001)] and lower score in SDQ hyperactivity-inattention subscale [ß = -.99 (95% CI: -1.60, -0.37)] versus children seropositive to ≤3 polyomaviruses. Seropositivity to BKPyV, a potential neurotropic virus, was associated with higher score in ADHDT inattention subscale [ß = .87 (95% CI: 0.03, 1.71)]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that acquisition of polyomaviruses during development may influence behavioral outcomes in early childhood.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/sangue , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Polyomavirus/sangue , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 31(11): 1123-1134, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147065

RESUMO

The evidence regarding a potential link of low-to-moderate iodine deficiency, selenium status, and cadmium exposure during pregnancy with neurodevelopment is either contradicting or limited. We aimed to assess the prenatal impact of cadmium, selenium, and iodine on children's neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. The study included 575 mother-child pairs from the prospective "Rhea" cohort on Crete, Greece. Exposure to cadmium, selenium and iodine was assessed by concentrations in the mother's urine during pregnancy (median 13 weeks), measured by ICPMS. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities was used to assess children's general cognitive score and seven different sub-scales. In multivariable-adjusted regression analysis, elevated urinary cadmium concentrations (≥0.8 µg/L) were inversely associated with children's general cognitive score [mean change: -6.1 points (95 % CI -12; -0.33) per doubling of urinary cadmium; corresponding to ~0.4 SD]. Stratifying by smoking status (p for interaction 0.014), the association was restricted to smokers. Urinary selenium was positively associated with children's general cognitive score [mean change: 2.2 points (95 % CI -0.38; 4.8) per doubling of urinary selenium; ~0.1 SD], although the association was not statistically significant. Urinary iodine (median 172 µg/L) was not associated with children's general cognitive score. In conclusion, elevated cadmium exposure in pregnancy of smoking women was inversely associated with the children's cognitive function at pre-school age. The results indicate that cadmium may adversely affect neurodevelopment at doses commonly found in smokers, or that there is an interaction with other toxicants in tobacco smoke. Additionally, possible residual confounding cannot be ruled out.


Assuntos
Cádmio/urina , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Iodo/urina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Selênio/urina , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cognitivos/urina , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Br J Nutr ; 115(8): 1431-7, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26887648

RESUMO

Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (ß=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (ß=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (ß=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Dieta , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Ocidental , Escolaridade , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários
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